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the emperor, received him with acclamations" of triumph : 15 these, however, seemned somewhat rare and forced ; for in this army, which was at once capable 22 of discrimivation and enthusiasm, each individual could form a correct estimate of the position of the whole. The soldiers were amazed to find 28 so many of their enemies killed, such vast numbers wounded, 20 and nevertheless so few prisoners. The latter did not amount in all to eight hundred.

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(19.) THE FUNERAL OF QUEEN MARY, A.D. 1691. The public 18 sorrow was great and general. For Mary's 13 blameless life, her large charities, and her winning manners had conquered the hearts of her people. When the Commons next met they sate for a time in profound silence. At length 5 it was moved and resolved that an Address" of Condolence should be presented 28 to the King; and then the House broke up without a proceeding to other business". The number of sad faces in the street struck every observer". The mourning

more general than even the mourning for Charles the 10 Second had been....

The funeral was long remembered as the saddest and most august that Westminster had ever seen. While the Queen's remains lay in state at Whitehall, the neighbouring streets were filled every day, from sunrise to sunset, by crowds which 15 made all traffic impossible. The two Houses with their maces followed the hearse, the Lords robed in scarlet and ermine, the Commons in longl' black mantles. No preceding Sovereign had? ever been attended to the grave by a Parliament: for°, till then, the Parliament had always expired with the Sovereign. The 20 whole Magistracy of the City swelled the procession. The banners of England and France, Scotland and Ireland, were? carried 29 by great nobles before the corpse. The pall was borne by the chiefs of the illustrious houses of Howard, Seymour, Grey, and Stanley. On the gorgeous coffin of purple and gold were 25 laid 29 the crown and sceptre of the realm. The day was well suited to such a ceremony. The sky was dark and troubled; and a few ghastly flakes of snow fell on the black plumes of the funeral car... Through the whole ceremony the distant booming of cannon was heard every miunte from the batteries of the 30 Tower. The gentle Queen sleeps among her illustrious kindred in the southern aisle of the Chapel of Henry the Seventh.

MACAULAY.

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20. (a) CHARACTER OF AUGUSTUS. Forma fuit eximia et per omnes aetatis gradus venustissima'; quamquam et omnis lenocinii neglegenset in capite comendo tam incuriosus, ut

, raptim compluribus simul tonsoribus operam daret, ac modo 5 tonderet modo raderet barbam, eoque ipso tempore aut legeret

aliquid aut etiam scriberet. Vultu erat" vel in sermone vel tacitus adeo tranquillo serenoque, ut quidam e primoribus Galliarum confessus sit inter suos, eo se inhibitum ac remol

litum, quo minus, ut destinarat, in transitu Alpium per simula10 tionem conloquii propius admissus, in praecipitium propelleret.

Oculos habuit claros ac“ nitidos, quibus etiam existimari volebat inesse quiddam" divini vigoris, gaudebatque, si quis sibi acrius contuenti: quasi ad fulgorem solis vultum summitteret;

sed in senecta sinistro minus *vidit?? : dentes raros et exiguos 15 et scabros''; capillum leviter inflexum 19 et subflavum; supercilia

coniuncta; mediocres aures; nasum et a summo eminentiorem et ab imo deductiorem"; colorem inter aquilum candidumque; staturam brevem, (quam tamen Iulius Marathus, libertus et a

memoria eius *, quinque pedum et dodrantis51 fuisse tradit,) sed 20 quae commoditate et aequitate membrorum occuleretur, ut nonnisi ex comparatione astantis alicuius procerioris intellegi posset.

(b) IUL. CAESAR. Talia agentem 12 atque meditantem mors praevenit?. De qua prius quam dicam 20, ea quae ad formam

et habitum et cultum et mores, nec minus quae ad civilia 25 et bellica ejus studia pertineant non alienum" erit summatim "

exponere. Fuisse traditurexcelsa statura, colore candido, teretibus membris, ore paulo pleniore, nigrisi vegetisque oculis, valitudine prospera; nisi quod tempore extremo repente animo

linqui atque etiam per somnum exterreri 36 solebat. 30 Armorum" et equitandi peritissimus", laboris ultra" fidem

patiens erat. In agmine nonnumquam equo", saepius pedibus? anteibat”, capite detecto, seu sol" seu imber esset; longissimas vias incredibili celeritate confecit, expeditus, meritoria

reda, centena passuum milia in singulos dies ; si flumina 30 35 rentur”, nando traiciens vel innixus inflatis utribus, ut persaepe nuntios de se praevenerit S.

Studium et fides erga clientis ne juveni quidem defuerunt?. Amicos 10

facilitate indulgentiaque tractavit, uto Gaio Oppio comitanti se per silvestre iter correptoque subita 40 valitudine, deversoriolo eo, quod unum erat", cesserit et ipse humi ac sub divo cubuerit 30.

SUETONIUS.

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(20.) A. CHARACTER OF MARY QUEEN OF Scots. With regard" to the Queen's person", all contemporary authors agree in ascribing to Mary the utmost beauty of countenance, and elegance of shape, of which the human form is capable. Her hair was black, though, according to the fashion 5 of that age, she frequently wore borrowed" locks, and of different colours. Her eyes were a dark grey; her complexion was exquisitely fine; and her hands and arms remarkably delicate, both as to shape and colour. Her stature was of an height that rose" to the majestic. She danced"), she walked, 10

28 and rode with equal grace....

To the charms of beauty, and the utmost elegance of external form, she added those accomplishments", which render their impression" irresistible. Polite, affable, insinuating, sprightly, and capable of speaking and of writing with equal ease and 15 dignity. Sudden, however, and violent in all her attachments”; because her heart was warm and unsuspicious. Impatient of contradiction 13 ; because she had been accustomed from her infancy to be treated as a Queen. No stranger', on some occasions, to dissimulation; which, in that perfidious court where 20 she received her education", was reckoned among arts of government. Not insensible of flattery, or unconscious of that pleasure, with which almost every woman beholds the influence of her own beauty. Formed with the qualities" which we love”, not with the talents that we admire 30, she was 25 an agreeable woman, rather than an illustrious Queen.

ROBERTSON.

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6. CHARLES EDWARD STUART. The person" of Charles was tall and well-formed; his limbs": athletic and active. He excelled in all manly exercises, and was inured to every kind of toil, especially long marches on foot, having applied 26 him- 30 self to field sports in Italy, and become an excellent walker 12. His face was strikingly handsome, of a perfect oval" and

13 a fair complexion ; his eyes light blue; his features high and noble. Contrary to the custom of the time, which prescribedo perukes, his own fair18 hair usually fell in long ring- 35 lets on his neck. This goodly18 person !* was? enhanced by his graceful manners; frequently condescending to the most familiar kindness, yet always shielded by a' regal dignity, he had a peculiar talent" to please and to persuade, and never failed to adapt his conversation to the taste" or to the station of 40 those whom 30 he addressed 29.

MAHON.

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21. (a) Cato. In hoc viro tanta vis animi ingeniique fuit, ut, quocunque loco natus esset, fortunam sibi ipse facturus fuisse videretur. Nulla ars" neque privatae neque publicae rei ge

rendae ei defuit. Urbanas rusticasque res pariter callebat. Ad 5 summos honores alios? scientia iuris, alios eloquentia, alios

gloria militaris provexit; huic versatile ingenium sic pariter ad omnia” fuit, ut natum ad id unum diceres, quodcunque ageret. In bello manu" fortissimus multisque insignibus clarus pugnis;

idem", postquam ad magnos honores pervenit, summus impera10 tor13; idem in pace, si ius consuleres, peritissimus, si causa

oranda esset, eloquentissimus, nec is 16 tantum, cuius lingua vivo"? eo viguerit, monumentum eloquentiae nullum exstet; vivit immo vigetque eloquentia eius sacrata scriptis omnis generis.

Orationes et pro se multae et pro aliis et in alios ; nam non 15 solum accusando, sed etiam causam dicendo fatigavit inimicos.

Simultates nimio plures et exercuerunt eum et 24 ipse exercuit eas, nec facile dixeris, utrum magis presserit eum nobilitas, an ille agitaverit nobilitatem. Asperi procul dubio animi et lin

guae acerbae 1 et immodice liberae fuit, sed invicti a cupiditati20 bus animi, rigidæ innocentiae, contemptor gratiae et divitiarum.

In parsimonia, in patientia laboris periculique ferrei prope corporis animique; quem ne senectus quidem, quae solvit omnia, fregerit; qui sextum et octogesimum annum agens causam

[dixerit), ipse pro se oraverit scripseritque, nonagesimo anno 25 Ser. Galbam ad populi adduxerit iudicium. Livy, xxxix. 40.

(6) CATILINE. Lucius Catilina, nobili genere natus, magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio"o malo pravoque. Huic ab adolescentia bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia civilis,

grata" fuere; ibique juventutem suam exercuit. Corpus 14 patiens 30 inediae, vigiline, algoris, supra quam cuique credibile est: ani

mus audax, subdolus, varius", cujus rei libet simulator ac dissimulator: alieni adpetens, sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus : satis loquentiae, sapientiae parum“. Vastus animus inimoderata, incredibilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat. Hunc", post dominationem Lucii Sullae, lubido maxuma invaserat reipublicae capiundae ; neque id quibus modis adsequeretur, dum sibi regnum" pararet, quidquam pensi habebat 29 Agitabatur magis magisque in dies animus ferox, inopia rei familiaris, et

conscientia scelerum ; quae utraque his artibus auxerat, quas 40 supra memoravi. Incitabant' praeterea corrupti civitatis mores,

quos pessuma l' ac diversa inter se mala', luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant?

SALLUST Cat. v, Cf. Tac. A. iii. 30; vi. 51; H. i. 10; iii. 75, 86; iv. 5.

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(21.) a. DANTON. His natural endowments 12 were great for any part" in public life, whether at the bar, or in the senate, or even in war: for the part* of a revolutionary leader they were of the highest order'1 A courage 13 which nothing could quello ; a quickness'a of perception at once and clearly to per- 5 ceive his own opportunity, and his adversary's error; singular fertility of resources, with the power 12 of sudden change in his course, and adaptation to varied circumstances; a natural eloquence, hardy, caustic, masculine ; a mighty frame of body ; a voice overpowering all resistance to ; —these were the 10 grand qualities which Danton brought to the prodigious 15 struggle in which he was engaged.

b. Pitt. At an age when others are but entering upon the study of state affairs, and the practice of debating, he came forth a mature politician, a finished orator, an accom- 15 plished debater. His knowledge was? not confined to the study of the classics ; with political philosophy he was more familiar than most Englishmen of his own age. Having prepared himself, too, for being called to the bar, and both attended on courts 45 of justice and frequented the Western 20 Circuit, he had more knowledge and habits of business than can fall to the share of our young patricians. In private life he was singularly amiable ; his spirits 13 were naturally buoyant and even playful ; his affections 13 warm ; his veracity scrupulously exact; his integrity wholly without a stain ; as a 25 son and a brother he was perfect, and no man was more fondly beloved or more sincerely mourned by his friends.

ROBESPIERRE. From his earliest years he had never been known to indulge in the frolics or evince 28 the gaiety of youth. Gloomy, solitary, austere, intent upon his work, 30 careless of relaxation, averse to amusement, without a confidant, or friend, or even companion, it is recorded 14 of him that at the College of Louis the Grand, where he was educated, he was never seen once to smile. As a boy and a youth he was remarkable for vanity', jealousy, dissimulation, and trick, with 35 an invincible obstinacy 12 on all subjects, a selfishness 12 hardly natural, a disposition'' incapable of forgiving any injury, but a close concealment of his resentment till the occasion arose 30 of gratifying it. It* would have been difficult to bring into the tempest of the Revolution qualities" more likely to weather its 40 fury, and take advantage of its force.

BROUGHAM.
Cf. Holden F. C. SS 32, 59, 95, 124, 261, 321.

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