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Connection of clauses.

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sentences

position in Latin answers the effect of our underlining (with voice or pen), our auxiliaries "do,' &c., or other tricks of emphasis; and therefore auxiliary verbs and relatives (English) will often be suppressed in translation,

Cf. $ 5. 6. 7, 28; (7) 7; (8) 6; 10, 13; (10) 12; 39, 3, 8.

$ 9. a. The copula is oftener omitted than in EngOmission of lish, even in co-ordinate sentences; e.g. redit juvenis, rem copula.

narrat, implorat opem (cf. 1, 2–9; (1) 2—9), and is often replaced by the relative.

Cf. § 5; 43, 11; 45, 5. Co-ordinate B. Co-ordinate (English) sentences must constantly replaced by be replaced by (Latin) subordinate clauses (the frequent subordinate, repetition of 'and' being thereby avoided); the ablative

absolute, deponent and passive past participles, relative, temporal, and other clauses will be used instead.

Cf. 2, 5; (2) 25; 4, 3, 5; (7) 44; 11, 11; 25, 11, 18.

These clauses will as far as possible keep the same subject and object, so that our repetition of pronouns (him,''it,' &c.,) will be avoided ; e.g. Tunc convocatos quum breviter admonuisset, paullisper moratus secum eduxit.

Cf. $ 6; (4) 5, 28; (6) 4, 7; (7) 25, &c. and by the 7. They will be grouped (subordinately to the main period.

idea or action) in natural logical order of time, aim, cause and effect, connected by relatives, or antithetically by position alone, autem, quidem, vero often coming in where we use 'and' or 'while.” Cause, object, qualification or manner (causal, final, modal clauses) generally precede the main action, consecutive clauses follow, comparative follow or precede; except where the order is changed for emphasis or connexion of ideas, or where the object of an action is identical with or suggests its consequent result; e.g. faces admovit ut aedem accenderet.

Cf. § 4 €; 3, 8—11; 5, 16—20; 15, 1–5; 17, 4—7.

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Long sentences thus grouped, with the main verb reserved till the close, are called periods, and are commoner in history than in oratory or letters. Cf. Livy 1. 6 and 1. 16, &c.

In parenthetical clauses, where we use a relative clause, or a clause in apposition without a verb (e.g. one of them named (or who was named) Manus; &c., Unus ex his, Manus ei nomen erat), a co-ordinate sentence without or with a copula is often found in Latin. Cf. 3, 1, 4; 7, 30; 24, 15; 25, 28; 33, 10; 34, 12; 39, 23. For other parentheses cf. 14, 5; 24, 5, 27; 43, 17; 44, 23; 48, 8; 54, 14,

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§ 10. A proper name, as subject or object, is oftener Substan

tives, $$ 10 repeated in English than in Latin. We often vary the 14.

Repetition repetition by a periphrasis, the old man,''the general,' of subject in

English. &c. In both cases is, ille (if anything is wanted) will be found generally sufficient in Latin.

Cf. (4) 30; (25) 4, 22, 26; (45) 19.

Where the proper name is so used in Latin it generally comes first, and is emphatic or distinctive.

Cf. 1, 14; 4, 11; 15, 1; 18, 17.

So too when, in English, descriptive nominatives are tacked on to relative clauses, the relative alone will be used in Latin. “The sailors who had jumped down' =qui desiluerant. Cf. 13, 21, 31.

And the same rule holds in the case of other subjects and objects repeated in English to round the sentence, or balance it antithetically.

Cf. (2) 12, 15, 17, 25, 29; (3) 8, 17, 22; (15) 9; (16) 23.

When however, as in $ 18, a new idea is thus thrown in allusively, it may be expressed in Latin, but directly, by a separate clause ; e.g. the veteran general was not to be deceived so easily :' of. (14) 7.

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Substantival pleonasms.

§ 11. a. Double phrases to express single ideas are often used in English, single terms in Latin. 'A feeling of shame' = pudor quidam.

Cf. (2) 8; (9) 21, 25; (10) 2; (16) 28; (22) 34, 35, 39.

B. Effete metaphors, needless synonyms and repetitions, and conventional periphrases (English) will be replaced in Latin by the simplest terms, or omitted.

As instances may be given the words object, point, feature, circumstance, instance, capacity, relation, terms, person, expression, elements, incident, purport, idea, substance, theory, step, view, department, sphere, contingency, emergency, consideration, issue. A few stock terms or phrases are found in Latin : the various meanings of ars, res, locus, studium, genus, ratio, vis, sententia, may be compared. The frequency of them in English is due partly to the want of genders in adjectives, which necessitates the use of neuter substantives, partly to the love of variety, partly to the composite elements of the language, which provide synonyms in abundance.

The want of such synonyms in Latin often makes it impossible to reproduce some of our finer shades of thought and expression; and words like res, ratio, &c., become too vague and indefinite.

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Cf. 2, 1, 12, 22; (2) 2, 14, 24; (4) 3, 16; (6) 4, 6; (7) 48; (11) 2, 7, 17, &c.

7. The repetition, in comparisons and other connexions, of the substantive or its equivalent, or of the word 'one,''ones,' is unnecessary in Latin ; e.g. magnae majora sunt vitia quam parve urbis ; such substantive when referring to two adjectives, &c., generally comes after the second, in the singular if the two ideas are singular and separate, in the plural if they are joined as a plural idea; cf. 16, 15.

Cf. § 16 €. 5, 12; 25, 30; 26, 41, 62; 44, 3. Less fre- § 12. Substantives are not used so much in Latin as quent use of substan. by us, and must often in translation be (a) taken into the

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a.

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verb, replaced by (B) adverb, (y) adjective, (8) participle, tives in

Latin, (€) gerundive, relative or other verbal clauses.

In such cases the qualifying adjective will often become an adverb. Cf. (2) 9; (11) 17; (25) 6.

Facta quae imperavit. Cf. 1, 26; 7, 19; 9, 22.

B. Haec saepius dicta, 'the frequent repetition of these remarks.' Cf. (2) 27; (3) 7; 7, 37.

7. Trepidi coeunt, in alarm.' Cf. (4) 3; (6) 3; 7,9; 8, 9.

8. Pauca locutus, after a few words.' Cf. (1) 10; (5) 26; 7, 11; 8, 26.

Nescis quid possint, quid sit agendum, 'their power,' 'line of duty.'

Cf. (6) 2; (12) 15; 23, 8. § 13. In Latin substitute the concrete reality for the Abstract

and conabstract idea; the thing or person (qualified or not) for crete nouns. the quality or characteristic of it; e.g. aperte adulantem nemo non odit, open flattery all hate' and, generally, matter-of-fact phrases for idealisms or mental conceptions: as the top of the mountain,' summus mons ; 'the capture of the city,' capta urbs; “the rest of the booty,' reliqua præda; "all of us,' 'three hundred of us,' nos omnes, nos trecenti ; 'city of Rome,' urbs Roma; “Rome,' Romani; "the hour of nine,' hora nona ; sometimes on the contrary we find vox voluptatis, 'the word pleasure,' &c., but rarely; cf. Madvig, $ 286.

Cf. (2) 10, 23; (4) 12; (5) 3; (6) 11; (7) 53.

The nominative case will often have to be changed to avoid making an idea the subject; cf. $ 7.

Cf. (3) 10; (17) 19; (19) 9; (25), 9.

$ 14. The same tendency to realism and matter of Realism of fact is shown in such direct personification of ideas as

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Latin.

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tival prepositions.

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Articles and pronouns,

aures for 'ear,' oculi the 'eye,' corpus for ‘self.' Cf. scribere sua manu, to write one's self.'

Cf. 2, 11; 15, 12; 17, 13; 26, 53; 52, 10.

Write Marcus fertur dixisse, rather than fertur Marcum dixisse, thereby making a person rather than a sen

tence or idea the subject. Cf. 8, 9; 17, 7; 20, 26. Substan

The (English) tendency to the use of substantives appears in prepositional terms: in spite of, tamen, nihilominus; in consequence of, ob, ex, propter; in the midst of, inter; in accordance with, ex, secundum; in return for, pro; on condition that, ita ut; in proportion as, prout; by the side of, propter ; as we often use present participles also (e.g. 'owing to,' ó respecting,' 'pending,' 'touching,' according to') as prepositions.

$ 15. a. The so-called indefinite article 'an' (un, ein, $$ 15–17. uno) is sometimes expressed by unus in early Latin;

often by quidam, sometimes by aliquis, or is (a man) qui; mostly it is left unexpressed; e.g. inest hominibus vis quaedam (a power'). Cf. 21, 11; 31, 14, 24.

B. The English 'one' (except as numeral, cf. 3, 4) is rarely unus, but quidam, (is) qui, quis, aliquis, sometimes alius-alius; in some senses tu, or rather the verb in the 2nd person; and it is often left untranslated as in § 11 y, as also the indefinite some;' e.g. is erat qui, ‘he was one of those men who;' sunt qui, &c.; Dama ex servis (quidam), 'one of his slaves.'

Cf. 3, 16; 9, 24.

y The = that (cf. il, lo, le=ille) is a weak demonstrative, omitted in Latin where the definiteness is otherwise expressed; or translated by hic, ille, is, iste, or the relative. Cf. 1, 15, 18; 25, 28; 32, 12.

$ 16. a. 18 takes up the subject of a previous sentence where we repeat a proper name ($ 10); often = a, the, such as, such. Cf. 1, 7; 9, 21; 29, 27; 31, 26.

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