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22. (a) AGRICOLA. Credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem deesse, quia castrensis jurisdictio secura et obtusior ac plura manu13 agens calliditatem fori non exerceat. Agricola naturali prudentia, quamvis inter togatos, facile justeque agebat. jam vero tempora curarum remissionumque divisa : ubi conventus ac judicia poscerenta, gravis", intentus, severus, set saepius misericors: ubi officio" satis factum, nulla ultra potestatis persona: tristitiam et adrogantiam et avaritiam exuerat. nec illi,

quod est rarissimum", aut facilitas auctoritatem aut severitas 10 amorem deminuit. integritatem atque abstinentiam in tanto

viro referre injuria virtutum fuerit. ne famam ” quidem, cui saepe etiam boni indulgent, ostentanda ?? virtute aut per artem quaesivit. Natus erat Gaio Caesare tertium consule idibus

luniis : excessit sexto et quinquagesimo anno, decumo kalendas 15 Septembris Collega Priscoque consulibus'. quod si habitum quoque eius posteri noscere velint, decentior 29

quam

sublimior fuit; nihil metus in voltu: gratia oris supererat. bonum virum facile crederes, magnum libenter,

Tac. Agricola.

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(6) GALBA. Hunc 18 exitum habuit Servius Galba, tribus et 20 septuaginta annis quinque principes prospera fortuna emensus

et alieno imperio felicior quam suo. Vetus in familia nobilitas, magnae opes 28 : ipsi" medium ingenium, magis extra vitia quam cum virtutibus 18 famae nec

incuriosus 11 nec venditator : pecuniae alienae non adpetens", suae parcus, publicae avarus; 25 amicorum libertorumque, ubi in bonos incidisset, sine reprehen

sione patiens, si mali forent, usque ad culpam ignarus? Sed claritas natalium et metus temporum obtentui, ut quod segnitia erat, sapientia vocaretur, Dum vigebat" aetas, militari laude"

apud Germanias floruit. Pro consule Africam moderate 84, iam 30 senior citeriorem Hispaniam pari iustitia continuit, maior privato visus°, dum privatus fuit, et omnium

consensu capax imperii, nisi imperasset".

Tac. Hist. 1. 49. (c) CLAUDIUS. Auctoritas dignitasque formae non defuit vel stanti vel sedenti ac praecipue quiescenti ; (nam et prolixo 35 nec exili corpore erat, et specie canitieque pulcra, opimis cer

vicibus) ceterum et ingredientem destituebant poplites minus firmi, et remisse quid vel serio agentem multa dehonestabant: risus indecens, linguae titubantia, caputque cum semper, tum

in quantulocumque actu vel maxime tremulum. Saevum et 40 sanguinarium natura fuisse, magnis minimisque apparuit rebus, Sed nihil aeque quam timidus fuit.

SUETONIUS.

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(22) WASHINGTON. His integrity was most pure, his justice the most24 inflexible I have ever known; no motives" of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or batred, being able to bias his decision". He was, indeed, in every sense, a wise, a good, and a great man. His tempero was naturally irritable ; and high toned; but reflection and resolution had obtained a firm and habitual ascendancy over it. If ever', however, it broke its bounds, he was most tremendous in his wrath. In his expenses he was honourable, but exact; liberal in contributions is to whatever promised * utility"; but frowning 10 and unyielding on all visionary projects". His heart was not warm in its affections"; but he exactly calculated 29 every man's value", and gave him a solid esteem" proportioned to it. His person", you know, was fine; his deportment easy, erect, and noble. Although in the circle" of his friends, where he might* be unreserved with safety 38, he took” a free share in conversation, his colloquial" talents were not above mediocrity In public, when called on for a sudden" opinion, he was unready, short, and embarrassed. Yet he wrote readily, rather diffusely, in an easy and correct style.

On the whole, his character" was, in its mass, perfect, in nothing bad, in a few points" indifferent, JEFFERSON.

Louis NAPOLEON. He had boldness of the kind 16 which is produced' by reflection rather than that which is the result of temperament". In order to cope 28 with the extraordinary 18 25 perils into which he now and then thrust himself”), and to cope with them decorously, there was wanted als fiery quality" which nature had refused to the great bulk of mankind as well as to him. But it was only in emergencies of a really tryinglésort, and involving instant physical" danger, that his boldness fell short. 30

He loved to contrive and brood over plots, and he had a great skill in making the preparatory arrangements" for bringing his schemes to ripeness"; but like most of the common herd"

he was unable to command the presence of mind and the flush" of animal spirits which are needed for the critical 35 moments of a daring adventure's. In short, he was a thoughtful, literary man, deliberately tasking himself to venture 28 into a desperate path, and going great lengths" in that direction"; but liable to find a himself balked in the moment of trial by the sudden and chilling return" of his good" sense.

KINGLAKE.

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23. Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Romanus cum Jugurtha, rege Numidarum, gessit: primum, quia magnum et atrox 18, variaque victoria fuit: dein, quia tum primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam? itum est; quae contentio divina et 5 humana cuncta permiscuit, eoque vecordiae processit, uti studiis civilibus bellum atque vastitas Italiae finem faceret?. Sed, priusquam hujuscemodi rei" initium expedio, pauca supra repetam" ; quo, ad cognoscendum", omnia illustria magis, magisque in aperto sint,

SALLUST, Jug. v.

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6. Initium mihi operis Servius Galba iterum Titus Vinius consules erunt: nam post conditam urbem octingentos et viginti prioris ævi' annos multi auctores rettulerunt?....

Opus adgredior opimum casibus, atrox proeliis, discors seditionibus, ipsa etiam pace saevom”. Quattuor principes ferro 15 interempti: trina bella civilia, plura externa ac plerumque

permixta : prosperae in oriente, adversae in occidente res: turbatum Illyricum, Galliae nutantes, perdomita Brittania et statim missa 13. lam vero Italia novis cladibus vel post longam

saeculorum seriem repetitis adflicta. Haustae aut obrutae 20 urbes fecundissima Campaniae ora, et urbs incendiis vastata,

consumptis antiquissimis delubris, ipso Capitolio civium manibus incenso“. Pollutae caerimoniae, magna adulteria : plenum exiliis

mare, infecti caedibus scopuli.

Non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona 25 exempla prodiderito. Comitatae profugos liberos matres, secutae

maritos in exilia coniuges, propinqui audentes, constantes generi, contumax etiam adversus tormenta servorum fides; supremae clarorum virorum necessitates, ipsa necessitas fortiter

tolerata et laudatis antiquorum mortibus parl' exitus. Praeter 30 multiplices rerum humanarum casus caelo terraque prodigia et

fulminum monitus et futurorum praesagia, laeta tristia, ambigua manifesta; nec enim umquam atrocioribus populi Romani cladibus magisve iustis indiciis adprobatum est non esse curae

deis securitatem nostramo, esse? ultionem. 35

Ceterum antequam destinata componam *), repetendum videtur, qualis status urbis, quae mens exercituum, quis habitus provinciarum, quid in toto terrarum orbe validum", quid aegrum fuerit, ut non modo casus eventusque rerum, qui plerumque fortuiti sunt, sed ratio etiam causaeque noscantur.

Tac. Hist. I, 1.

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(23). a. Je me propose d'écrire l'histoire d'une révolution mémorable, qui a profondément agité les hommes, et qui les divise encore aujourd'hui. Je ne me dissimule pas les difficultés de l'entreprise, car des passions que l'on croyait étouffées sous l'influence" du despotisme"8 militaire, viennent 5 de se réveiller. Tout à coup des hommes accablés d'ans et de travaux ont senti renaître en eux des ressentimens qui paraissaient apaisés, et nous les ont communiqués, à nous, leurs fils et leurs héritiers. Mais si nous avons à soutenir la même cause", nous n'avons pas à defendre leur conduite, et nous pou- 10 vons séparer la liberté de ceux qui l'ont bien ou mal servie, tandis que nous avons l'avantage" d'avoir entendu et observé ces vieillards, qui, tout pleins encore de leurs souvenirs, tout agités de leurs impressions, nous apprennent à les comprendre.

THIERS.

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6. I purpose" to write the history of England"> from the accession of King James the Second down to a time” which is within the memory of men still living. I shall recount the errors which, in a few months, alienated a loyal gentry and priesthood 18 from the House of Stuart. I shall trace the course 20 of that revolution which terminated the long struggle between our sovereigns and their parliaments”, and bound up together the rights of the people and the title of the reigning dynasty". I shall relate how from the auspicious unions of order and freedom, sprang a prosperity of which the annals of human 25 affairs had furnished no example ; how our country, from a state" of ignominious vassalage, rapidly rose to the place of umpire among European powers" ; how Scotland was at length united to England; how in America the British colonies became mightier and wealthier than the realms whicho Cortez and 30 Pizarro had added to the dominions of Charles V.; how in Asia British adventurers founded an empire not less splendid and more durable than that of Alexander. Nor will it be less my duty faithfully to record disasters" mingled with triumphs, and great national crimes and follies far more humiliating than 35 any 48 disaster. The events which I propose to relate form 28 only a single act

Ι of a great 19 and eventful drama extending 20 through ages, and must be very imperfectly understood unless the plot of the preceding acts bet well known. I shall therefore introduce 28 40 my narrative" by a slight" sketch of the history of our country from the earliest times.

MACAULAY.

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24. FIRE AT ROME. a. Interrupit? hos sermones nocte 39 quae pridie Quinquatrus fuit, pluribus simul locis circa forum incendium ortum. Eodem tempore septem tabernae, quae

postea quinque, et argentariae, quae nunc novae appellantur, 5 arsere" ; comprehensa postea privata aedificia (neque enim tumi

basilicae erant), comprehensae lautumiae forumque piscatorium et atrium regium; aedes Vestae vix defensa est tredecim maxime servorum opera, qui in publicum" redempti ac manu

missi sunt. Nocte ac die continuatum incendium fuit, nec ulli 10 dubium erat, humana id fraude factum esse, quod pluribus

şimul locis, et iis diversis, ignes coorti essent. Itaque consul ex auctoritate senatus pro contione edixit, qui, quorum opera id conflatum incendium esset, profiteretur, praemium fore libero mo

pecuniam, servo libertatem. Eo praemio inductus Campanorum 15 Calaviorum servus (Manus ei nomen erat) indicavit”, dominos et

quinque praeterea iuvenes nobiles Campanos, quorum parentes a Q. Fulvio securi percussi erant, id incendium fecisse, vulgoque facturos alia, ni comprehendantur. Comprehensi ipsi familiaeque eorum.

Et primo elevabatur index indiciumque: pridie 20 eum verberibus castigatum ab dominis discessisse; per iram ac

levitatem" ex re fortuita crimen commentum; ceterum ut coram coarguebantur et quaestio ex ministris facinoris foro medio haberi coepta est“, fassi omnes, atque in dominos servosque con

scios animadversum" est. Indici libertas data et viginti millia 25 aeris.

Livy, xxvi. 27. b. Sequitur clades”, forte an dolo principis incertum (nam utrumque" auctores prodidere”), sed omnibus *8

quae huic urbi per violentiam ignium acciderunt gravior atque atrocior”, Ini

tium in ea parte circi ortum quae Palatino Caelioque montibus 30 contigua est, ubi per tabernas, quibus id 15 mercimonium inerat

quo flamma alitur', simul coeptuso ignis et statim validus 20 ac vento citus longitudinem circi corripuit'. Neque enim domus munimentis saeptae vel templa muris cincta aut quid aliud morae

interiacebat. Impetu pervagatumo incendium plana primum, 35 deinde in edita adsurgens, et rursus inferiora populando*, anteiit

remedia velocitate mali et obnoxia urbe artis itineribus hucque et illuc flexis, atque enormibus vicis, qualis vetus Roma fuit. Ad hoc lamenta paventium feminarum, fessi aevo aut rudis

pueritiae aetas, quique sibi quique aliis consulebant, dum 40 trahunt as invalidos aut opperiuntur, pars mora, pars festipans",

cuncta impediebant. Et saepe, dum in tergum respectanto), lateribus aut fronte circumveniebantur; vel si in proxima

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