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(11.) He then summoned“ a council of his officers to consider the plan of operations", or rather to propose to them the extraordinary lo plan on which he had himself decided. This 8 waso to lay an ambuscade for the Inca, and take him prisoner in the face 14 of his whole army! It was a project" full of 5 peril“, bordering 25, as it might well seem, on desperation. But the circumstances of the Spaniards were desperate". Whichever way they turned, they were menaced' by the most appalling dangers; ando better was it bravely to confront the danger, than weakly to shrink from it, when there was no 10 avenue" for escape.

To fly was now too late. Whither could they fly? At the first signal of retreat, the whole army of the Inca would be

upon them. Their movements would be? anticipated by a foe far better acquainted with the intricacies of the sierra than 15 themselves; the passes would be occupied, and they would be hemmed in on all sides; while the mere fact of this retrograde movement 12 would diminish the confidence, and with it the effective" strength of his own men, while it doubled that 16 of

PRESCOTT's Peru.

his enemy.

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(12.) As soon as this was known, the disappointed" adventurers 18 exclaimedol and threatened; the emissaries 12 of Cortes, mingling with them, inflamed their rage; the ferment” became general; the whole camp was almost in open mutiny; all demanding 25 with eagerness 36 to see their commander. Čorteso 5 was not slow in appearing; when', with one voice, officers and soldiers expressed their astonishment and disappointment at the orders which they had received. It was unworthy, they criedos, of the Castilian courage 18 to be daunted at the first aspect of danger, and infamous to fly before any enemy appeared*. 10 For their parts”, they were determined not to relinquish an enterprise", that had hitherto been successful, and which tended so visibly to advance 28 the glory and interest of their country. Happy under his command", they would follow him with alacrity through every danger, in quest" of those settlements 15 and treasures which he had so long held out to their view"?; but, if he chose rather to return to Cuba, and tamely give up all his hopes of distinction and opulence to an envious rival 15, they would instantly choose another general to conduct them in that path of glory, which he had not spirit to enter 43.

ROBERTSON,

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13. (a) TYRE. Urbem à continenti quattuor stadiorum fretum dividit?: Africo 34 maxime obiectum crebros ex alto fluctus in litus evolvit. Nec accipiendo operi, quo Macedones continenti insulam iungere parabant, quicquam magis quam ille 5 ventus obstabat. Quippe vix leni et tranquillo mari moles

agi? possunt: Africus vero prima quaeque congesta, pulsu illiso mari, subruit, nec ulla tam firma moles est, quam non exedant undae, et 34 per nexus operum manantes et, ubi acrior flatus

extitit, summi operis fastigio superfusae 25. Praeter hanc diffi10 cultatem haud minor alia erat : muros turresque urbis praeal

tum mare ambiebat?: tormenta nisi e navibus procul excussa mitti, non scalae moenibus applicari poterant: praeceps in salum murus' pedestre interceperat' iter; naves nec habebat 29

rex et, si admovisset, pendentes et instabiles missilibus arceri 15 poterant. urbem tamen obsidere statuit; sed ante jacienda moles erat quae continenti urbem committeret.

(6) Iamque 4 paulum moles aqua eminebat, et simul aggeris latitudo crescebat, urbique admovebatur : quum 04 Tyrii,

magnitudine molis, cuius incrementum eos antea fefellerat, 20 conspecta , levibus navigiis nondum commissum opus circumire coeperunt, missilibus quoque eos, qui pro opere stabant in

Inter haec Tyrii navem magnitudine eximia, saxis arenaque a puppi oneratamo, ita ut multum prora emineret, bitumine ac 25 sulphure illitamo remis concitaverunt, et quum magnam vim

venti vela quoque concepissent, celeriter ad molem successit: tum prora eius accensa, remiges desiluere in scaphas, quae ad hoc ipsum" praeparatae sequebantur. Navis autem, igne con

cepto, latius fundere incendium coepit, quod, priusquam posset 0 30 occurri, turres et cetera opera in capite molis posita' comprehen

dit. At qui desiluerant in parva navigia, faces et quicquid alendo igni aptum erat in eadem opera ingerunt. Iamque 34 non modo Macedonum turres, sed etiam summa tabulata concepe

rant ignem: quum hi, qui in turribus erant, partim haurirentur 35 incendio, partim, armis omissis 25, in mare semet ipsi immitterent.

Nec incendio8 solum opera consumpta, sed forte eodem die vehementior ventus totum ex profundo mare illisit in molem, crebrisque fluctibus compages operis verberatae se laxavere,

saxaque interfluens unda medium opus rupit. Prorutis igitur 40 lapidum cumjulis, quibus iniecta’ terra sustinebatur 29, praeceps

in profundum ruit, tantae *5 que molis vix ulla vestigia invenit Arabia rediens 25 Alexander.

CURTIUS, iv. 3.

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(13.) a. Tyre was situated on an islet nearly half a mile from the mainland; the channel between the two being shallow towards the land, but reaching a depth" of eighteen feet in the part adjoining the city. The islet was completely

? surrounded by prodigious walls, the loftiest portion 18 of which, 5 on the side fronting the mainland, reached a height not less than 150 feet, with corresponding solidity and base. Besides these external fortifications, there was a brave 18 and numerous population" within, aided by a good stock of arms, machines, ships, provisions, and other things essential to defence.

It was not without reason, therefore, that the Tyrians, when driven to their last resource, entertained R8 hopes of holding out even against the formidable arm" of Alexander; and against Alexander as he then stood, they might have held out successfully; for he had as yet no fleet, and they could 15 defy any attack made simply from land.

6. Alexander began the siege of Tyre without any fleet; the Sidonian and Aradian ships not having yet come“. It was his first task" to construct a solid mole two hundred feet broad, reaching as across the half mile 18 of channel between the main- 20 land and the islet. But the work, though prosecuted with ardour and perseverance , was tedious and toilsome, even near the mainland, where the Tyrians could do little to impede ito; and became far more tedious as it advanced into the sea, so as to be exposed to their obstruction", as well as to 34 damage from 25

) winds and waves. The Tyrian triremes and small boats perpetually annoyed the workmen, and destroyed parts of the work, in spite of all the protection devised by the Macedonians, who planted two towers in front of their advancing 25 mole, and discharged projectiles from engines provided for the purpose". At length, by unremitting' efforts the mole was pushed forward 2 until it came nearly across the channel to the city-wall; when suddenly, on a day of strong wind, the Tyrians sent forth a fireship loaded with combustibles, which they drove against the front of the mole' and set fire to the two

35 towers. At the same time, the full naval force" of the city, ships and little boats, was sent forth to land men at once on all parts of the mole. So successful' was this attack”, that all the Macedonian engines were burnt, the outer wood-work which kept 29 the mole together was torn up in many places, and a

40 large part of the structure" came to pieces.

GROTE.

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14. Quod' ubi egressus 25 Scipio in tumulum, quem Mercurii vocant, animadvertit 25, multis partibus nudata defensoribus moenia esse, omnes e castris excitoso ire ad oppugnandum et

ferre scalas iubet“. Ipse trium prae se iuvenum validorum 5 scutis oppositis 25 (ingens enim iam vis omnis generis telorum

e muris volabat) ad urbem succedit; hortatur, imperat, quae in rem sunt, quod que plurimum ad accendendos militum animos intererat, testis spectatorque virtutis atque ignaviae cuiusque

adest 28. Itaque in vulnera 4S ac tela ruunt; neque illos? muri 10 neque superstantes armati arcere queunt, quin certatim adscendant. Et ab navibus" eodem tempore ea quae

mari alluitur, pars urbis oppugnari coepta est. Inter haec repleverat iam Poenus armatis muros, et vis magna ex ingenti copia congesta

telorum suppeditabat; sed neque viri nec tela nec quicquam 15 aliud aeque quam moenia ipsa sese defendebant. Rarae enim

scalae altitudini aequari poterant, et quo quaeque altiores, eo infirmiores erant. Itaque quum summus quisque evadere non posset, subirent tamen alii, onere ipso frangebantur. Quidam,

stantibus scalis, quum altitudo caliginem oculis offudisset2, ad 20 terram delati sunt. Et quum passim homines scalaeque

ruerent, et ipso successu audacia atque alacritas hostium cresceret, signum receptui datum est. LIVY, XXVI. 44.

15. BATTLE OF THRASYMENUS.—Consul, perculsis omnibus, ipse satis, ut in re" trepida, impavidus' turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad dissonos clamores, instruit, ut tempus locusque patitur, et quacunque adire audirique potest, adhortatur ac starem 5 ac pugnare iubet*l: nec enim 48 inde votis aut imploratione

deum, sed vi ac virtute evadendum esse; per medias acies ferro viam fieri, et, quo timoris minus sit, eo minus ferme pericnli

Ceterum prae" strepitu ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi poterat, tantumque aberat, ut sua signa atque 10 ordines et locum noscerent , ut vix ad arma capienda aptanda

que pugnae competeret animus. Et erat in tanta caligine maior usus aurium quam oculorum". Ad gemitus vulnerum ictusque corporum aut armorum et mixtos strepentium o paven

tiumque clamores circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugi15 entes pugnantiumo globo illatio haerebant; alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat? fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in

, omnes partes nequicquam impetus capti, apparuitque, nullam nisi in dextera ferroque salutis spem esse, tum sibi quisque dux

adhortatorque factus ad rem * gerendam, et nova de integro 20 exorta pugna est.

Ib. XXII, 5.

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(14.) In the midst of these untoward 18 dissensions, Wentworth, with the advice of a council of officers, attempted to storm Fort San Lazaro. Twelve hundred men, headed by General Guise, cheerfully marched to the attack. There was no breach in the wall: the signal for the night attack (for such 5 had been designed) was protracted till nearly broad 45 day; and the deserters who undertook to act as guides were afterwards found”, either through ignorance or ill intention, to have led them to the very strongest part of the fortification". Nay more, on reaching as the works, it was discovered, that from the 10 neglect of the officers, the scaling-ladders were partly too short, and partly left behind. Yet in spite of all these shameful18 disadvantages", the soldiers fought with stubborn" intrepidity; whole ranks were mowed * down by the enemy's cannon without dispiriting the rest; and one party had actually 3* 15

32 attained 4 the summit" of a rampart, when their leader, Colonel Grant, received a death-wound, and the men a repulse" Still, however, the survivors remained 29 undaunted under the murderous 18 fire of the fort, until half their number had fallen, ando until their officers, perceiving 25 valour to be useless", and 20° success impossible, sullenly gave the signal to withdraw.

MAHON.

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(15.) BATTLE OF NIEUPORT, A. D. 1602. The 13 current of the retreating and pursuing hosts swept by the spot where Maurice* sat on horseback, watching and directing the battle. His bravest and best general, the veteran 18 Vere, had fallen"; the whole army, the only army, of the States was 5 defeated, broken, panic-struck; the Spanish 18 shouts of victory rang on every side. Plainly the day 45 was lost, and with it the republic. In the 24 blackest 18 hour that the Netherland commonwealth had ever known, the fortitude of the stadtholder did not desert him. Immoveable as a rock in the torrent he stemmedo! 10 the flight of his troops. Three squadrons of reserved 18 cavalry, Balen's own,

and Cecil's, were all that was left him, and at the head of these he essayed an advance". He seemed" the only man on the field” not frightened; and menacing“, conjuring, persuading the fugitives for the love of 15 fatherland, of himself and his house, of their own honour, not to disgrace themselves, urging that all was not yet lost, and beseeching them rather to die like men on the field" than to drown like dogs 15 in the sea, he succeeded 28 in rallying a portion of those nearest him,

MOTLEY.

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