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not subscribed E. S. J. The fame and apprehension of their extraordinary-learning, and the arts they have to recommend it, have made their order the choice of most princes and men of quality of that religion for the education of their children; in whom they have carefully instilled, with their instructions and principles, that peculiar respect to their own society, which bath' greatly served to the advancement of it, when they have grown to age and power.
But that which above all other stratagems hath prevailed to extend their dominion in the Roman church, has been their erecting of schools, where they have colleges, for the
free education of youth' the very doing of it gratis makes it look like charity with the poor, that have little to give; and with the rich, that seldom love to part with money, to be sure it is no objection. Thus obliging the parents, they next fall to making themselves grateful with the children : and here they exercise not a little skill. They strictly survey and observe the divers humours and dispositions of their scholars, and take great care not to baulk their capacity by cross or unsuitable studies : but when once they are fixed, every youth, according to his genius, it is not easy to be believed what pains they take to allure them to their studies ; how they will tempt them with childish rewards, and excite them to their book by raising an emulation among them: so that to excel, is more than a rod; and victory, than any chastisement whatever. By these arts they fit all capacities with suitable study, and cultivate them to the pitch of learning they are capable of; and all with that obligation upon the youth to love them, that from thenceforward they become partial devotees to the advancement of the honour and interest of that order. To conclude, they bave got into their lands the education of the generality of the youth of the Romish religion in every country, from the king to the peasant; and being masters of them when boys, they grow governors and confessors to them when they are men; so that all seem to have fallen into their hands; and being but one entire interest throughout the world, and maintaining a most punctual correspondence, they must needs have the knowledge and disposal of the affairs of states and kingdoms, by that share they have in the counsels of princes, and that great reliance that is upon their judgment and ability. This, if we regard only the Romish religion, sbows great wit, design, and industry: but if we consider well how formidable these arts render them to protestant kingdoms, it will become us to use our utmost prudence to secure ourselves. And there seems not to me a more effectual remedy, than a wise and virtuous education
of our youth. In order to it, let us use methods not inferior to theirs, but for better ends : let us employ our skill to improve the children's natural abilities, to excite them to virtue, and endear the truest interest of their own country to them. I will briefly set down what at present occurs to me, as a good way of education.
I. Let care be taken to breed up youth in morality :' virtue prepares the mind, helps the understanding, and gives industry to compass what is desired. I would have no books used in schools, in which there may be the least indecency. There were, and not without reason, ancient canons against the reading of such heathen authors; and not a few learned and sober men have rebuked that practice amongst us. It is an affront to Christianity, yea, to our natures, to fetch our wit, or our manners from them. It were well if some tracts of moral virtues, and invectives against vice, were written in those languages we would have youth to learn; for in such discourses they might obtain good manners with the languages ; whereas by preferring in schools heathen authors, our youth has learned base obscenities, and a corrupt conversation.
11. In the next place, I would propose some of the more obvious and easier parts of the mathematics, and the knowledge of plants and natural bodies, to be composed on purpose, after a familiar manner, that they may be instructed in the knowledge of nature, and learn things, at the same time they learn words : it is a most reprovable ignorance, that we know not our own natures, the world we are of and in, the parts that compose it, and their nature and service, their sympathies and antipathies. Nature is an excellent book, easy, useful, pleasant and profitable ; but how few, alas! are learned either in the macrocosm, or their microcosm? I wish this were better understood, it would be both our honour and our advantage.
JII. The last sort of books which I would recommend, and are, in my opinion, most suitable to their maturity of age and understanding, are such as relate to the histories and transactions of our own kingdoms; the interest of the true protestant religion and civil policy among us. But because there are very few (if any) of these discourses extant, it were worth the care of our superiors, and an act deserving praise, that some skilful, sober, and judicious men were set to work for the composure of some small tracts of this nature; and, as an appendix to the whole, that there might be a summary of the most virtuous and infamous actions of former times, with the rewards and punishments they have received from God and just government; that, by the power of example, they may be deterred from vice, and provoked to an honest emulation of the virtues and reputation of the ancients,
IV. In the fourth place, cross not the genius of your youth, but match their talents well; for if you do not suit their studies to their understanding, it will be drawing up hill, going against the grain, or swimming against the tide : that which will be gained, will be little ; and with so much labour and time too, as will not quit cost. it should be greatly the care of those who have the charge of youth, to make the ways of learning easy and cheerful, which leadeth me to my last observation upon this head.
V. Let all honest arts be used by masters of schools to provoke their youth to learning, without much fierceness or beating : for that sort of education has nothing of that free and generous disposition in it, which might be raised and improved in youth by more gentle and reasonable methods. They that are taught to obey only for base fear, make fear, and not reason, the rule of their obedience ; and this grows up in too many with their age, that they turn mere mercenaries, and only worship violence. In short, make instruction easy, correction reasonable : convince them of their mis. carriage with mildness, then pardon them; and, finally, excite them to amendment by smiles and favour. This awakens the noble part, and excites youth to perform that, which may ingratiate them with their tutors; who, if they at any time commit an error, should rather show themselves affectionately sorry for them, than bitterly angry. Plato, being greatly displeased with his servant, and going about to correct him, gave the wand to one tbat stood by, saying, • Do thou beat him, for I am angry.' Chastisement should be used with reason and reluctancy: a discreet and cool hand may direct the blow right, and hit the mark, when men of fury rather ease their passion, than mend their youth ; especially, if the correction exceed the fault; for that hardens. I'his very brutishness is more injurious to the nature of our youth, than usually their instruction is beneficial.
Upon the whole matter, I take the freedom to say, that if we would preserve our government, we must endear it to the people. To do this, besides the necessity of present just and wise things, we must secure the youth": and this is not to be done, but by the amendment of the way of their education, and that with all conceivable speed and diligence. I say, the government is highly obliged: it is a sort of trustee for the youth of the kingdom, who, though now mibors, yet will have the government when we are gone. Therefore depress vice, and cherish virtue, that, through good education, they may become good ; which will truly render them happy in this world, and a good way fitted for that which is to come. If this be done, they will owe more to your memories for their education, than for their estates.
Sect. X. of the third and last Motive for this Address. My third and last reason for this serious supplication to the civil magistrate is so great, that I find difficulty to express it: it is the glory of that God that made us; that hath so often delivered us, and doth so plentifully provide for us; who " sent his Son into the world to save us, and waits every day to be good and gracious to us. But he hath so particularly, and with that transcendancy, set the marks of his favour upon you, both in your restoration and protection, as scarce any age can parallel. O! let a steady virtue be the return of these mercies, and a pious care to retrieve and encourage morality, which is the very basis of our religion and government, be the humble token of your gratitude : it is your office ; you do but comply with the reason of your own institution :' God expects it, and good men beseech it from you. There is much in your power at this time, to make this the island of peace and lasting tranquillity. Lose not, I beseech you, the present opportunity: revive the laws against these gross iniquities: terrify all evil-doers, and cherish them that do well: provide for the poor, that their stock may not be abused, nor their cries pierce heaven against you, because of neglect: that God may yet vouchsafe to spare us.
“ Your sins,” said God of old, “ have withheld good things from you : it is righteousness that exalts a nation ; but sin is the reproach of any people.” Would ye prosper? then please God; and if ye will please him, ye must put away the wicked from amongst you , at least from power, and offices in the government: they that would rule others, should be just themselves, and of good lives. It was both his complaint, and the cause of his judgment, in former ages
66 There are found wicked men among my people; they lay wait, as he that setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch men : as a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit: therefore they are become great, and waxen rich; they are waxen fat, they shine. They overpass (or overlook) the deeds of the wicked; they judge not the cause of the fatherless ; yet they prosper.” These were no small folk, but men of power; such as got largely by the govern
ment, and employed their authority to enrich themselves, and not to relieve the oppressed. I must needs say, and can with great truth, that misgovernment is the occasion, though the devil be the cause, of that mischief and ruin that attend nations. - What kingdoms hath God destroyed, and cities turned into rubbish, because of national evils; too much occasioned by the remissness of magistrates? The slack hand that the rulers of Israel held over the manners of that unhappy people, made way for their unsubjected passions and corrupt affections to break out into the vilest impieties; but if men shall be left to their own licentiousness, to commit sin with greediness, and with impunity despise the laws of God and men, all I can say is this: God, who is jealous of his glory, the great avenger of his law upon rebellious nations, will withhold his mercies, and hasten his judgments upon ours.
“ Hear the word of the Lord,” saith the prophet Hosea, *
ye children of Israel; for the Lord hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land: by swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood touches blood ; therefore shall the land mourn." And by the prophet Malachi God threatens that people thus :t "I will come near to you, and I will be a swift witness against sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and such as fear not me, saith the Lord of hosts.” Yea, to that degree was that magistracy degenerated, that they thought it a vain thing to serve God, and keep his commandments. They called the proud happy; yea, they that worked wickedness were set up, they were advanced to places of honour and trust, and they that tempted God, were delivered: but the word of the Lord was unto them a reproach; they had no delight in it: they made a mock at sin, laid snares for the innocent, and (like us) made men offenders for a word,' for a good word, a word of reproof, or an harmless opinion. Well, but what followed ? ' “ Shall I not visit for these things, saith the Lord, shall not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this?” O that magistrates would hear this! God as truly speaks to us by the scripture now, as he did by them that writ it then to the jews. "Truly, it is our very case; the same impieties are daily found amongst us : certainly God is offended, his spirit grieved, and heaven is set against us. For the Lord's sake do your duty in this present conjuncture, and mistake not your measures : let every thing have its due weight and place with you; that is the way to succeed. Ye are now warnıly concerned in the dis* Hosca iv. 1, 2, 3.
+ Mal, iii. 5.