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adopt the shallow and deceitful inaxim, that it makes no difference what a man believes, as long as his life is right. For how can a man's life be right if he sins against God by disbelief in what He teaches or reveals, or indifference as to whether He does actually teach or reveal a particular truth, whether that truth concern faith or morals? This maxim simply takes for granted that every one naturally and without effort knows everything about his duty; that every one, no matter what his education or surroundings, knows what it has puzzled the greatest human intellects, unassisted by revelation, to discover.

But to resume our proper subject. Those who are saved or lost are, according to the faith of the Church, saved or lost both body and soul at the general resurrection. To the former are given bodies not only perfect and incorruptible, but also endowed with other properties not naturally belonging to material substances; the faculty of passing over great distances with ease and quickness, and of passing unobstructed through material obstacles; as was the case with the risen body of Christ, which, as we read (John xx. 19), presented itself to his disciples though the doors were shut. Also the bodies of the saved shall be insensible to pain, and of course not liable to disease or weariness; and shall be perpetually

young and strong, and receive nothing but comfort and enjoyment from any circumstances in which they may be placed.

As to those of the lost, the direct opposite is held. The results and consequences of sin remain in them; they are incorruptible and indestructible, but otherwise they have no supernatural qualities. They are sensible to pain, and undoubtedly suffer it; just what this pain is, has never been precisely defined ; the common opinion has always been that it was to a great extent actual fire, as our Lord Himself uses this word in describing it.

Now another question remains to be considered. What is the state of the souls of the lost, from the time of death, and of that of the saved from the time of their deliverance from purgatory--if that purification has been necessary for them—to the time of the resurrection?

The teaching of the Church on this point is that heaven begins for the saved, and hell for the lost, before the resurrection; though in a limited and incomplete sense; and yet in the most important respect, for the principal happiness of heaven is in the union of the soul with God, and in its enjoyment of Him by what is called the beatific vision, whereas the principal misery of hell is in the eternal separation of the soul from God, which is then most keenly felt, the vanity and insufficiency of the false

pleasures sought during life being then plainly seen. And as it is, after all, in the soul that all real pain or happiness is felt, there is no reason why there should not be in heaven before the resurrection something equivalent to bodily enjoyment, or in hell, as in purgatory, to bodily pain.

The soul, then, is believed to pass to what is called the particular judgment (that is, the judgment for each one in particular), immediately after death ; and its eternal state is then determined, according as it has left this world in union with, or separation from God. Most of those on whom a favorable sentence is pronounced, we have reason to believe, remain a while in purgatory before they are fit to enter on the joys of heaven; and they themselves, recognizing their unfitness, would desire nothing else. The rest go immediately to their permanent state, only to be changed at the last day by the resurrection and resumption of the body, which shares in the punishment of sin, as it has shared in the sin itself.

CHAPTER XIII.

THE PRIMACY OF THE ROMAN PONTIFF.

THE

THE next article of the profession of faith

which we are discussing concerns “the primacy, not only of honor, but also of jurisdiction, of the Roman Pontiff.” It is hardly necessary to say that by the Roman Pontiff is meant the Pope. That we regard him as the successor of St. Peter, and St. Peter as the Prince or head of the apostles, has already been stated. By his being the Vicar of Jesus Christ we mean that he is the representative of Christ as the head of the Church, and under Christ, its visible head and ruler.

Now, what is meant by the primacy, not only of honor, but also of jurisdiction, of the Pope ?

Primacy means the first or most distinguished place. By a primacy of honor would be meant the being entitled above others to certain outward signs of respect, the having what is called the precedence over others in public assemblies, processions, and the like. Thus in England, for example, the Prince of Wales has a primacy of honor, next after the Queen; after her, the greatest outward respect would be shown to him. But he has, as long as he remains merely

Prince of Wales, no jurisdiction whatever in the kingdom. He does not sit in Parliament, and has no voice in the making of the laws; and his approval of them is not required.

By jurisdiction is meant just this, the power of making laws, or in some way governing others legally. So in this respect, you see, a member of the House of Commons in England has jurisdiction, which the Prince of Wales has not. The primacy of jurisdiction would belong to him who had the greatest power of lawmaking or of government.

When we say, then, that in the Catholic Church the Pope has not only the primacy of honor, but also of jurisdiction, we mean that not only is the Pope entitled to the greatest outward marks of respect, that to him, for example, would belong by right the first place of honor in all assemblies or councils of bishops and prelates, but also that he has a higher governing power in the Church than any of them.

In fact the Catholic doctrine is that the Pope has supreme jurisdiction in the Church; that there is no jurisdiction or goverument in it which is not liable to control by him. He has the power of making laws for the whole Church, or of repealing laws which have been made; being however, of course, limited in this, like other legislators, by the condition that his laws must be useful, just, and reasonable,

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