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The small figures in the Extracts refer to these Notes : the references in the Notes to the number and line of the Extracts.

connexion of

§ 1. The natural order of a Latin sentence is Order and (i) subject, (ii) predicate, or (i) subject, (ii) object, (iii) ideas.

881-9. verb, each with its own qualifying clauses closely attached.

When the subject is contained in the verb, the verb will generally precede the object; e.g. Dixit te aegrotare; dedi litteras Kal. Jun.; but Kal. Jun. Cicero litteras dedit; cf. 29, 1; 31, 1; 37, 51–54.

Where this order is changed, as it constantly is, it is changed purposely for

a. emphasis, as in 3,1; 22, 15, 19; 29, 26, so as to throw the subject, verb, or object into light or shade.

B. connexion of ideas, as 1, 22; 4, 2; 9, 1; 20, 22; 21, 27; so that particles signifying sequence of thought or time stand first; a few, like quidem, autem, vero, and other quasi-enclitics, take the second place. y. antithesis, as 1, 12; 17, 2; 25, 26; 39, 4, 6.

6. 8. euphony, rhythm, or variety, 1, 23; 3, 6, 12; 7, 38; 11, 17; 19, 29; 22, 28; 24, 1, 19, 26.

Mark well these changes in Latin, and emphasize accordingly in English translation; accustom your ear to

; catch the emphasis in English and reproduce it by the

1 The rules given refer mainly to Latin, but may often be read conversely for English prose.

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order in Latin. It will be found useful to accentuate English passages accordingly before translation ; e.g. 'I' am the man;' 'I am not the man ;' he will go ;'

they may' come,' &c. Arrange- § 2. a. When two words form one combined idea (as compound adjective + substantive, or substantive + governed geni

tive) the most emphatic or prominent idea comes first in Latin, e. g. 3, 1, 2 ; 26, 34, 36 ; except when euphony (as in the case of monosyllables coming last) or other reasons (S 1) forbid it, e.g. 26, 39.

Accordingly, mere attributive adjuncts of a word or idea follow, essential modifications precede. In English attributes generally precede.

• The senator Cicero' becomes then 'Cicero senator,' i.e. Cicero who was also a senator. "Senator Cicero would mean rather'a senator, viz. Cicero. Cf. 43, 4.

Cf. 6, 6, 14, 20; 19, 23; 23, 2; 24, 29; 25, 1; 26, 25; 53, 3.

B. Where more than two words are thus combined in one idea, enclose those that are less obviously connected between those that are more so; e.g. tua in me pietas, populi ob haec facta indignatio. See § 3 B.

Cf. 37, 21; 49, 23, &c. of qualify

§ 3. a. Qualifying words or clauses in Latin (especially ing words. adverbs and negatives) are placed near (and mostly be

fore) what they qualify ; when qualifying a clause they precede the clause'; when only a word, they precede the word; e.g. recte haec scribis, haec recte scribis ; non haec timeo, haec non timeo; ne quod timeat quidem habet.

Cf. 9, 3; 20, 27; 26, 29, &c.

B. Such qualifying words and clauses as would otherwise naturally drift to the main verb, must often in

Similarly quidem (ne-quidem) and other enclitics follow closely the word or the clause that they qualify. Cf. 8, 15; 22, 6; 39, 27; 45, 7; 54, 18.

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Latin be tied down to other members of the sentence to which they belong, by artificial collocation (as in $ 2 B), or by the use of a participle or relative clause, —where in Greek the article would be used ; e.g. milites qui in urbe erant (not in urbe alone) manserunt- Vox e templo missa revocavit.

Cf. 1,5; 2,5; 13, 30; 14, 11, 13; 16, 11; 24, 2, 3.

§ 4. a. Search out the real subject and bring it Emphatic forward, whether in the nominative or oblique cases; e.g. subject and

predicate. Marcum nihil horum fefellit.

Cf. 3, 1; 5,1; 12, 1; 23, 13.

B. Find the real predicate and state it directly, not allusively or subordinately, or in a relative clause as often happens in English (see § 5 €. and S 8); as, sedens legebam, I was seated reading.

Cf. (3) 19; (10) 9, 12; (26) 3; (29) 32 ; (31) 4.

y Mark and emphasize by change of order antithe Antithetical tical ideas, to reproduce the force of the Greek uèv and 8è, or of our 'on the one hand,' on the other,' while, * respectively,' &c., whether you add or omit quidem, autem, vero, &c.

Cf. 2, 1; 4, 14, &c. ; 25, 26.

8. We often use actually,' 'indeed,' or some such word to emphasize, when the emphasis of order suffices in Latin. Cf. 7, 26; 43, 14; (43) 8.

Arrange clauses in Latin chronologically ; e. g. chronologiput the aim before the action, the cause before the effect. Cf. $ 9 y.

§ 5. a. The relative in Latin will come at the begin- Relatives, ning of its clause, the antecedent as near it as possible, clauses,

their place before or after, as if the relative clause were an adjective. and usage.

The Latin relative (as subject or object) often stands first in a sentence to connect it with a previous sen



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cal arrangement.

and relative

tence, where we use a demonstrative or personal pronoun with or without the copula ; e.g. Tum milites vocat; quos quum monuisset, &c.

Cf. 25, 17; 37, 4; 45,5; 48, 2.

ß. The antecedent is often attracted into the relative clause, often repeated in it—to prevent ambiguity (as in § 3 B) or to emphasize by repetition ; e.g. quae urbs te unice coluit hanc urbem deles.

Cf. 5, 15; 23, 4; 36, 2.

y. Relative clauses (or their equivalents) in apposition to another idea will usually come first in Latin, last in English ; except where fact follows on hypothesis, or realization on conception: metuens ne veniret-id quod factum est.

Cf. 6,5; 14, 8; 22,9; 26, 16.

So, too, in comparisons (quo fortior eo felicior, cf. 12,

12), where we invert the order : and generally. Relatives 8. Relatives (e.g. that) omitted in English must be Latin where expressed in Latin, cf. (10) 9, 12; (32) 12; (37) 49; they are not in English. (49) 9;, and prepositional or adverbial clauses (e.g. “the

scene before us,” the house close by') often be replaced by relative clauses.

Cf. 5,11; (10) 15; 24, 2.

Where in English (as in Greek with the article) the participle is used substantivally for a class, the relative with clause must be used in Latin as a rule, except where, as in § 25, the plural present participle is used.

€. Relative clauses in Latin are essentially adjuncts, essentially whether adjectival, adverbial, or co-ordinate, and must adjuncts.

not stand for the main predicate. In English they often do so, some conventional or subordinate idea occupying the main place (cf. $ 4B); e. g. clades nova afflixit urbem, "a fresh blow came that crushed the city.'

Cf. (13) 34; (24) 3.

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Ś. Where you have two relative clauses consecutively, Double do not join them, as is often done in English, by a copula (except where they refer to different antecedents ; e.g. 1, 15; 3, 18); but either make one relative serve for both clauses, or change the latter clause into a co-ordinate clause and the relative into a demonstrative or personal pronoun; e.g. quod ego probo, tu autem non [id] improbas.

Cf. (23) 2; (36) 19; (53) 6.

Double relatives in the same clause are common in Latin, rare in English; e.g. quod qui dat, &c.

§ 6. Do not unnecessarily change the nominative Unnecescase of co-ordinate and successive clauses as is often done sary change

of subject. in English. To avoid this you may use the ablative absolute, subordinate clauses, active for passive, participles, &c.

Cf. (3) 1-5; (22) 5, 6; (31) 1. $ 7. a. The passive occurs oftener in English than Passives re

placed by in Latin, except in the past participle : cf. 3, 1; 9, 1; Actives. (11) 8. The Latin passives are more cumbrous, less needed (cf. § 4 and S 8), less suited on the whole to the objective simplicity and directness of the language.

It is especially perhaps in cases where we make things, that are virtually objects, subjects of a (passive) verb, and the agents subordinate, that they use the active instead, with the agents as subjects and things subordinate. The so-called impersonal verbs, tædet, &c. occur frequently, but as a rule they shrank from personifying things or ideas as subjects or agents, where not necessary.

Cf. (11) 14; (17) 12, &c.

§ 8. Te rogo. “It is you that I ask.' In English to Emphasis emphasize an object we make it the subject of an auxiliary requires uso

of passives clause, or of a passive, that it may precede the verb.

clauses. Latin the object may be placed first. So, generally,

In or auxiliary

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