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the Death of Christ is fully represented by the consumption of both when Mass is said; and for this purpose both species are received by the priest. But this is not a personal privilege; should he receive when not himself saying Mass, he receives, like the laity, the form of bread alone.

The inatter is one of discipline; and the rule had to be made as it now stands, on account of the impossibility of the large numbers of people who go to Communion in the Catholic Church receiving the form of wine without danger of spilling, or of contamination in passing from inouth to mouth.

Perhaps you think, by the way, that there are not so many people after all who do go to Cominunion in the Catholic Church. This is because you do not go early enough to the church to see them. Few go at a late Mass, because we have a law that one must take no food or drink at all from midnight till the time of receiving. This law is made for the sake of due reverence. So all that can do so naturally go to Communion early. Go to a Catholic church at six or seven o'clock of a Sunday morning, and you will see quite enough to satisfy you.

CHAPTER X.

THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS.

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UR next article is: "The seven Sacraments

instituted by Jesus Christ for the salvation of mankind; that is to say, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, Matrimony."

The principal difference between the Catholic doctrine and that of Protestants on the point here proposed is that we admit seven sacraments, while they usually admit two, and only two; namely, Baptism and Eucharist or Holy Communion, if indeed they have not come to regard these as merely appropriate ceremonies, in spite of what our Lord says, Mark xvi. 16 and John vi. 54. And yet sometimes they are not very clear about this. In the Episcopal catechism, found in the Book of Common Prayer, we find as an answer to the question how many sacraments there are, “Two only, as generally necessary to salvation." you see, is entirely non-committal. Being necessary to salvation really has nothing to do with the essence of a sacrament. It is possible to be saved without any sacrament at all; otherwise no one could have been saved before the

That,

sacraments were instituted by Christ. And even now it is possible to be saved without any of the sacraments; even Baptism itself is not absolutely necessary; for one who knows nothing about it, or has no one to baptize him, can be saved if he has perfect sorrow for sin, and turns to God with his whole heart, desiring and purposing to do all things which He has commanded.

What, then, is the idea of a sacrament, or what is its true definition? It is a rite or ceremony permanently instituted by Christ, for the purpose of signifying some grace from God, and conferring that grace on the soul. The first question, then, as to whether some rite or ceremony is a sacrament, is whether it was ordained by Christ; the second, whether it was instituted to signify some special grace, and to confer that grace on all receiving it.

Now, Protestants, on account of the principle which they generally hold that no certain information can be obtained as to what Christ did except from the Scripture, have evidently exposed themselves to the risk of missing some of the sacraments. And though the grace which the lost sacraments confer may not be one necessary to salvation, still it would be a pity to lose it, all the same. So it would be well, in this matter especially, to be pretty sure that there is no source outside the Bible from

which we can get information as to what Christ established to be done in His Church for the spiritual benefit of those in it, or those desiring to come in.

It may be remarked, however, that it seems pretty clear that on the authority of Scripture alone at least two sacraments more should be admitted. For we read. (John xx. 22, 23):

When he had said this, he breathed on them; and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained.” Now, here is a definite institution by Christ of a great grace which His disciples-those, that is, who were present on this occasion-were to confer on others, namely, the forgiveness of their sins; and also there is an institution by Him of a certain class of persons to exercise this power, or to confer this grace, by which they were set apart from the rest of the Christian community.

It would seem, then, plainly here that we have the Sacrament of Penance, or of the absolution of sin by human ministers; and also that of Order, or the setting apart of a certain order or class of persons among His followers who were to confer the Sacrament of Penance. And there is also full as much evidence from the text of the Bible that this was to be a permanent Christian institution as there is for the Sacrament of

Baptism. For that, too, when He committed it to His Apostles (Matt. xxviii. 19), "Going, therefore, teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," was given, as it stands, merely as a personal charge; He did not say that others were to do it after them. He said, it is true, that He would always be with them, even to the end of the world (v. 20); but it would be giving a strange sense to these words to suppose that they only applied to the offices of baptizing and teaching; and as nothing similar is recorded in connection with the Holy Communion, the want of it would imply that that also was only a temporary institution.

Another contradiction shows itself in the doctrine of Protestants in their not admitting the washing of the feet (recorded by St. John xiii. 3-15) as a sacrament; for on the authority of Scripture alone it has as definite a blessing or grace attached to it, and is as distinctly enjoined by Christ, as Baptism or Holy Communion. For He said to Peter (v. 8): “If I wash thee not, thou shalt have no part with me," and He says (v. 14): “If then I, being your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, you ought also to wash one another's feet."

On the face, then, of Scripture, this washing of the feet is a matter seemingly of great importance, conferring a great blessing, and cer

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