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IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a Priest, or any other alone,g as likewise the denial of the cup to the people,h worshipping the elements, the lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all con trary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ.i
V. The outward elements, in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent; to wit, the body and blood of Christ ;k albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before.1
VI. That doctrine, which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood, (commonly called Transubstantiation,) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament, and hath been, and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries.m
to depart on the morrow, and continued his speech until midnight. 1 Cor. xi. 20. When ys come together, therefore, into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's Supper.
IV. g 1 Cor. x. 6. Now, these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
h Mark xiv. 23. (See in letter c.) 1 Cor. xi. 25 to 29. (See in letter a.) Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For, he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
i Mat. xv. 9. But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
V. k Mat. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it: for, this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
1 Cor. xi. 26 to 23. For, as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. Mat. xxvi. 29. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day, when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.
VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament," do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified. and all benefits of his death the body and blood of Christ being then, not corporally or carnally, in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.o
VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore, all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries,P or be admitted thereunto.9
VI. m Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive, until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets, since the world began. With 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. (See in letter 1.) Luke xxiv. 6, 39. He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you, when he was yet in Galilee. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. (See in letter l.)
o1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? the bread, which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
VIII. p 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28, 29. (See in letter l.) For, he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, 16. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth, with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God, as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
g1 Cor. v. 6, 7, 13. Your glorying is not good: Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out, therefore, the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For, even Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us. But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore, put away from among yourselves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 15. Now, we command you,
THE Lord Jesus, as King and Head of his church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of church offi cers, distinct from the civil magistrate.a
II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of hea ven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power
brethren, in the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. And, if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet, count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Mat. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rent you.
I. a Isa. ix. 6, 7. For, unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is givon, and the government shall be upon his shoulder and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for ever: the zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 1 Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. Acts xx. 17, 18. And from Miletus, he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church. And, when they were come to him, he said unto them, Ye know, from the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner I have been with you at all seasons. Heb. xiii. 7, 17, 24. Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God; whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. Obey them, that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account: that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for, that is unprofitable for you. Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you. 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Mat. xxviii. 18, 19, 20. And Jesus came, and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and 10, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.
respectively to retain and remit sins; to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require.b
III. Church-censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from the like offences; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honour of Christ and the holy profession of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offead
IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the church are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.d
II. b Mat. xvi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall ba bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shal be loosed in heaven. Mat. xviii. 17, 18. And, if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, and a publican. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. John xx. 21, 22, 23. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you as my Father hath sent me, even so senj I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said unto them, receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them: and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 2 Cor. ii. 6, 7, 8. Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many. So that contrariwise, ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow. Wherefore, I beseech you, that you would confirm your love towards him.
III. c (I Cor. v. throughout.) 1 Tim. v. 20. Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear. Mat. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rent you. 1 Tim. i. 20. Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander, whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. (1 Cor. xi. 27 to the end.) With Jude 23. And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garments spotted by the flesh. IV. d 1 Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to know the: which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 15. Now, we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition
OF SYNODS AND COUNCILS.
FOR the better government and further edification of the church, there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called Synods or Councils.a
11. The ministers of Christ, of themselves, and by virtue of their office; or they with other fit persons, upon delegation from their churches, have the exclusive right to appoint, adjourn, or dissolve such Synods or Councils : though, in extraordinary cases, it may be proper for magistrates to desire the calling of a Synod of ministers and other fit persons, to consult and advise with about matters of religion; and in such cases, it is the duty of churches to comply with their desire.b
which he received of us. And, if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet, count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. 1 Cor. v. 4, 5, 13. In the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord, Jesus Christ, to deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore, put away from among yourselves that wicked person. Mat. xviii. 17. And, if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, and a publican. Tit. iii. 10. A man, that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition, reject.
I. a Acts xv. 2, 4, 6. When, therefore, Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question. And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. And the apostles and the elders came together for to consider of this matter.
II. b Acts xv. 2, 4, 22, 23, 25. (See in letter a.) Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas, sirnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren. And they wrote letters by them after this manner, The apostles, and elders, and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia. It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you, with our beloved Barnabas and Paul. Isa. xlix. 23. And kings shall be thy nursing-fathers, and their queens thy nursing-mothers; they shall