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16. (a) SACK OF CREMONA. Huc inclinavit Antonius cingique vallum corona iussit. primo sagittis saxisque eminus certabant, maiore Flavianorum pernicie“, in quos tela desuper

librabantur; mox vallum portasque legionibus attribuit, ut dis5 cretus labor fortes ignavosque distingueret atque ipsa conten

tione decoris accenderentur. proxima Bedriacensi viae tertiani septimanique sumpsere", dexteriora valli octava ac septima Claudiana; tertiadecumanos ad Brixianam portam impetus

tulit?. paulum inde morae, dum ex proximis agris ligones, 10 dolabras, et alii falces scalasque convectant: tum elatis 85 super

capita scutis densa testudine succedunt. Romanae utrimque artes : pondera saxorum Vitelliani provolvunt, disiectam fluitantemque testudinem lanceis contisque scrutantur, donec so

luta compage scutorum exsangues aut laceros prosternerenta 15 multa cum strage....Acerrimum* tertiae septimaeque legi

onum certamen; et dux Antonius cum delectis auxiliaribus eodem incubuerat. obstinatos inter se cum sustinere Vitelliani nequirent et superiacta tela testudine laberentur, ipsam pos

tremo ballistam in subeuntes propulere, quae ut 4 ad praesens 20 disiecit obruitque quos inciderat, ita pinnas ac summa valli

ruina sua traxit; simul iuncta turris ictibus saxorum cessit, qua septimani dum nituntur^l cuneis, tertianus securibus gladiisque portam perfregit. primum inrupisse C. Volusium tertiae

legionis militem inter omnes auctores constat. is in vallum 25 egressus°, deturbatis qui restiterant, conspicuus manu ac voce

capta castra conclamavit; ceteri trepidis iam Vitellianis seque e vallo praecipitantibus perrupere.

(6) Quadraginta armatorum milia inrupere, calonum lixarumque amplior numerus et in libidinem ac saevitiam cor30 ruptior. non dignitas, non aetas protegebat, quo

minuss tupra caedibus, caedes stupris miscerentur' grandaevos senes, exacta aetate feminas, viles ad praedam, in ludibrium trahebant; ubi adu ta virgo aut quis forma conspicuus incidisset, ipsos direp

tores in mutuam perniciem agebat 29. dum pecuniam vel gravia 35 auro templorum dona sibi quisque trahunt, maiore aliorum

vi truncabantur. Quidam obvia aspernati, verberibus tormentisque dominorum abdita scrutari, defossa eruere+: faces in manibus“, quas, ubi praedam egesserant, in vacuas domos et inania templa per lasciviam iaculabantur: utque exercitu vario linguis moribus, cui cives socii externi interessent, diversae cupidines et aliud cuique fas" nec quicquam inlicitum.

Tac, Hist, III.

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(16.) a. SACK OF ROME, A.D. 1527. Three distinct bodies", one of Germans, another of Spaniards, and the last of Italians, the three different nations of whom the army was composed, were appointed to this* service"; a separate attack" was assigned to each; and the whole army advanced to support them 5, as occasion” should require “. A thick mist concealed their 13 approach' until they reached almost the brink of the ditch which surrounded the suburbs; having planted their ladders in a moment 34, each brigade rushed on to the assault with an impetuosity heightened by national emulation'. They were re- 10 ceived at first with fortitude 18 equal to their own; the Swiss in the pope's guards fought' with a courage becoming men to whom the defence of the noblest city in the world was entrusted. Bourbon’s 10 troops, notwithstanding"* all their valour, gained? no ground, and even began to give way; when 34 their leader?', 15 perceiving that on this critical moment the fateo of the day depended, leapedo from his horse, pressed to the front, snatched? a scaling-ladder from a soldier, planted it against the wall, and began to mount it, encouraging 25 his men with his voice and hand to follow him. But at that very instant34, a musket 20 bullet from the ramparts pierced his groin ; and he soon after expired.

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b. This fatal 18 event could not be concealed from the army; but instead of being disheartened by their loss, it animated them with new valour; the name of Bourbon resounded along 25 the line, accompanied with the cry of blood and revenge 13. The veterans 29 who defended the walls were soon overpowered by numbers; the untrained 18 body" of city recruits fled at the sight 13 of danger, and the enemy, with irresistible a violence, rushed into the town".

30 It is impossible to describe, or even to imagine the misery13 and horror of that scene" which followed*. Whatever a city taken by storm can dread from military rage, unrestrained by discipline: whatever excesses the ferocity of the Germans, the avarice of the Spaniards, or the licentiousness of the Italians 35 could commit, these the wretched inhabitants were obliged 2 to suffer. Churches, palaces, and the houses of private persons, were plundered without distinction. No 48 age, or character, or sex was exempt from injury. Cardinals, nobles, priests, matrons, virgins, were* all the prey of soldiers, and at the mercy 19 of

40 men deaf to the voice of humanity.

ROBERTSON.

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17. (a) SIEGE OF ROME. Sed ante omnia obsidionis bellique mala fames utrumque exercitum urgebat’: Gallos pestilentia etiam ; induciae deinde cum Romanis factae, et colloquia

permissu imperatorum habita: in quibus' cum 33 identidem Galli 5 famem objicerent, eaque necessitate ad deditionem vocarent,

dicitur, avertendae ejus opinionis causa, multis locis panis de Capitolio jactatus'* esse in hostium stationes. Sed jam neque

4 dissimulari, neque ferri ultra fames poterat. Itaque, exercitus,

stationibus vigiliisque fessus', superatiso tamen humanis omni10 bus malis, cum famemo unam natura vinci non sineret, diem de die

prospectans 25, ecquod auxilium ab dictatore appareret; postremo spe quoque jam, non solum cibo, deficiente, et, cum 30 stationes procederent”, prope obruentibus? infirmum corpus armis, vel

dedi, vel redimi se, quacumque pactione possent, jussit; jactan15 tibus non obscure Gallis“, haud

magna mercede se

adduci

posse, ut obsidionem relinquant. Tum senatus" habitus, tribunisque militum' negotium datum, ut paciscerentur. LIVY, v. 48.

(6) Sarta tecta acriter et cum summa fide exegerunt. Viam e foro boario [et] ad Veneris circa foros publicos, et aedem 20 Matris Magnae in Palatio faciendam 13 Jocaverunt. Vectigal

etiam novum ex salaria annona statuerunt. Sextante sal et Romae et per totam Italiam erat; Romae pretio eodem, pluris in foris et conciliabulis et alio alibi pretio praebendum" locave

runt. Lustrum conditum serius, quia per provincias dimise25 runt censores, ut civium Romanorum in exercitibus, quantus

ubique esset, referretur numerus. Censa cum iis ducenta decem quattuor millia hominum. Condidit lustrum C. Claudius Nero.

Ib. xxix. 37.

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18. Inde Vitellius Cremonam flexit et spectato munere Caecinae insistere Bedriacensibus campis ac vestigia recentis victoriae lustrare oculis concupivit". foedum atque atrox

spectaculum', intra quadragensimum pugnae diem lacera cor5 pora, trunci artus, putres virorum equorumque formae, infecta

tabo humus, protritis arboribus ac frugibus dira vastitas. minus inhumana pars viae, quam Cremonenses lauru rosaque constraverant, extructis altaribus caesique victimis re

gium in morem: quae" laeta in praesens mox perniciem ipsis 10 fecere. aderat 28 Valens et Caecina, monstrabantque pugnae

locos: hinc inrupisse** legionum agmen, hinc equites coortos, inde circumfusasīs auxiliorum manus: iam tribuni praefectique,

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(17.) SIEGE OF PARIS, A.D. 1590. By midsummer, Paris, unquestionably the first city of Europe at that day, was in extremities", and there are few events in history

13 in which our admiration is more excited by the power of mankind to endure almost preternatural misery, or our indignation more 5 deeply aroused \' by the cruelty with which the sublimest principles" of human nature may be made to serve the purpose of selfish' ambition 13 and grovelling superstition, than* this famous 18 leaguer.

Rarely have men at any epoch defended their fatherland* 10 against foreign" oppression with more heroism 36 than that

* which was? manifested by the Parisians of 1590 in resisting religious toleration", and in obeying a foreign and priestly despotism 13. Men', women, and children cheerfully laid down their lives by thousands in order that the papal legate and the 15 king of Spain might trample upon that legitimate sovereign of France who was one 34 day to become the idol" of Paris and of the whole kingdom,

A census taken at the beginning of the siege had a showed a population of two hundred thousand souls", with a sufficiency 20 of provisions, it was thought, to last 28 one month.

But before the terrible summer was over—so completely had the city been invested—the bushel of wheat was worth three hundred and sixty crowns. The flesh of horses, asses, dogs, cats, rats had become rare luxuries'. It was estimated that before July twelve 25 thousand human" beings in Paris had died, for want of food,

เ within three months.

MOTLEY.

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(18.) The emperor then inspected the field" of battle : and never was there any that exhibited a more frightful spectacle. Every thing concurred to increase the horrors of it'; a lowering sky, a cold rain, a violent wind, habitations in ashes ?; a plain absolutely torn up and covered with fragments and ruins; 5 all round the horizon" the dark19 and funereal verdure of the North 13; soldiers roaming among the bodies of the slain ; wounds of a most hideous description ; noiseless bivouacs ; no songs of triumph"), no lively narrations's, but a general and mournful silence. Around the eagles were the officers, and a few soldiers 10 barely sufficient to guard the colours. Their clothes were torn by the violence of the conflict, and stained with blood ; yet, notwithstanding all their rags, misery, and destitution, they displayed a lofty carriage", and even, on the appearance" of

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sua quisque facta extollentes, falsa vera aut majora vero"

miscebant. volgus quoque militum clamore et gaudio de15 flectere^l via, spatia certaminum recognoscere, aggerem armo

rum, strues corporum intueri* mirari; et erant quos varia sors rerum lacrimaeque et niisericordia subiret”. at non Vi. tellius flexit oculos nec tot milia insepultorum civium exhor

ruit: laetus ultro et tam propinquae sortis ignarus instaura20 bat sacrum dis loci.

Tac. Hist. II.

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19. FUNERAL OF GERMANICUS. Interim adventu ejus audito", intimus quisque amicorum, et plerique militares, ut quique sub Germanico stipendia fecerant, multique etiam ignoti

vicinis e municipiis, pars officium in principem rati, plures 5 illos 43 secuti, ruere* ad oppidum Brundisium; quod naviganti 3

celerrimum fidissimumque adpulsu erat. Atque ubi primum ex alto visa classis“, complentur non modo portus et proxima maris, sed moenia ac tecta, quaque longissime prospectari poterat,

moerentium turba, ac rogitantium“ inter se, silentione an voce 10 aliqua egredientem exciperent. Neque satis constabato' quid

pro tempore foret; quum 24 classis paulatim successit, non alacri, ut adsolet, remigio, sed cunctis ad tristitiam" compositis. Postquam duobus cum liberis, feralem urnam tenens 25, egressa” navi,

defixit oculos, idem omnium 48 gemitus, neque discerneres proxi15 mos, alienos, virorum foeminarumve planctus, nisi quod comi

tatum Agrippinae longo moerore fessum, obvii'' et recentes in dolore anteibant?. Miserat duas praetorias cohortes Caesar, addito" ut magistratus Calabriae, Apulique, et Campani, suprema

erga memoriam filii sui munera fungerentur. Igitur tribunorum 20 centurionumque humeris civeres portabanturo: praecedebant in

compta signa, versi fasces; atque ubi colonias transgrederentur, atrata plebes, trabeati equites, pro opibus loci, vestem, odores, aliaque funerum solennia, cremabant....Consules, M. Valerius et

M. Aurelius et senatus, ac magna pars populi, viam complevere dis25 jecti, et ut cuique libitum flentes; aberat quippe adulatio,gnarisomnibus laetam 23 Tiberio Germanici mortem male dissimulari.

Dies, quo reliquiae tumulo Augusti inferebantur, modo per silentium vastus, modo ploratibus inquies: plena urbis itinera,

conlucentes per campum Martis faces. Illic miles cum armis, 30 sine insignibus magistratus, populus per tribus, concidisse* rem

publicam, nihil spei reliquum, clamitabant: promptius“4 apertius que, quam ut meminisse imperitantium crederes.

Tac. Ann. III.

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