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ditional use of 'would,' should,' must be carefully distinguished from their use as futures; e. g. veniret si posset; dixit se venturum.

Where the above are used as auxiliaries to mark the subjunctive mood it is due to their future' meaning, and the quasi-future sense of subjunctive conceptions.

$ 50. a. Before translating English prepositions para- Preposi

tions. phrase their meaning; sometimes the substantive will disappear; if not, distinguish first the case to which the idea belongs (accusative of motion, limitation, extension, &c., dative of recipient, &c., ablative of manner, cause, &c.), and then, if necessary, prefix the preposition most suitable.

E.g. of' may be translated by the simple genitive of origin, possession, quality, part, without preposition; by the ablative of quality, of locality, of subject, of material, of distance; vir magna virtute, Turnus (ex) ab Aricia, de te, (e) saxo murus : intra mille passuum ab hoste aberant.

"From' may mean source (ex); beginning, distance, departure, absence (ab); sequence, time (ab, ex); cause, ex, prae, with ablative, or ob, propter, with accusative. Sometimes a possessive pronoun may be used, sine tuis litteris, ‘letters from you.'

"With' may mean the manner, instrument (vi, gladio, percussus); quality (senex promissa barba) of the simple ablative; or the attendant circumstance (or person), generally requiring cum with the ablative, e.g. tecum, cum gaudio, but also magno studio, see Madv. & 257; also at the house of,' apud.

• Without' is sometimes expressed by absque, sine; by nullus, § 48 y; by adj., or verb, expers, careo, vaco, &c.; by phrase, as in § 33.

• For’may mean the simple dative of recipient or advantage, &c.; the simple ablative or genitive of price, Quanti emptum ? tribus assibus; or the objective genitive, e. g. amor patris; or the simple accusative of duration of time, without or with in (tres menses, in aevum); or the ablative of amount of time, e. g. novem annis, cf. 37, 53; or the ablative (originally local) with pro, pro te; or 'as,' 'in place of'=vice, pro, e.g. vice consulis, pro praetore; or purpose, tendency, destination (in or ad with accusative); or causa, &c. with

either substantival or adjectival: millia is declinable and substantival ; e.g. duo millia hostium caesa.

Cf. 16, 7, 15, 28; 17, 27; 24, 7, 24; 26, 7; 33, 21; 37, 53 ; 39, 21.

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Distributive.

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B. Distributive numerals, singuli, bini, septeni, &c., mean ‘1, 2, 7 a-piece;' except when joined with plural noun-forms of singular meaning, when they give simply a plural meaning, binae litterae, trina castra; but unae litterae, not singulae. In compound numerals, as ter deni, vicies centena, they are used without a distributive sense.

These distributives may be used to translate percentage; e.g. terni in millia aeris. Livy xxxix. 44.

But per-centage of interest on money is expressed as
a fraction of the principal.
E.g. unciarium fenus = 1! (per year of 10 months),

i.e. 83 per cent.
Usurae centesimae = ido per month = 12
So binae centesimae = 24 per cent.

Usurae quincunces = of the centesimae, i.e.

2 per cent.

5 per cent.

Usurae deunces = 11

per

cent. Cf. 1,5; 10, 12; 29, 2; 43, 17.

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Particles 7. Amplius, plus, minus may be prefixed to numerals qualifying numerals (whatever case they are in or are joined with), quam being

omitted ; e.g. umbram non amplius viu pedes longam. Similarly we find (Livy XXXVIII. 38) obsides ne minores octonum denum annorum neu maiores quinum quadragenum; quam being omitted.

Under thirty' may be translated by minus triginta annos natus, minor triginta annis, minor triginta annos natus, minor triginta annorum.

Ad (about) is found prefixed to numerals with all cases adverbially, ad duo millia et trecenti occisi, Liv. X. 17; but not in Cicero. The following are also found added

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or prefixed to numerals; admodum, "about,' or 'quite;' ipse, “exactly; numero, 'in all,' or unexpressed in English; minimum, quum minimum, at least;' and maxime, fere, &c.

tives.

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8. Multiplicatives (duplex, triplex, dc.) are used Multiplicawith quam; pars mea duplex quam tua; forms in -plus are also used, quadruplus, duplus, and their neuters as substantives. But generally (sex) partibus major, minor, is found for our .(six) times as great ;' e.g. sol amplius duodeviginti partibus maior quam terra (Cic. Acad.); duabus partibus or (duplo) amplius (Cic. Verr.); ‘18 times greater or as great,''twice as much;' where notice, that the xviii partibus is the full measure of the thing that exceeds, not of the excess as might have been expected. This may be compared with their inclusive method of reckoning

Fractions are expressed by use of the 12 divisions Fractions. ; of the as (especially for land, inheritance, interest); or of the numerals (cardinal, ordinal, and distributive) with partes or pars. Often the fraction is split into two. Heres ex besse (), ex deunce et semuncia GX); duae partes (*), tres partes (?) (as in Greek); or duae tertiae (), tres septimae (*); tres cum semisse, 31; tertia pars et octava paulo amplius, "a little more than ths.'

Cf. 17, 21; 20, 19,

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time.

& Though momentum (like punctum and articulus) Fractions of is used for a small portion of time (horae momento nullo, momentis horarum, Plin. N. H. vii. 161, 172; momento temporis, Liv. XXI. 33; parvo momento, Caes.), yet our divisions of the hour were unknown to the Romans, and must be expressed by fractions, as in the following (mainly taken from Pliny N. H.); dimidia hora; dodrans horae; quintae partes horae tres ; bis quinta pars horae ;

ERRATA.

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Read in Sect. (14) 7, whos undertook27

(14) 20, useless22 ; 18, 8, caesisque
22, 16, decentior24;

22, 29, moderate 36
22, 30, maior24; (25) 22, wearied20
26, 24, processerat; (26) 47, my27
(26) 54, with50; (26) 62, with 50
(30) 3, 117 have; 36, 16, infractu832
36, 21, praecipientem31; 36, 26, cogitaveris27
(37) 22, Will49; 37, 40, dicam 31
(37) 32, to31; (38) 33, may49
39, 13, sani20; (39) 19, 47, and

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40, 22, Ita47

NOTE:-In the case of references to $ 9, refer also to $5, which covers much common ground.

PARALLEL EXTRACTS.

PART 1.

HISTORICAL AND EPISTOLARY.

C. Plinius Fusco Suo S.-Quaeris quemadmodum in secessu, quo jam diu frueris, putem te studere oportere. Utile in primis, et multi praecipiunt, vel ex Graeco in Latinum vel ex Latino vertere in Graecum : quo genere exercitationis proprietas splendorque verborum, copia figurarum, vis explicandi, paratur: simul quae legentem fefellissent transferentem fugere non possunt. Intellegentia ex hoc et judicium adquiritur. Nihil offuerit quae legeris hactenus ut rem argumentumque teneas quasi aemulum scribere lectisque conferre, ac sedulo pensitare quid tu, quid ille commodius. Poteris et quae dixeris post oblivionem retractare, multa retinere, plura transire, alia interseribere, alia rescribere. Laboriosum istud et taedio plenum sed difficultate ipsa fructuosum, recalescere ex integro et resumere impetum fractum omissumque, postremo nova velut membra peracto corpori intexere nec tamen priora turbare. Scio nunc tibi esse praecipuum studium orandi ; sed non ideo semper pugnacem hunc et quasi bellatorium stilum suaserim. Ut enim terrae variis mutatisque seminibus, ita ingenia nostra nunc hac nunc illa meditatione recoluntur. Volo interdum aliquem ex historia locum adprehendas, volo epistulam diligentius scribas. Nam saepe in orationes quoque non historica modo sed prope poëtica descriptionum necessitas incidit, et pressus sermo purusque ex epistulis petitur. Habes plura etiam fortasse quam requirebas, unum tamen omisi; non enim dixi quae legenda arbitrarer: quamquam dixi, cum dicerem quae scribenda. Tu memineris sui cujusque generis auctores diligenter eligere. Aiunt enim multum legendum esse, non multa. Qui sint hi adeo notum probatumque est ut demonstratione non egeat; et alioqui tam immodice epistulam extendi ut, dum tibi quemadmodum studere debeas suadeo, studendi tempus abstulerim. Quin ergo pugillares resumis et aliquid ex his vel istud ipsum quod coeperas scribis ? Vale.

Puiny.

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