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Of Jealousy.

190. The jealous are troublesome to others, but a torment to themselves.

191. Jealousy is a kind of civil war in the soul, where judgment and imagination are at perpetual jars.

192. This civil dissention in the mind, like that of the body politic, commits great disorders, and lays all waste.

193. Nothing stands safe in its way; nature, interest, religion, must yield to its fury.

194. It violates contracts, dissolves society, breaks wedlock, betrays friends and neighbours: no body is good, and every one is either doing or designing them a mischief.

195. It has a venom, that more or less wrankles whereever it bites: and as it reports fancies for facts, so it disturbs its own house as often as other folks'.

196. Its rise is guilt or ill-nature; and by reflection it thinks its own faults to be other men's, as he that is overrun with the jaundice takes others to be yellow.

197. A jealous man only sees his own spectrum, when he looks upon other men, and gives his character in theirs.

Of State.

198. I love service, but not state: one is useful, the other superfluous.

199. The trouble of this, as well as charge, is real; but the advantage only imaginary.

200. Besides, it helps to set us up above ourselves, and augments our temptation to disorder.

201. The least thing out of joint, or omitted, makes us uneasy; and we are ready to think ourselves ill served, about that which is of no real service at all: or so much better than other men, as we have the means of greater state.

202. But this is all for want of wisdom, which carries the truest and most forcible state along with it.

203. He that makes not himself cheap by indiscreet conversation, puts value enough upon himself everywhere. 204. The other is rather pageantry than state.

Of a good Servant.

205. A true and a good servant are the same thing. 206. But no servant is true to his master, that defrauds him.

207. Now there are many ways of defrauding a master, as, of time, care, pains, respect, and reputation, as well as money.

208. He that neglects his work, robs his master, since he is fed and paid as if he did his best: and he that is not as

diligent in the absence, as in the presence of his master, cannot be a true servant,

209. Nor is he a true servant, that buys dear to share in the profit with the seller.

210. Nor yet he that tells tales without-doors; or deals basely, in his master's name, with other people; or connives at others' loiterings, wastings, or dishonourable reflections.

211. So that a true servant is diligent, secret, and respectful: more tender of his master's honour and interest, than of his own profit.

212. Such a servant deserves well; and, if modest under his merit, should liberally feel it at his master's hand.

Of an Immoderate Pursuit of the World.

213. It shows a depraved state of mind, to cark and care for that which one does not need.

214. Some are as eager to be rich, as ever they were to live for superfluity as for subsistence.


215. But that plenty should augment covetousness, is a perversion of providence: and yet the generality are the worse for their riches.

216. But it is strange, that old men should excel: for generally money lies nearest them, that are nearest their graves as if they would augment their love, in proportion to the little time they have left to enjoy it: and yet their pleasure is without enjoyment, since none enjoy what they do not use.

217. So that instead of learning to leave their great wealth easily, they hold the faster, because they must leave it so sordid is the temper of some men.


218. Where charity keeps pace with gain, industry is blessed but to slave to get, and keep it sordidly, is a sin against providence, a vice in government, and an injury to their neighbours.

219. Such are they as spend not one-fifth of their income; and, it may be, give not one-tenth of what they spend to the needy.

220. This is the worst sort of idolatry, because there can be no religion in it, nor ignorance pleaded in excuse of it; and that it wrongs other folks, that ought to have a share therein.

Of the Interest of the Public in our Estates.

221. Hardly any thing is given us for ourselves, but the public may claim a share with us. But of all we call ours, we are most accountable to God, and the public, for our

estates in this we are but stewards; and to hoard up all to ourselves, is great injustice, as well as ingratitude.

222. If all men were so far tenants to the public, that the superfluities of gain and expense were applied to the exigencies thereof, it would put an end to taxes, leave never a beggar, and make the greatest bank for national trade in Europe.

223. It is a judgment upon us, as well as weakness, though we will not see it, to begin at the wrong end.

224. If the taxes we give are not to maintain pride, I am sure there would be less, if pride were made a tax to the government.

225. I confess I have wondered that so many lawful and useful things are excised by laws, and pride left to reign free over them and the public.

226. But since people are more afraid of the laws of man than of God, because their punishment seems to be nearest; I know not how magistrates can be excused in their suffering such excess with impunity.

227. Our noble English patriarchs, as well as patriots, were so sensible of this evil, that they made several excellent laws, commonly called sumptuary, to forbid, at least limit, the pride of the people; which because the execution of them would be our interest and honour, their neglect must be our just reproach and loss.

228. It is but reasonable that the punishment of pride and excess should help to support the government; since it must otherwise inevitably be ruined by them.


229. But some say, it ruins trade, and will make the poor burdensome to the public:' but if such trade, in consequence, ruins the kingdom, is it not time to ruin that trade? Is moderation no part of our duty, and temperance an enemy to government?

230. He is a Judas, that will get money by any thing. 231. To wink at a trade that effeminates the people, and invades the ancient discipline of the kingdom, is a crime capital, and to be severely punished, instead of being excused, by the magistrate.

232. Is there no better employment for the poor than luxury? Miserable nation!

233. What did they, before they fell into these forbidden methods? Is there not land enough in England to cultivate, and more and better manufactures to be made?

234. Have we no room for them in our plantations, about things that may augment trade, without luxury?

235. In short, let pride pay, and excess be well excised: and if that will not cure the people, it will help to keep the kingdom.

The Vain Man

236. But a vain man is a nauseous creature: he is so full of himself, that he has no room for any thing else, be it ever so good or deserving.

237. It is I, at every turn, that does this, or can do that. And as he abounds in his comparisons, so he is sure to give himself the better of every body else; according to the proverb, All his geese are swans.

238. They are certainly to be pitied, that can be so much mistaken at home.

239. And yet I have sometimes thought, that such people are, in a sort, happy, that nothing can put out of countenance with themselves, though they neither have, nor merit, other people's.

240. But, at the same time, one would wonder they should not feel the blows they give themselves, or get from others, for this intolerable and ridiculous temper, nor show any concern at that, which makes others blush for, as well as at, them; viz. their unreasonable assurance.

241. To be a man's own fool is bad enough; but the vain man is every body's.

242. This silly disposition comes of a mixture of ignorance, confidence, and pride: and as there is more or less of the last, so it is more or less offensive, or entertaining.

243. And yet, perhaps, the worst part of this vanity is its unteachableness. Tell it any thing, and it has known it long ago; and out-runs information and instruction, or else proudly puffs at it.

244. Whereas the greatest understandings doubt most, are readiest to learn, and least pleased with themselves; this, with no body else.

245. For though they stand on higher ground, and so see farther than their neighbours, they are yet humbled by their prospect, since it shows them something so much higher, and above their reach.

246. And truly then it is, that sense shines with the greatest beauty, when it is set in humility.

247. An humble able man, is a jewel worth a kingdom: it is often saved by him, as Solomon's poor wise man did the city.

248. May we have more of them, or less need of them! The Conformist.

249. It is reasonable to concur, where conscience does not forbid a compliance; for conformity is at least a civil virtue. 250. But we should only press it in necessaries; the rest may prove a snare or temptation to break society.

251. But, above all, it is a weakness in religion and government, where it is carried to things of an indifferent nature; since besides that it makes way for scruples, liberty is always the price of it.

252. Such conformists have little to boast of, and therefore the less reason to reproach others, that have more latitude.

253. And yet the latitudinarian that I love, is one that is only so in charity: for the freedom I recommend is no scepticism in judgment, and much less so in practice.

The Obligation of Great Men to Almighty God.

254. It seems but reasonable that those whom God has distinguished from others by his goodness, should distinguish themselves to him by their gratitude.

255. For though he has made of one blood all nations, he has not ranged or dignified them upon the level, but in a sort of subordination and dependency.

256. If we look upwards, we find it in the heavens, where the planets have their several degrees of glory; and so the other stars, of magnitude and lustre.

257. If we look upon the earth, we see it among the trees of the wood, from the cedar to the bramble; among the fishes, from the leviathan to the sprat; in the air, among the birds, from the eagle to the sparrow; among the beasts, from the lion to the cat; and among mankind, from the king to the scavenger.

258. Our great men, doubtless, were designed, by the wise framer of the world, for our religious, moral, and politic talents, for lights and directions to the lower ranks of the numerous company of their own kind, both in precepts and examples; and they were well paid for their pains too, who have the honour and service of their fellow-creatures, and the marrow and fat of the earth, for their share.

259. But is it not a most unaccountable folly, that men should be proud of the providences, that should humble them? Or think the better of themselves, instead of Him that raised them so much above the level; or of being so in their lives, in return of his extraordinary favours.

260. But it is but too near a-kin to us, to think no farther than ourselves, either in the acquisition, or use, of our wealth and greatness: when, alas! they are the preferments of heaven, to try our wisdom, bounty, and gratitude.

261. It is a dangerous perversion of the end of providence, to consume the time, power, and wealth he has given us above other men, to gratify our sordid passions, instead of

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