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(4.) MEETING OF ARMINIUS AND HIS BROTHER. The brother of Arminius had assumed the Roman name of Flavius, and had gained considerable distinction in the Roman service", in which

12 he had lost an eye from a wound in battle. When the Roman outposts approached the river Weser, Arminins called out to s them from the opposite bank, and expressed a wish to see his brother. Flavius stepped forward, and Arminius ordered his own followers to retire, and requested that the archers should be removed from the Roman bank of the river. This was doneo: and the brothers began* a conversation from the 19 opposite sides of the stream, in which Arminius questioned his brother respecting the loss 18 of his eye, and what battle it had been lost in, and what reward he had received for his wound". Flavius told“ him how the eye was destroyed, and mentioned the increased pay that he had on account of its 15 loss", and showed the collar and other military decorations that had been given him. Arminius mocked at these as badges 45 of slavery ; and then each began" to try to win the other over; Flavius, boasting the power of Rome, and her generosity to the submissive; Arminius appealing to him in 25 the name of their country's gods, of the mother that had borne them, and by the holy names" of fatherland and freedom, not to prefer being the betrayer to being the champion of his country. They soon proceeded to mutualtaunts and menaces, ando Flavius called aloud for his horse and his arms, that he 23 might dash across the river and attack his brother; nor would he have been checked from doing so, had not the Roman general, Stertinius, run up to him, and forcibly detained him. Arminius stood on the other bank, threatening the renegade", and defying him to battle.

CREASY. 30 (5.) SIEGE OF SYRACUSE. Marcellus brought up his ships against the sea-wall of Achradina, and endeavoured by a constant discharge 13 of stones and arrows to clear the walls of their defenders, so that his men might apply their ladders, and mount to the assault!?. These ladders rested on two ships, lashed 5 together broadside to broadside, and worked as one by their outside oars. But Archimedes had supplied the ramparts with an artillery so powerful, that it overwhelmed the Romans before they could get 30 within the range" which their missiles could reach : and when they came closer, they found that all the so lower part of the wall was loopholed ; and their men were

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postremo, ut sui vulnere intacti tela in hostem ingererent, murum

ab imo ad summum crebris cubitalibus fere cavis aperuit", per 15 quae cava pars sagittis, pars scorpionibus modicis ex occulto 35,

petebant hostem. Quia propius quaedam subibant naves, quo interiores ictibus" tormentorum essent, in eas tollenone super murum eminente ferrea manus firmae catenae illigata quum

iniecta prorae esset gravique libramento plumbi recelleret ad 20 solum, suspensa prora navem in puppim statuebat ; dein re

missao subito velut ex muro cadentem navem oum trepidatione nautarum ita undae affligebat, ut, etiamsi recta reciderat, aliquantum aquae acciperet. Ita maritima oppugnatio

est elusa, omnisque spes eo versa, ut totis viribus terra aggrede25 rentur . Sed ea quoque pars eodem omni apparatu tormento

rum instructa erat. Ita consilio habito”, quoniam omnis conatus ludibrio esset, absistere oppugnatione atque obsidendo tantum arcere terra marique commeatibus hostem placuit.

LIVY, Xxiv. 34.

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6. Romae haud minus terroris ac tumultus erat-, quam fuerat triennio ante, quum castra Punica obiecta Romanis 12 moenibus portisque fuerant. Neque satis constabat animis, tam

audax 1' iter consulis laudarent vituperarentne. Apparebat 28 5 (quo nihil iniquius 24 est) ex eventu famam habiturum.“Castra

prope Hannibalem hostem 18 relicta sine duce cum exercitu, cui detractum? foret omne, quod roboris, quod floris fuerit; et consulem in Lucanos ostendisse iter, quum Picenum et Galliam

peteret, castra relinquentemos nulla alia re tutiora, quam errore 10 hostis, qui ducem inde atque exercitus partem abesse ignoraret .

Quid futurum, si id palam fiat ?" Veteres eius belli clades, duo consules proximo anno interfecti? terrebant”. Et 48 ea omnia accidisse, quum upus imperator, unus exercitus hostium in Italia

esset : nunc duo bella Punica facta, duos ingentes exercitus, 15 duos prope

Hannibales in Italia esse. Quippe et Hasdrubalem, patre eodem' Hamilcare genitum, aeque impigrum ducem, per tot in Hispania annos Romano exercitatum bello, gemina victoria insignem, duobus exercitibus cum clarissimis ducibus

deletis 13. Nam itineris quidem celeritate ex Hispania et con20 citatis 33 ad arma Gallicis gentibus multo magis, quam Hannibalem ipsum, gloriari posse.

Omnia maiora etiam vero praesidia hostium, minora sua, metu interprete, semper in deteriora" inclinato, ducebant 29.

Livy, XXVII.

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struck down' with fatal aim by an enemy whom they could not see, and who shot his arrows in perfect security 86. If they still persevered', and attempted to fix their ladders, on a sudden enormous stones or huge masses of lead were dropped upon 15 them, by which their ladders were crushed to pieces, and their ships were almost sunk. At other times machines like cranes were thrust out over the wall; and the end of the lever, with an iron grapple affixed to it, was 29 lowered upon the ships. As soon as the grapple had taken hold, the other end of the lever 20 was lowered by heavy weights, and the ship raised out of the : water, till it was made 28 almost to stand upon its stern; then the grapple was suddenly let go', and the ship dropped into the sea with a violence which either upset it, or filled it with water. With equal power was the assault on the land side repelled, 25 till Marcellus in despair" put a stop to his attacks; and it was resolved merely to blockade the town, and to wait for the effect of famine upon the crowded population" within.

ARNOLD.

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(6.) BEFORE THE BATTLE OF METAURUS. Meanwhile, at Rome, the news!? of Nero's expedition had caused the greatest excitement and alarm. All men felt 29 the full audacity 13 of the enterprise", but hesitated what epithet" to apply 28 to it. It was evident that Nero's conduct 13 would be judged of by 5 the event, that most 24 unfair criterion", as the Roman historian truly terms28 it. People reasoned 28 on the perilous state in which Nero had left the rest of his army, without a general, and deprived of the core of its strength, in the vicinity of the terrible!: Hannibal. They talked 29 over the former dis- 10 asters of the war, and the fall 13 of both the consuls of the

All these calamities 43 had come on them while they had only one Carthaginian general and army to deal with in Italy. Now they had two Punic wars at a time. They had two Carthaginian armies; they had almost two 15 Hannibals in Italy. Hasdrubal was sprung from the same father; trained up in the same hostility to Rome; equally practised in battle against their legions; and, if the comparative speed and success with which he had crossed the Alps was a fair test", he was even a better general than his 20 brother. With fear for their interpreter of every rumour, they exaggerated the strength of their enemy's forces* in every quarter, and criticised and distrusted their own, CREASY.

last year.

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7. BATTLE OF METAURUS. Romae neuter animi habitus satis dici enarrarique potest, nec quo incerta exspectatione eventus civitas fuerat, nec quo victoriae famam accepit. Nuuquam per omnes dies, ex quo" Claudium consulem profectum 5 fama attulit, ab orto 18 sole ad occidentem, aut senator quisquam a curia atque ab magistratibus" abscessit, aut populus e foro. Matronae, quia *5 nihil in ipsis opis erat, in preces obtestationesque versae", per omnia delubra vagae suppliciis votisque fati

gare deos. Tam sollicitae ac suspensae" civitati fama incerta 10 primo accidit, duos Narnienses equites in castra, quae in fau

cibus Umbriae opposita la erant, venisse ex proelio, nuntiantes 25 caesos " hostes. Et primo magis auribus, quam animis, id acceptum erat, ut" maius laetiusque", quam quod mente capere,

aut satis credere possent: et ipsa celeritas fidem impediebat, 15 quod biduo ante pugnatum dicebatura. Literae deinde ab L.

Manlio Accidino missae ex castris afferuntur de Narniensium equitum adventu. Eae litterae per forum ad tribunal praetoris latae senatum curia exciverunt28 ; tantoque certamine ac tu

multu populi ad fores curiae concursum est, ut adire nuntius 20 non posset, sed traheretur a percontantibus vociferantibusque,

ut in rostris prius quam in senatu litterae recitarentur. Tandem summoti et coerciti a magistratibus, dispensarique laetitia inter potentes eius animos potuit? In senatu primum, deinde in

contione litterae recitatae sunt; et pro cuiusque ingenio aliis 25 iam certum gaudium, aliis nulla ante futura fides erat, quam

legatos consulumve 50 litteras audissent. Ipsos deinde appropinquare legatos allatum ?? est. Tum enimvero omnis aetas currere" obvii, primus' quisque oculis auribusque haurire tantum

gaudium cupientes. Ad Mulvium usque pontem continens" 30 agmen pervenit. Legati (erant L. Veturius Philo, P. Licinius

Varus, Q. Caecilius Metellus) circumfusi omnis generis hominum frequentia in forum pervenerunt, quum alii ipsos, alii comites eorum, quae acta essent, percontarentur; et ut quisque audi

erat”, exercitum hostium imperatoremque occisum, legiones 3; Romanas incolumes, salvos consules esse, extemplo aliis porro

impertiebant gaudium suum. Quum aegre in curiam perventum esset, multo aegrius summota turba, ne patribus misceretur, litterae in senatu recitatae sunt. Inde traducti in contionem

legati. L. Veturius, litteris recitatis', ipse planius omnia, quae 40 acta erant, exposuit cum 50 ingenti assensu, postremo etiam

clamore universae contionis, quumo vix gaudium animis caporent. Discursum inde ab aliis circa templa deum, ut gratos

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(7.) a. AFTER THE BATTLE. From the moment" that Nero's march from the south had been heard of at Rome, intense anxiety possessed the whole city. Every day the senate sat29 from suurise 13 to sunset; and not a senator was absent: every day the forum was crowded from morn- 5 ing till evening, as each hour might" bring some great tidings!?; and every man wished to be among the first to hear them! A doubtful rumour arose, that a great battle' had been fought, and a great victory won only two days before: two horsemen of Narnia had *3 ridden off from the 10 field to carry the news 12 to their home; it had 43 been heard and published in the camp of the reserve' army, which was lying at Narnia to cover the approach 13 to Rome. But men dareid 29 not lightly believe what they so much wished to be true: and how, they said "., could a battle fought in the ex- 15 tremity 13 of Umbria be heard of only two days after at Rome ? Soon however it was known that a letter had arrived from L. Manlius Acidinus himself, who commanded the army a Narnia: the horsemen had *3 certainly arrived there from the field of battle, and brought tidings of a glorious victory". The 20 letter was read first in the senate, and then in the forum from the rostra; but some still refused to believe : fugitives *3 from a battle-field might 49 carry idle tales of victory to hide their own shame; till the account came directly from the consuls, it was rash to credit ito.

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6. At last, word" was brought that officers of high rank" in the consul's army were on their way to Rome; that they bore a despatch from Livius and Nero. Then the whole city poured out of the walls to meet them, eager 25 to anticipate the moment" which was to confirm all their hopes. For two miles, as far 30 as the Milvian bridge over the Tiber, the crowd formed 28 an uninterrupted mass; and when the officers appeared, they could scarcely make their way to the city, the multitude throngingo around them, and overwhelming them and their attendants with eager questions. As each man learnt the 35 joyful answers", he made haste to tell them to others: “the enemy's army is destroyed"; the general slain; our own legions and both the consuls are safe.” So the crowd re-entered the city; and the three otficers, all men of noble names, L. Vetririus Philo, P. Licinius Varus, and Q. Metellus, still followed? 40 by the thronging' multitude, at last reached the senate-house.

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