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B. Ille points to a new or different subject; and so illud generally =Tode (or ékelvo), that which follows. It is often used also of celebrities of the distant past.

Cf. 39, 19; 45, 26; 54, 4; 55, 8,

y. With hic, ille means generally the more remote, i.e. the former, hic the nearer, the last or latter. Hic, in the sense of this last, often takes up the subject of a preceding sentence, like is. Cf. 5, 4; 31, 5, 18.

8. Iste refers to the second person, as ille to third, and hic (this near me) to the first.

• That' is omitted (cf. § 11 y) in sentences like 'my wish and that of Cicero,' or the substantive is repeated as in 1, 24. So also the personal pronouns “them,” 'it,' when mere repetitions of an object before expressed; cf. $ 9 B, $ 10; but not always.

Cf. 13, 14, 19; (15) 10; 21, 17.

§ 17. a. Pronouns in Latin when emphasized or con- Pronouns. trasted must be expressed, and then sufficiently represent our additions of 'for my part,' 'on the one hand,' &c. Sometimes quidem, vero, &c. are added.

Cf. 26, 31; (26) 47; 45, 8, 21.

B. Idem will often express our 'all the same,' on the other hand,' at once,' again,' 'very,' &c.; and ipse, our very,' the fact of, of itself,' with numerals 'exactly i'e.g. hoc ipsum terret, triginta dies erant ipsi, hunc ipsum, tum ipsum.

Cf. 21, 10; 30, 3; 32, 7; 34, 15.

7. Nemo and quisquam are substantival, the latter being used in negative sentences, or questions implying negation. Nullus and ullus are generally used for their genitive and ablative; e.g. nullo cogente ; nullius te miseret; nullius avari ; nec prohibente ullo (Livy), not quo

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quam; est ne quisquam? Otherwise nullus and ullus are adjectival and used in the same kind of sentences.

Nemo and quisquam are also used adjectivally with homo, vir, parens, mulier, and other appellatives. 8. aliquis, aliquid, substantival (='at leastsome'but un

defined, may be called aliqui, aliquod, adjectival

definite indefinites, as nonnullus also and nescio quis.

quidam, substantival and adjectival, is definite.
quivis, adjectival and substantival,
quilibet, adjectival,

indefinite. quis, substantival, qui, adjectival, after

si, ne, or relatives ;
alius = axlos, other and different, of many.

alter = čtepos, other, second, of two, as neuter, uter, uterque; so quisque of many, uterque of two.

The suffix que seems to give the force of 'soever,' otherwise given by repetition; as ubiubi=ubicunque=ubique; utut=utcunque=utique, howsoever;' so quisquis=quicunquerquisque (cf. Tacitus for this usage of quisque).

The force then of primus quisque is not each first,' but' the first whoever he be,' and so all the first;' primo quoque tempore, the first opportunity whatever it be;' cf. 13, 6; 26, 53; 43, 16.

Adjectives,

§ 18. a. In English, adjectives or participles (or &c. $$18—24, as attribu; other words) are prefixed to substantives for pure wordthets, when painting, as attributives, or to suggest allusively class, superfluous.

quality, cause, condition, &c. In Latin either omit them or express the cause, condition, &c., separately and directly, by participle, adjective, or verbal clause, placed after the substantive; e.g. 'the disappointed adventurers murmured,' milites elusi fremere. The participle is also omitted in such expressions as 'a man named Cotta,' Cotta quidam.

a.

B. Where in English they are artificial or metaphorical, simplify.

Cf. (9) 18; (15) 2, 8, 11; (16) 23; (25) 15, 18, 20; (42) 2. y. The English participial adjective must be ex- Participial

adjectives. pressed by a simple adjective; or treated separately as a verbal predicate, as above; or expressed by a relative clause. There are but few participial adjectives in Latin, as prudens, sapiens, amans, potens, tutus, doctus, expeditus (found with comparative and superlative forms and adjectival usage). In English most participles (present act. and past pass.) are used as adjectives; e.g. 'a lost cause,' a dazzling sight.'

Cf. (2) 11, 27, 29; (3) 7; (31) 1; (32) 5; (48) 15. § 19. The practice, common in many English Adjectival

pleonasms. authors, of giving each substantive its epithet, or grouping substantives, adjectives, or verbs in couples, must generally be avoided in Latin, though occasionally it occurs, especially in ornate oratory; cf. 32, 5-15; (32) 4—16.

B. So too antithetical repetitions of synonyms to balance clauses. Cf. $ 11 y.

f. (2) 10–13, 23, 29; (9) 12; (10) 6; (12) 13, 15, 18; (17) 8.

7. Where (in English) several adjectives are prefixed to substantives without copula, connect them (in Latin) and place them after their substantives ; e.g. oculos habuit claros ac nitidos, but also nigris vegetisque oculis, 20, 27; 21, 41.

Cf. (9) 3; (13) 8; (18) 6; 22, 2; (32) 1.

$ 20. a. The (Latin) adjective or participle, as in Adjectives English, may often represent a minor clause by itself, as the Greek adjective with öv, especially in Tacitus (where it often stands for a main clause); e.g. inops ac desertus quid poterat facere ?

Cf. 2, 1, 10; 4, 22; 5, 12; 11, 7, 17; 13, 14; 24, 36; 49, 38.

as clauses. of clauses.

sentences

subordinate,

position in Latin answers the effect of our underlining (with voice or pen), our auxiliaries “do, &c., or other tricks of emphasis; and therefore auxiliary verbs and relatives (English) will often be suppressed in translation.

Cf. $ 5. €.7, 28; (7) 7; (8) 6; 10, 13; (10) 12; 39, 3, 8. Connection § 9. a. The copula is oftener omitted than in EngOmission of lish, even in co-ordinate sentences; e.g. redit juvenis, rem copula.

narrat, implorat opem (cf. 1, 2–9; (1) 2—9), and is often replaced by the relative.

Cf. § 5; 43, 11; 45, 5. Co-ordinate B. Co-ordinate (English) sentences must constantly replaced by be replaced by (Latin) subordinate clauses (the frequent

repetition of and being thereby avoided); the ablative absolute, deponent and passive past participles, relative, temporal, and other clauses will be used instead.

Cf. 2, 5; (2) 25; 4, 3, 5; (7) 44; 11, 11; 25, 11, 18.

These clauses will as far as possible keep the same subject and object, so that our repetition of pronouns (“him,''it,' &c.,) will be avoided ; e.g. Tunc convocatos quum breviter admonuisset, paullisper moratus secum educit.

Cf. 86; (4) 5, 28; (6) 4, 7; (7) 25, &c. and by the y. They will be grouped (subordinately to the main period.

idea or action) in natural logical order of time, aim, cause and effect, connected by relatives, or antithetically by position alone, autem, quidem, vero often coming in where we use 'and' or 'while.' Cause, object, qualification or manner (causal, final, modal clauses) generally precede the main action, consecutive clauses follow, comparative follow or precede ; except where the order is changed for emphasis or connexion of ideas, or where the object of an action is identical with or suggests its consequent result; e.g. faces admovit ut aedem accenderet.

Cf. § 4 €; 3, 8—11; 5, 16–20; 15, 1–5; 17, 4—7.

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Long sentences thus grouped, with the main verb reserved till the close, are called periods, and are commoner in history than in oratory or letters. Cf. Livy 1. 6 and 1. 16, &c.

In parenthetical clauses, where we use a relative clause, or a clause in apposition without a verb [e. g. one of them named (or who was named) Manus; &c., Unus ex his, Manus ei nomen erat), a co-ordinate sentence without or with a copula is often found in Latin. Cf. 3, 1, 4; 7, 30; 24, 15; 25, 28; 33, 10; 34, 12; 39, 23. For other parentheses cf. 14, 5; 24, 5, 27; 43, 17; 44, 23; 48, 8; 54, 14,

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§ 10. A proper name, as subject or object, is oftener Substan

tives, $$ 10 repeated in English than in Latin. We often vary the 14

.

Repetition repetition by a periphrasis, 'the old man,' the general,' of subject in

English. &c. In both cases is, ille (if anything is wanted) will be found generally sufficient in Latin.

Cf. (4) 30; (25) 4, 22, 26; (45) 19.

Where the proper name is so used in Latin it generally comes first, and is emphatic or distinctive.

Cf. 1, 14; 4, 11; 15,1; 18, 17.

So too when, in English, descriptive nominatives are tacked on to relative clauses, the relative alone will be used in Latin. "The sailors who had jumped down' =qui desiluerant. Cf. 13, 21, 31.

And the same rule holds in the case of other subjects and objects repeated in English to round the sentence, or balance it antithetically.

Cf. (2) 12, 15, 17, 25, 29; (3) 8, 17, 22; (15) 9; (16) 23.

When however, as in $ 18, a new idea is thus thrown in allusively, it may be expressed in Latin, but directly, by a separate clause ; e.g. 'the veteran general was not to be deceived so easily :' of. (14) 7.

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