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thetical results, it is sufficient for our present purpose to remark, that the establishment of manufactures, instead of withdrawing capital from land, has a direct tendency to extend and encourage agricultural industry. In one respect indeed this cause might produce, if not an actual diversion, at least a change in the direction, of a part of the capital and labor employed in agriculture, and that is, by checking in some degree the emigration from the settled to the unsettled portions of the country, and concentrating the population on a smaller extent of surface. In proportion as manufacturing establishments are extended in the older states, which must of course be their seat, and give employment to a large number of persons, many of the inhabitants of those states who would otherwise have emigrated to the West will be taken up by them. The native of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, or Connecticut, who finds a profitable market for his labor in a manufactory at his door, will feel but little temptation to seek a better, on the banks of the Wabash or Missouri. In this way the hardy and generous progeny of New England, who have been so long in the habit of swarming off annually into all parts of the Union, will begin at length to settle round the parent hive, and reserve for the profit and glory of their own rocky region the high talents and manly virtues which have so often shone like rich jewels on the brow of strangers. This increase of manufacturing population in New England and the other Atlantic states, by creating an increased demand for the provisions of the middle and western country, and the raw materials of the southern, will render it in turn more advantageous to the latter to extend their agricultural industry at home than to send off new colonies into the wilderness. Thus the tide of emigration, without being wholly dammed up, will be considerably checked throughout all the settled parts of the Union, and the population of them will begin to put on a more consolidated shape. This result, which does not appear to have attracted the attention of the Reviewer, although it amounts in fact, as we have intimated, to a change in the direction of a part of the agricultural labor of the country, and perhaps a transfer of some of it to manufactures, not only furnishes no objection to the encouragement of this branch of industry, but is itself a strong argument in favor of such a policy. We say not this because we feel any jealousy of the prosperous condition of the western states. Far from envying, we admire and glory in the rapid progress of their

wealth, population, and general prosperity. We consider their progress in all these respects as affording a spectacle unparalleled for moral magnificence by anything to be met with in the annals of the world. But we are nevertheless satisfied, that the time has now arrived, when a part of that swelling tide of increase which has hitherto poured out its exuberance upon the unsettled regions on the outskirts of the Union, might be turned to better account in extending the cultivation of the arts and raising the standard of civilization in the older settlements. The precise distinction between a civilized and a barbarous community lies in the greater or less extent to which they respectively cultivate the fine and useful arts; and as we have shown already, that a region situated like the interior of the United States can never be sufficiently supplied with their products from abroad, it follows, that while the population devote themselves exclusively to agriculture, and, as fast as they increase, continue to spread themselves more and more widely over the unlimited regions which are accessible to them, they must live in a considerable degree without the knowledge of these products, and will be in continual danger of sinking into a lower state of civilization. This result has hitherto been in a great measure counteracted in the United States by the operation of powerful moral and political causes of an accidental kind. The originally excellent character of the settlers, their industrious habits, and the high tone of patriotic sentiment which has always pervaded the whole western population, have hitherto maintained them at a point of civilization, which, considering their circumstances, is hardly less wonderful than the rapidity of their progress in wealth and greatness. But the only way in which the advances they have already made can be secured, and a solid foundation laid for the fabric of social improvement, is by naturalizing on the spot the cultivation of the useful arts; and as far as the protecting policy may have the effect of diverting into this channel any portion of the labor and capital of the country from the business of clearing wild land on the borders of the Union, it will work, in our opinion, a material change for the better.

The population, by thus putting on a more condensed form, would be at once more comfortably situated, as respects the enjoyments of life, and greatly improved in its intellectual and moral habits. The complaint that manufactures have an injurious effect on the morals of the people, has

become, we imagine, nearly obsolete, and was obviously founded on a view of the subject not only false in itself, but directly the reverse of the true one. The objection furnishes indeed a very curious example of the power of names. If those who make it were asked what opinion they entertain of the moral tendency of the cultivation of the fine and useful arts (the same thing under another name), they would probably reply without hesitation, that they deem it exceedingly beneficial. Such at least must be the answer of all who are not prepared to maintain, with the crazy sophist of Geneva, that the savage state is the one in which our nature attains its perfection, and displays itself in all its glory. The truth undoubtedly is, that labor, under whatever form, is the direct source and only real security of good morals; and it must of course be taken for granted that the principle holds of manufacturing labor, as of every other, at least until the contrary be proved. The sentimental effusions of Mr Southey in his 'Espriella's Letters' respecting the forlorn state of the workmen in some of the British manufactories, which form, we believe, the only argument that has yet been adduced for this purpose, are not in our opinion entitled to a serious refutation, and are alluded to with contempt by the Reviewer himself.

It is somewhat curious to remark, while on this subject, the change which seems to have taken place in the language of our transatlantic critics respecting the present state of civilization in the interior of the United States. Hitherto, reversing the maxim of the Latin poet which forbids us to notice a few chance spots in a generally brilliant picture, they have habitually overlooked the grand and striking features in the situation of the country, and fastened their whole attention upon some petty blemishes which may be detected by a scrutinizing eye in particular parts. From quarter to quarter we have been entertained by the London Reviewers with the continual repetition of a few isolated anecdotes which were supposed to prove beyond dispute the ignorance, grossness, and ferocity of the population of the West. The Edinburgh censors, in a style, it is true, somewhat less coarse than that of their courtly brethren of the south, have been equally ready to indulge, in their own way, in a gentle sneer at the manner in which the decencies of life are observed in the back settlements. Now adinitting that this perpetual strain of calumny, instead of being, as it is in the main, completely gratuitous, had a reasonable foundation in VOL. XXX.—No. 66.


fact, what would it prove? Why, that the interior of the United States is at present deficient in the cultivation of the fine and useful arts. But this deficiency is felt, though not under the form indicated by these foreign calumniators, by the population of that region, and they are making great efforts to supply it, and to obtain for this purpose the assistance of government. Such efforts we should naturally suppose would have been looked upon with an eye of favor by our critics, and it might perhaps have been expected that they would have triumphed a little in what they might have regarded as a partial confirmation of the truth of their strictures. Instead of this, the very same writers who have been heaping upon us every term of obloquy which the language would afford, for our supposed neglect of the arts, now assail us with fresh volleys of abuse and sarcasm for endeavoring to introduce and encourage them. It is quite amusing to find how they have become. suddenly enlightened in regard to the present situation of the interior of the country by the attempts that are making to improve it. It is no longer, as before, the haunt of gougers, regulators, and other such

'Gorgons, and Hydras, and Chimeras dire,'

from whose clutches a quiet English traveller could hardly expect to escape with his eyes safe in their sockets, but the abode of an industrious population employed in clearing the land and extending the empire of civilization.' The danger now is, that these laudable pursuits will be exchanged for predatory and ferocious habits in consequence of-what, gentle reader? the cultivation of the arts! Lest the reader should be tempted to question the testimony of our eyes, which we have found some difficulty in believing ourselves, we quote the passage as it stands in the article before us. The Americans, instead of having the population on their frontier engaged in the clearing of land and extending the empire of civilization, will imbue them with predatory and ferocious habits, and teach them to defy the laws, and place their hopes of rising in the world not in the laborious occupations of agriculture, but in schemes to defraud the public revenue.' The Latin poet tells us that it is the cultivation of the arts that prevents men from being ferocious; 'Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes,

Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros.'

Our critic, on the contrary, has discovered that it makes them so, and that the interior of the Republic which has now, it seems,

become all at once a Paradise of innocence and refinement, is to be demoralized by the invasion of the demon of domestic industry! All this is pleasant enough; but without dwelling any longer on the various shapes under which the Proteus selfinterest successively exhibits himself in the mother country, we may safely rest in the general conclusion, that although the state of civilization in the interior is not, and never has been, what the British critics have hitherto constantly represented it, it is nevertheless susceptible of improvement, and that the only possible means, by which this improvement can be effected, is the more extended cultivation of the fine and useful arts, which it is the object of the protecting policy to encourage.

It results from the hasty suggestions we have here offered, if they be well founded, that there is no reason to suppose with the Reviewer, that the Tariff will either diminish our exports or withdraw capital from land, and that its regular operation will be, on the contrary, to produce an extension of industry in all its great branches, and a corresponding increase in the wealth, population, and general prosperity of the country. The inconveniences, which in his opinion were likely to result from the growth of domestic manufactures, are therefore entirely illusory, and the community will enjoy, without the alloy of any attendant disadvantages, the great benefits which by his own admission regularly flow from that cause. If this be true, and if it be also true, as we are ready to admit, that industry naturally takes of itself the direction most conducive to the general good, excepting so far as it is checked or diverted from its course by accidental causes, it might be pertinently enough inquired, what are the accidental or artificial causes which have so long prevented, in the case of the United States, that developement of manufacturing industry, which would have been so highly advantageous, and which might therefore have been looked for as a natural result of the circumstances in which they were placed. It is of course impossible for us, in an article of this kind, to enlarge on every part of so vast subject, and we must confine ourselves on this head to a few very brief suggestions.

1. The condition of new colonies naturally leads them to confine themselves, during the earliest period of their existence, to agricultural pursuits, and to receive their manufactures from the mother country. This circumstance accounts for the absence of manufactures for the first half century after the date of the settlements.

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