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of his clergy to the spot to rescue the Arian from his danger. The court looked on this resistance of the people as seditious, and immediately laid considerable fines upon the whole body of the tradesmen of the city. Several were thrown into prison. In three days' time these tradesmen were fined two hundred pounds weight of gold, and they said that they were ready to give as much again on condition that they might retain their faith. The prisons were filled with tradesmen : all the officers of the household, secretaries, agents of the emperor, and dependent officers who served under various counts, were kept within doors, and were forbidden to appear in public, under pretence that they should bear no part in sedition. Men of higher rank were menaced with severe consequences, unless the Basilica were surrendered. ...

“Next morning the Basilica was surrounded by soldiers ; but it was reported, that these soldiers had sent to the Emperor to tell him, that if he wished to come abroad he might, and that they would attend him, if he was going to the assembly of the Catholics; otherwise, that they would go to that which would be held by St. Ambrose. Indeed, the soldiers were all Catholics, as well as the citizens of Milan; there were so few heretics there, except a few officers of the emperor and some Goths. ..

“St. Ambrose was continuing his discourse, when he was told that the Emperor had withdrawn the soldiers from the Basilica, and that he had restored to the tradesmen the fines which he had exacted from them. This news gave joy to the people, who expressed their delight with applauses and thanksgivings; the soldiers themselves were eager to bring the news, throwing themselves on the altars, and kissing them in token of peace.” Fleury's Hist. xviii. 41, 42, Oxf. trans.

20. CHRISTENDOM GENERALLY. St. Hilary to Constantius: “Not only in words, but in tears, we beseech you to save the Catholic Churches from any longer continuance of these most grievous injuries, and of their present intolerable persecutions and insults, which moreover they are enduring,

monstrous as it is, from our brethren. Surely your clemency should listen to the voice of those who

cry

out SO loudly, 'I am a Catholic, I have no wish to be a heretic. It should seem equitable to your sanctity, most glorious Augustus, that they who fear the Lord God and His judgment should not be polluted and contaminated with execrable blasphemies, but should have liberty to follow those Bishops and prelates who both observe in violate the laws of charity, and who desire a perpetual and sincere peace.

It is impossible, it is unreasonable, to mix true and false, to confuse light and darkness, and bring into union, of whatever kind, night and day. Give permission to the populations to hear the teaching of the pastors whom they have wished, whom they fixed on, whom they have chosen, to attend their celebration of the divine mysteries, to offer prayers through them for your safety and prosperity.” ad Const. i. 1, 2.

NOTE VI.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE COUNCILS.

(Vide supra, p. 279.) As the direct object of the foregoing Volume was to exhibit the doctrine, temper, and conduct of the Arians in the fourth century rather than to write their history, there is much incidental confusion in the order in which the events which it includes are brought before the reader. However, in truth, the chronology of the period is by no means clear, and the author may congratulate himself that, by the scope of his work, he is exempt from the necessity of deciding questions relative to it, on which ancient testimonies and modern critics are in hopeless variance both with themselves and with each other.

Accordingly, he has chosen one authority, the accurate Tillemont, and followed him almost throughout. Here, however, he thinks it well to subjoin some tables on the subject, taken from the Oxford Library of the Fathers, which delineate the main outline of the history, while they vividly illustrate the difficulty of determining in detail the succession of dates.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS BETWEEN A.D. 325 AND A.D. 381,

IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.

1.
From 325 to 337.
(Jainly from Tillemont.)

A.D.

325. (From June 19 to August 25.) COUNCIL OF NICÆ..

Arius and his partisans anathematized and banished,

Arius to Illyricum. The Eusebians subscribe the

Homoüsion. 326. Athanasius raised to the See of Alexandria at the age

of about 30. 328-9. Eusebius of Nicomedia in favour with Constantine. 330. An Arian priest gains the ear of Constantine, who

recalls Arius from exile to Alexandria. 331. Athanasius refuses to restore him to communion.

Eustathius deposed by the Eusebians on a charge

of Sabellianism; other Bishops deposed. 334. Council of Cæsarea against Athanasius, who refuses to

attend it. 335. Council of Tyre and Jerusalem, in which Arius and

the Arians are formally readmitted. Athanasius, forced by the emperor to attend, abruptly leaves it in order to appeal to Constantine. THE EUSEBIANS DEPOSE ATHANASIUS, AND CONSTANTINE BANISHES

HIM TO TRETES, 336. Eusebians hold a Council at Constantinople to condemn

Marcellus on the ground of his Sabellianism ; and to

recognize Arius. DEATH OF ARIUS. 337. DEATH OF CONSTANTINE. The Eusebian Constantius

succeeds him in the East, the orthodox Constans
and Constantine in the West.

2.
From 337 to 342.

338

Exiles recalled by the three new Emperors.
(End of June.) Athanasius leaves Treves for Alexandria.
(From Valesius Shelstrate, (From Baronius and (From Tillemont end
Pagi, Montfaucon, and Petarius.)

Papebroke.)
S. Basnuge.)
Eusebius sends to Pope Eusebius, &c.

Eusebius, &c.
Julius for a Council. COUNCIL OF ALEXAN COUNCIL OF ALEX-

DRIA DEFENTS ATHA ANDRIA, &c.
XASIUS TO THE POPE. (Sept.) Athanasius

339

gues to Romel.

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1 The events in italics are grounded on an hypothesis of the authors who introduce them, that Athanasius made two journeys to Rome, which they adopt in order to lighten the difficulties of the chronology.

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345.

317.

3.
From 342 to 351.

(Mainly from Tillemont.)
COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (Eusebian), at which the

Macrostich was drawn up.
GREAT COUNCIL OF SARDICA, at the instance of the

orthodox Constans. Council of Milan against
Photinus. Ursacius and Valens sue for reconcilia-

tion to the Church.
Council of Jerusalem, at which Athanasius is present.

Athanasius returns to Alexandria. Ursacius and
Valens recant, and reconciled at Rome.

Council at Sirmium or at Rome against Photinus.
DEATH OF CONSTANS. The Eusebian Constantius sole

Emperor.
GREAT COUNCIL OF SIRMIUM, at which Photinus is

deposed. First Sirmian creed, &c.

319.

are

350.

351.

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