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for other events, before he committed the injustice of condemning the conduct of men, who, in all that related to his transactions with them, had been found true to their professions. The issue confirmed the correctness of Dr Franklin's views in this respect, and afforded another proof, if another were wanting, of his sagacity and wisdom.

In short, after an inquiry of no small extent, and with no common facilities, on the subject of our foreign relations during the Revolution, in which Franklin bore so conspicuous a part, we have been impressed with the firmest conviction, not more of his remarkable qualities and powers, than of his strict and undeviating integrity, the purity of his patriotism, his zeal in the cause of his country, and his firmness in maintaining its rights. Every step we have taken has developed some new proofs. The party rancor of the times, the personal jealousy of some of his coadjutors, and a combination of circumstances that may easily be explained, gave a currency to insinuations against his political character, which have been too readily incorporated into history. We shall only add, that we believe those insinuations to have been as ill founded in fact, as they have been unjust and hurtful in their effects.

Mr Pitkin's History is brought down to the close of Washington's administration, and the interest is well sustained to the end. The difficulties encountered under the old confederation, the origin and formation of the new constitution, and the eventful period of Washington's presidency, are dwelt upon in a manner which shows, not only the familiar acquaintance of the author with what he describes, but his knowledge of the spirit of the times, and of the aims and purposes of the principal

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ART. II.-1. Observaciones sobre las Reformas Politicas de Colombia. Por J. M. SALAZAR, LL. D. Filadelfia. 1828.

2. Ensayo sobre la Conducta del General Bolivar.


preso de los Números 11, 13 y 14 del Duende de Buenos Ayres. Santiago de Chile. 1826.

3. Proyecto de Constitucion para la República de Bolivia y Discurso del Libertador. Guayaquil. 1826.

4. Ojeada al Proyecto de Constitucion que el Libertador ha presentado a la República Bolivar. Por A. L. G. [Antonio Leocadio Guzman.] Lima. 1826.

5. Exposicion de los Sentimientos de los Funcionarios Públicos, asi Nacionales como Departamentales y Municipales, y demas Habitantes de la Ciudad de Bogotá, hecha para ser presentada al Libertador Presidente de la República. Bogotá. 1826. Reimpresa en Nueva York, 1827.

THE period, at which we resume the history of Bolivar's life, was the darkest and most disastrous in the annals of the revolution.* New Granada had fallen a victim to the same hostile power which desolated Venezuela; and the patriots of Bogotá suffered the more severely from the vengeance of the Spaniards, because they came in a concentrated body of transatlantic troops, and were led by a chief as merciless in the domestic persecution of the insurgents, as he was terrible in the field of battle. But while Morillo was glutting his cruelty with the blood of the best men of New Granada,men who, had they escaped the bitter trials of that hour, might have been the means of preserving Colombia from the catastrophe which now threatens her liberties; whilst he and his coadjutor Henrile were cutting off the prominent patriots by a systematic scheme of judicial murders, and crushing the spirits of the people with every engine of misrule which ingenious tyranny could invent; the unconquerable Bolivar, whose ardor no misfortunes quenched, and his persevering associates in arms, were preparing a day of dreadful retribution for the oppressors of their country. These very oppressions, in fact, were the primary cause of the signal overthrow

For an account of Bolivar's early life and career, see the number of this Journal for January, 1829, p. 203.

of the Spaniards, which so speedily followed upon their complete triumph; for Morillo's injudicious cruelties produced a reaction in the minds of the people, who, maddened by despair, and stimulated by an eager desire to avenge the calamities they had suffered by a system of wanton persecution, stood ready to second any effort made for their deliverance from the yoke of the conqueror. Bolivar availed himself of the operation of this spirit to strike a decisive blow for his country.

Armed opposition to the Spaniards reappeared first in the plains of Cumaná, Barcelona, and the Apure. After the dispersion of the patriot soldiers in 1814, they gathered into small bands of guerillas, dispersed in isolated parties over an extensive region, so completely separated from each other, that for months together several of them continued ignorant that any but their own little troop were in arms against the Spaniards. In this partisan warfare, Monagas, Piar, Roxas, and Zaraza, among others, were particularly distinguished. Morillo soon became aware of the formidable character which such bodies, under such leaders, and in such a country, could assume. They unceasingly harassed, and frequently defeated, detachments of the Spanish troops; and by the suddenness of their incursions, and the celerity of their movements, justly acquired the appellation of the Tartars of America. Trained in this partisan warfare, they served as a nucleus, around which future armies might be formed, keeping alive the sacred flame of liberty, in despite of all the efforts of their invaders to extinguish it. At length, Arismendi raised again the standard of independence in the island of Margarita, and, by maintaining himself there, enabled Bolivar and other Venezuelan exiles to land supplies and renew the war. Pétion had received him in Hayti with the kindest hospitality, and furnished him with two battalions of black troops, with which to commence operations. Assembling the emigrants from Venezuela and other exiles from the Main, with a small fleet under the command of Brion, a patriot of Carthagena, he sailed from Aux Cayes in March, 1816, and landing at Margarita in May, compelled the Spaniards to shut themselves up in the fortress of Pampatar. Causing himself to be proclaimed supreme chief of the republic, he sailed for Carupano, a place near Cumaná, beat a detachment of royalists, and opened a communication with the patriot chieftains in the Llanos. Having thus augmented his force to a thousand men, by effecting a junction with some of the gueril

las, he landed at Ocumare, between La Guayra and Puerto Cabello, and issued a proclamation calling the slaves on the plantations to his standard, and inviting the planters to enfranchise them for the purpose. This measure was not well received by the inhabitants; and Bolivar, who had counted upon their support, being attacked to disadvantage by Morales, and defeated by the loss of his bravest officers, was compelled to reëmbark and return to Aux Cayes.

Nowise disheartened by this misfortune, Bolivar collected fresh reinforcements, and again disembarked at Margarita in December, 1816, where he issued a proclamation summoning a general Congress of Venezuela; and then proceeded to Barcelona, which was in the hands of the patriots, and organized a provisional government, with the eminent patriot, Don Francisco Antonio Zea, as president of the council of state and intendant-general of the army. Bolivar had now made sure his foothold on the continent, and was prepared to recommence the war in earnest. Without entering minutely into the multitude of engagements which ensued, we merely indicate the general plan of operations, which led to such great results, and the more decisive and remarkable incidents which signalized the desperate struggle. In the beginning of 1817, Bolivar received reinforcements from the interior of Cumaná, and fixed upon the banks of the Orinoco as the immediate theatre of his efforts. Morillo had been justly alarmed by the first tidings of his early successes, and despatched a large force from New Granada to meet him; and was now in full march from Bogotá himself, with additional troops, to assume the direction of the war in person. He was encountered and severely handled, in his progress through the Llanos, by Paez, who, at the head of his hardy horsemen, was fighting his way to eminence. Meanwhile a division of the Spanish army under La Torre, having been defeated by general Piar, no obstruction remained to interfere with Bolivar's designs upon Angostura, which surrendered to the patriots, July 3, 1817; and Paez being equally successful in Apure, they now held possession of the whole extent of the plains from Guyana to Caracas. At Angostura, then, Bolivar established the seat of government for the time being, and spent the residue of the year 1817 in active exertions to organize a force to act against Morillo. An abundant supply of arms, received from England, was distributed in the interior, and placed the patriot corps in a con dition to take the field in the shape of an army.

Bolivar formed a junction with Paez in January, 1818, and by a rapid movement arrived at Calabozo before Morillo knew that he had quitted Angostura, and after a series of skirmishes obliged the latter to retreat to Valencia, leaving him in possession of the valleys of Aragua. Subsequently to this, Morillo, having assembled the garrisons of La Guayra, Puerto Cabello, and Caracas, attacked Bolivar in his turn. Various indecisive engagements ensued, from time to time, each party being in turn defeated by the other. In one of these conflicts, Morillo was dangerously wounded, and was obliged for a time to quit the army. In another, at Cojedos, that was almost equally disastrous to both parties, the cavalry of Paez was so completely cut up, that he was compelled to retire to the Apure to remount it. In these reiterated engagements, Bolivar, Paez, and Cedeño, on the part of the patriots, and Morillo, Morales, La Torre, and Calzada, among the Spaniards, conducted the war with the determined bravery of men who felt, that the struggle now begun was a final one. At the close of the campaign, the Spaniards held Aragua, and the patriots San Fernando, the latter maintaining their ground in the Llanos and Guayana, while the former continued masters of all New Granada, and the most cultivated province of Venezuela.

Pursuant to the summons of Bolivar, as supreme chief, the second Congress of Venezuela assembled at Angostura, February 15, 1819, and elected Don Francisco Antonio Zea president. On this occasion Bolivar resigned all his authority, civil and military, into the hands of the Congress, and was unanimously reinstated as president of the state. This step was taken by him, not, as many have supposed, from any false modesty, or reluctance to continue in command; but because the authority which he had exercised hitherto, although acknowledged on all hands, from the necessity of the case, was not derived from any regular source; and it was desirable, that his government should possess a legal sanction, which it received from the unanimous vote of the Congress. The speech that he delivered at the installation of this body, is too remarkable, especially in connexion with recent events, to pass unnoticed. It is a long and elaborate exposition of his political principles, accompanied by a plan of government for the republic of Venezuela, and is entitled to careful consideration, as throwing light upon the character of Bolivar, and upon the

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