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Questions in oratio obliqua.

clauses ; while subordinate or dependent verbs become or
remain subjunctives, in present or past tenses accordingly
as the original main verb is present, past, or historic
present. $ 30 y, vi. § 41 a.

Cf. 4, 10—19; 6, 5-21; 11, 3–7; 12, 15.
y

Words introducing this oratio obliqua, 'urging,' saying,' he exclaimed,' he continued,' are omitted generally; dixit, respondit, videbatur, apparebat, ferebatur, &c., are sometimes used.

Commands and exhortations, dependent on monet, monuit ut, dc. suppressed, are put in the present or imperfect subjunctive.

Cf. 1, 6; 8, 15; 11, 3, 14; 12, 15; 24, 20.

8. Independent questions when put in oratio obliqua, as other main clauses, are expressed by the accusative with the infinitive (being dependent on dicit, &c. not on rogat, dc.), e.g. Quem non videre ? Except where the second person of the oratio recta has to be expressed, when to avoid confusion the subjunctive is mostly used, as if it were a dependent clause. So nonne vides becomes nonne videret; but nonne video, videmus ? become nonne (se) videre? and nonne videt, vident? nonne videre eos, &c. ? See Madvig, $ 405. Cf. 6, 11; 10, 3, 4.

The indirect interrogative however approximates to a simple dependent clause (when attached to a main verb expressed), and is treated as such (see B); quaerit ubi esset Cato, ubi tu esses, ubi ipse esset.

€. Questions originally in the subjunctive (like other dependent clauses) when put in oratio obliqua remain in the subjunctive with a change of tense according to B, or & 30 $; e.g. utri paream? becomes utri pareret ? or utri parendum esset ? in oratio obliqua; in both cases equally a main governing verb or a condition being suppressed.

Here, as in § 30 $, the rule holds good that the subjunctive. cannot do double duty. Quid faceres ? (conditional) becomes quid facturus esset ?

oratio

Ś. The relative qui is often treated as a copula (= et is) and followed by the infinitive mood, the relative sentences being then co-ordinate and not dependent. However the subjunctive is oftener found, so that the sentence becomes a qualifying clause. See Madvig, $ 402. E.g. esse illi pecuniam et eloquentiam queis multos anteiret (or anteire).

$ 44. Short speeches in English are generally ex- Speeches in pressed in oratio recta ; in Latin by oratio obliqua: but obliqua. not always : e.g. 26, 35; (15) 18; 30, 2. As a rule oratio obliqua is oftener used in Latin than in English for all speeches.

Cf. (1) 26; (7) 37; (10) 4; 16, 26; (28) 7; (30) 1.

§ 45. a. Metaphors are less frequent in Latin than Metaphors. English, and where used are used more consciously and consistently'. Cf. 3, 15; (4) 18; (9) 23, &c.

B. English is thickly strewn with buried metaphors —fossils of bygone ages, Greek, Roman, Saxon, Norman; they need not be reproduced in Latin, if dead and unmeaning in the English, and will otherwise often require simplifying; e.g. agony,' afflicted,' redundant,' 'redound,' 'affluence,' 'inured,'despond,' astonished.' Cf. § 11 B. On the other hand, their Latin originals can often no longer be expressed in English by such effete derivatives, but will require the substitution of other words and more lively metaphors.

y. Metaphors may often in translation be shifted

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1 Not always however: cf. Cic. in Catilin. IV. 3, 6. Latius opinione disseminatum est hoc malum; manavit non solum per Italiam, verum etiam transcendit Alpes; et obscure serpens multas provincias occupavit. Id opprimi sustentando et prolatando nullo pacto potest.

Metaphors.

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from the verb or adjective to the noun, or vice versa ; e.g. magna vis telorum volabat; defluxit salutatio; signa non fucata sed domesticis inusta notis veritatis.

d. Where we use similes taken from nautical (as in Greek) or commercial matters, or our old national pursuits as archery, the Romans take theirs from legal or military matters, and from their own peculiar habits, pursuits, and institutions; they will often use similes where we do not, and vice versa; e.g. Epicuri castra ; tirocinium; in ordinem cogi; vita mancipio nulli datur; columen reipublicae ; 'two strings to one's bow;' 'to hit, miss, overshoot, &c., the mark;' 'to draw the long bow,' &c., 'mainstay,' 'to launch a scheme,' 'to tack, 'to weather,''to draw upon the imagination,' 'to endorse,' to credit with,' &c.

€. English similes and figurative expressions are more idealistic, Latin more material and matter-of-fact : e.g. cedant arma togae; nervi reipublicae ; succus et sanguis oratorum.

See Cic. de Oratore, III. 38, 153 sqq.; Quintil. Inst. Orat. Bk. VIII.

Cf. 6, 7; (10) 9, 15; (14) 14; (15) 10, 19; (22) 4; (32) 5, 7; (35) 16; (36) 10; (39) 9, 16; and 14, 6; 22, 7; 26, 34, 50, 72; 37, 36, 60; 46, 12; 49, 14—19; 53, 7; 55, 5, 11.

$ 46. Jubes me venire; veniam, 'you ask me to come; I will' (cf. § 28), is a difference of idiom due to the use of auxiliaries in English and not in Latin, and to our love of variety. We seldom repeat the same verb; sometimes we say “I will do so,' to avoid the repetition; and in Latin faciam can be similarly used, though not so frequently. Cf. id quod fit, factum est, “as it does, did.' In Latin the verb is sometimes omitted altogether. Cf. 55, 18.

Cf. 11, 13; (38) 23; 43, 5, 7, 14, 16; 52, 24; 56, 9.

Repetitions of verb.

use of words.

a.

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$ 47. A story is often introduced by ferunt in Latin, Abruptness

of English. where in English it begins abruptly : cf. 39, 20; (39) 18.

Sometimes factum est ut, accidit, accedit, evenit, ut will be found useful in introducing incidents, or results, forte being often added, or beginning the story. So adde quod, accedit quod, with indicative.

Similarly the English imperative is sometimes too abrupt for Latin : and fac, cura, vide, noli, or the simple future or fut. perfect may have to be used : e.g. fac scribas ; scribes ; ne scripseris; noli scribere.

Cf. 13, 36; 30, 6; 38, 8, 14; 40, 22.

§ 48. Ambiguities arise in the use of common words Ambiguous from the fact that they do not cover exactly the same ground in both languages.

Omnis is not only all,' the whole' (as totus), Omnis. every' (but not in sense of quisque), but also is constantly equivalent to our 'any;' cf. omnino, in any case;' in expressions like omnium cum dolore, it may often be translated 'general,' 'universal.' Cf. 22, 31; 25, 19.

B. Onceor 'on one (i.e. an) occasion'—is simply Once. expressed by quum if that can be introduced, at other times forte may express it, or it is left untranslated; 'once, 'on a former occasion,’ ‘formerly,' quondam, olim (once on a time); or, more indefinitely, (at least once,' 'before now,' aliquando; 'once' numerically, and similarly 'once for all,' semel; e.g. forte ludebam quum, dc.; quondam ludebam ; aliquando lusi; semel lusi.

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9. “No, where meaning ‘not,' and in expressions No, not, like ‘no sun, no moon,' will often be translated by non, not by nullus. On the other hand nullus is occasionally found in the sense of 'not at all,' e.g. is non modo nullus venit sed, &c. Nullus with ablative is used for

nullus.

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'without,' e. g. nullo ordine, cf. (13) 17, without the cum that usually marks attendant circumstance. Cf. § 50, and Madv. $ 257. Cf. 2, 23; 11, 10; (22) 2; (53) 14.

8. So tell' may have to be translated by dicere, nuntiare, scribere, jubere, certiorem facere; ever' by unquam, semper, aliquando, quando; "as' by quum, ut, sicut, quam, &c.

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‘May,' $ 49. Care must be taken to distinguish between 'might, &c. as auxili- 'might,' 'would,''could,' should,' used as auxiliaries in aries, and muin verbs. subjunctive clauses, and the same used as perfects of

'may,' 'will,' 'can,' 'shall.' These (like 'ought from ‘owe') are coupled with a past or perfect subordinate tense in English (necessary only because their own past or perfect sense has got obscured), e.g. might, &c., have done, have been doing; but in Latin the present must be used: licuit, voluit, potuit, debuit (debebat, debuerat, &c.) facere.

Cf. 12, 2, 15, 19; 26, 38; 32, 5; (37) 10; 37, 33; (45) 16;

48, 21.

The Latin perfect infinitive is sometimes used after these verbs to mark a completed action, but never to mark the past time of the power or duty, &c., of doing it, as in English ; e.g. potuerat fecisse, ‘he might have done it already Similarly 'may,' 'will," "shall,' are

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not always auxiliaries, but main verbs with an infinitive following.

Such words vary in meaning according to their accent, and may have to be expressed as above by posse, &c.,

or by the fut. in rus; by the gerund; statuo; opus est, &c. 'Must,' ‘Must,' like 'ought,' is properly a past tense, but is 'would,' &c.

used in a present and future sense, as 'ought' also.

"Would' is also used in a frequentative sense, e.g. he would often say,' solebat dicere, dicebat. The con

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