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future of


quam profectus sit. Cf. Madvig. 379, and see B. But it would be more correct to say that in such cases the

perf. subj. is used loosely for the future. Cf. 41, 13; 43, 9. Fut. subj.

The simple future is periphrastic, amaturus sim: for the passive some periphrasis, as non dubium est quin futurum sit (or in eo futurus sim) ut amer, would have to

be used, if the active cannot be used. Periphrastic

This last periphrasis fore, futurum esse ut amem, Infinitive. amer, is often found for the future active and passive

infinitive, especially where the simple future forms would

be awkward or do not exist. The Infini- $ 31. a. The infinitive often replaces our present partive,

ticiple, vidi ruere, 'I saw it falling,' (or 'fall'); but vidi ruentem, 'I saw it while it was falling.'

Cf. 26, 11; 23; 36, 21; 38, 22.

So in our ó ceased (began) speaking,' went on con

suming,' &c. of surprise. B. The infinitive of surprise (" To think that,' &c.) is

found in Latin, generally with the enclitic ne; e.g. Te ne riescire !

But we find also a direct interrogative with or without ne, and an ellipse of the verb; e.g. Ita ne Brutus ? Cf. 45, 2; (45) 7.

( The accusative of exclamation, with adjectives and participles, is more common, and may sometimes be used

instead. Cf. 36, 16; 38, 3; 54, 9. Epexegetic y The English (or Greek) epexegetic infinitive must and final.

be replaced by the supine or gerund, by ut or relative with subjunctive, or by some substantival periphrasis; to say the truth,' ut vera dicam; sometimes it may be made the main verb of the sentence. Cf. § 4 B, 288,

, 'I shall be glad to come,' laetus veniam.

Cf. 28, 3; 30, 2; 47, 12; 49, 12, 18, 26; 50, 15.

The final infinitive is expressed by ut or qui with subj. or by the part in rus. Cf. 8, 11, 13, &c.

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$ 32.


, •ing,

The Latin infinitive though substantival Verbals in cannot be used with prepositions (as our verbal in ing,' or the Greek infinitive); the gerund may be, but with some only.

B. When you come to an expression like 'without doing,' you must settle by the context whether it is past, present, or future, consequence, mode, or condition, and translate accordingly, e.g. re infecta, nullo obstante, non coactus abiit; nihil facientem miserum est morari; nisi feceris ; vix haec facies, ut non facias et illa; abiit neque fecit. Cf. 33, 17; 36, 16. $ 33. Generally the English verbal in -ing may be Verbal in

‘ing.' rendered:

i. In the nominative or accusative by the Latin infinitive or quod with indicative ; e.g. quod abes (te abesse) tamdiu, mirum est, (or miror).

ii. In the other cases by the finite verb with ex (ob, dc.), eo (id) quod; e.g. ex eo quod abes, 'from your being away.'

iii. Or by the gerunds with and without prepositions; e.g. certus eundi ; ad eundum paratus.

iv. Or by the gerundive and poun, with or without prepositions ; e.g. ex (de, dc.) re agenda.

Or by verbal clauses with quum, ubi, &c.; or participial clauses as above, § 32 B; or by adverbs: e.g. inscienter without knowing.'

Cf. 6, 20; (14) 10; 15, 10; 29, 5, 30; 49, 9, 12, 33, 41.

$ 34. In its use of particles, connecting and others, Particles. Latin is more simple and realistic than English ; and unnecessary particles must be omitted in translation, especially when used for emphasis, where position alone suffices in Latin.

Cf. SS 4, 8, 17; 49, 26, 38; 53, 20; 56, 20.





sometimes Particles, no sooner-than;

are rendered by et-et, simul connecting,

—simul, or the past participle passive, qualifying. scarcely — when; &c.

captum statim occidit; sometimes by just as

vix...quum; (dixerat)...quum.

on the one hand- ut-ita; quumtum.
on the other;

‘not you but I,' ego non tu ;

by this time,' jam; at once,' idem or et-et (et bonus et strenuus); . at all events,' at least,' in any case,' certe, omnino; ‘positively,' “actually,' quidem, or unexpressed ; e. g.

facere voluit et fecit (quidem); ‘quite,' omnino, valde, plane; of course,' quidem, vero, sane; profecto. 'yes,' etiam, maxime, aio, sic, ita, immo (with or

without vero); 'no,' non, minime, nego. 'not,' ne, of a purpose, non otherwise ; minus (sin,

quo, &c. minus). Both English and Latin particles have widely different meanings according to position and the accents of the sentence, which must be carefully marked ;

e.g. 'still' = (i) nihilominus, tamen, (ii) adhuc, (iii)

Usque ; indeed' (i) sane quam (dolui), (i) sane, quidem (uev) answered by sed (Se), &c. (iii) ita ne?

(iv) (minime) vero, (v) re vera ; • well' =(i) bene, (ii) quid igitur ? (iii) at, atqui,

(iv) jam, jam vero, resumptive, (v) often left unexpressed

Unconnected sentences are not so frequent in Latin Particles of

connexion. as in writers like Macaulay ; jam, tum, inde, dc., often have to be introduced. But very often they are connected not by particles, but by some word brought emphatically forward which serves as a connecting idea ; or by the relative. At other times quod, quod contra, quod si, quanquam, ergo, itaque, quare, proinde, autem, nempe, scilicet, porro, jam vero, quid? quid quod, &c., will be used.

In descriptive clauses, like 'It was now getting dark,' the 'now' will disappear or be replaced by tunc, as our descriptive 'here' is by ibi, illic, ‘hence,' by inde. Adhuc, similarly, is used less frequently of the past time, though found in that sense occasionally, as also nunc

tunc, &c.

Cf. (1) and (8); (10) 1; (11) 12; (25) 13, 22; and 15, 18; 25, 23; 26, 3, 19, 33; 45, 1–16; 46, 1–6.

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§ 35. English writers use for effect such,' 'so,''


prefixes great,' oftener than is done in Latin. Translate by the such' so', superlative, comparative, or simple positive; often also by adeo, tam, tantus, &c. (not sic or ita), sometimes by the relative; e.g. qua munditia homines ! quae est tua bonitas. Yet we often find tantus where the 'so' would be dropped in English.

Cf. (7) 14; (26) 21; (36) 2; (37) 4, 5, 20; 37, 21; 44, 6; 49, 9; 51, 22.

* This' that', often prefixed similarly for effect in English--of. (10) 5, 13-may often be omitted in translation.



$36. a. Adverbs (or adverbial phrases, as ex oc- Adverbs. culto) in Latin are constantly used where we use substantives (especially of time and space), or adjectives, or verbs; e.g. diu, procul, inscienter; haud dubie aderit, he is sure to be there,' &c.

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Epistolary idioms, $$ 37-39.



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On the other hand they use verbs where we use adverbs, substantives, or adjectives, (cf. § 22); e. g. qua soles cura ; ut erat miti ingenio ; quae est tua facilitas ; solet (videtur) ire, ‘he usually (apparently) goes.'

Cf. 3, 2; 19, 31; (20) 29; 42, 2; 48, 16; 54, 6, 19.

$ 37. In letters the precision of Latin appears in the use of scribere' for our colloquial 'say' (quod scribis), litteras accipere; for 'hear;' and the constant insertion of such verbs where we omit them; e.g. In


last letter,' &c., “In your note of the 24th inst,' in ea epistola , quam dederas, dic.

Where we quote from a letter without preface, they prefix scribis, &c.; and mention facts directly instead of alluding to them as we do.

Cf. 45, 6; 42, 1 and (42) 2; 44, 1 and (44) 2 ; 47, 12 and (47) 16, 21; 55, 1.

§ 38. Another instance of this precision is the use of the epistolary imperfect and pluperfect dabam, &c., which should be used (as in our phrases “I am writing this,' 'I send this,' 'I have written so far,') where especial attention is called to the time of the letter-writing.

The perfect is similarly used where we use the present. Cf. 47, 2, 13; 54, 4, &c.

Cf. 37, 47; 41, 27—31; 44, 20; 47, 2, 3, 10, 18, 19; 49, 35; 56, 2.

$ 39. Some familiar and idiomatic terms, mainly from letters, are here given :

Remember me,' &c., salutare, salutem dicere, dare,

mittere; 'post,' 'postman,' tabellarius; " to send, deliver, a letter,' dare, perferre, litteras, ; my dear Cicero,' mi Cicero; • Cicero sends his love,' salvebis a Cicerone;

write and give my love,' jubebis valere litteris ; let me know,' fac me certiorem;

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Epistolary phrases.

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