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the words of consecration. Q. What influence have these words ? A. The bread is changed into the body, and the wine is changed into the blood of our Lord. Q. Does nothing of the bread and wine remain ? A. Nothing of them remains, except the forms. Q. What do you call the forms of the bread and wine ? A. That which appears to our senses as colour, figure, and taste. Q. Is there nothing under the form of bread, except the body of our Lord ? A. Besides his body, there is his blood, his soul, and his divinity, because all these are inseparable. Q. And under the form of wine ? A. Jesus Christ is there as entire, as under the form of the bread. Q. When the forms of the bread and wine are divided, is Jesus Christ divided ? A. No, Jesus Christ remains entire under each part of the form divided. Q. Say, in a word, what Jesus Christ gives us under each form? A. All that he is, that is, perfect God and perfect man. Q. Does Jesus Christ leave heaven to come into the eucharist ? A. No, he always continues at the right hand of God his Father, till he shall come at the end of the world with great glory, to judge the living and the dead. Q. Then how can he be present at the altar ? A. By the almighty power of God. Q. Then it is not man that works this miracle ? A. No, it is Jesus Christ, whose word is employed in the sacrament. Q. Then it is Jesus Christ who consecrates ? A. It is Jesus Christ who consecrates : the priest is only his minister. Q. Must we worship the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the eucharist ? A. Yes, undoubtedly: for this body and this blood are inseparably united to his divinity.
To shew that this is consistent with the canon of the mass, I shall translate the consecration prayer, from the Roman Missal. When the priest receives the bread and wine he thus prays, making the sign of the cross where this mark $ appears :-We beseech thee, O God, to render this oblation in all things, blessted, approvšed, effectfual, reasonable, and acceptable, that it may be made to us the body and blood of thy most beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who, the day before he suffered, took bread into his sacred and venerable hands, and having lifted up his eyes to thee, O God the Father
Almighty, and giving thanks to thee, blessied, brake, and gave it to his disciples, saying, take and eat ye all of this, for this is my body, (Hoc est enim corpus meum.) [Then the priest adores and elevates the consecrated host.] In like manner after he had supped, taking also this excellent chalice into his sacred and venerable hands, giving thee also thanks, he blessted and gave it to his disciples, saying, take and drink ye all of this, for this is the chalice of my blood, (Hic est enim calix sanguinis mei,) of the new and eternal testament, the mystery of faith which shall be shed for you, and for many, for the remission of sins ; as oft as ye shall do these things, ye shall do them in remembrance of me.” (Here the chalice is elevated and adored, and the Lord is besought to command his angel to carry these offerings into the presence of his Divine Majesty.) About 1218, Pope Honorius III. ordered kneeling at the elevation of the host-order of the mass, vol. I. page xxiv. &c.*
* For the above extract, and other valuable matter, the reader is referred to Dr. Adam Clarke's learned discourse on the Nature and Design of the Eucharist.
In Luke, chap. xxii, we find our Lord taking the cup, v. 17, and again v. 20. By the former of which was probably meant the cup of blessing which the master of a family took, and after blessing God, gave to each of his guests, by way of welcome, but his second taking of the cup, after the paschal solemnity, is to be understood as belonging peculiarly to the very important rite, which he was now instituting, and on which he lays a very remarkable stress.
With respect to the bread, Christ had before said, take, eat, this is my body: but concerning the
ye this, for as this pointed out the very essence of the institution, the blood poured out, that is the life, by which alone the great sacrificial act was performed, and remission of sins procured, it was absolutely necessary, that each should have a particular application of it, therefore he says, drink ye all of this. By this we are taught, that the cup is essential to the sacrament of the Lord's supper, so that they who deny the cup to the people, sin against God's institution, and they who receive not the cup are
not partakers of the body and blood of Christ. *
* It was the ancient custom, of the Roman church, for the communicants to make an oblation of the bread and wine, at the altar, of which they were afterwards to partake. This appears from the sacramentary of St. Gregory, published by Pamelius, where it is said, while the offertory is singing, that is, the anthem, the oblations are made by the people, and laid upon the altar, that they might be consecrated. And the Ordo Romanus declares these oblations to be the bread and wine : of which it adds, that the archdeacon took as much and laid upon the altar, as would be sufficient for the people who were to communicate. These oblations continued in the church for a long period, and were enforced by canons and constitutions, till the people began to be remiss in their devotions; upon which the church of Rome introduced the use of wafers. Vid. Lit. Lat. Tom ii. P. 178. Cassand. Liturg. Ch. xxvii, Concil. Matif. Ch. I.
The council of Constance, which prohibited the sacramental cup to the laity, indeed, confesses that the institution of Christ was under both kinds, “Licet Christus, although Christ, after his supper, instituted and administered this venerable sacrament, under both kinds-although in the primitive church this sacrament was receive ed by the faithful under both kinds,"'--non obstante, &c. Yet, notwithstanding all this, this custom for the avoiding of scandals, was upon just reasons brought in, that Laics should receive only under one kind. Brought in therefore it was, and is one of those doctrines which