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proof of this, he observes, that it has been useful in intermittere fevers. Arum, by ancient writers, is much commended, both as an external and as an internal remedy, and it is said, that “ Rarione particolarum tenuium & volatilium mucum vifcidum & fpitium ventriculi & inteftinorum parieribus adherentem potenter incidit, attenuat, atque resolvit ;” and was prescribed in all that numerous clais of diseases formerly supposed to proceed a fuccorum leniore. Bergius considers it useful in Colluvies pituitofa, Anorexia, Cephalæa fympatica*, Asthma humorale, Cachexia, Febris intermittens. Arum is certainly a very powerful stimulant, and by promoting the secretions may be advantageously employed in cachectic and chiorotic cases, in rheumatic affections, and in various other complaints of phlegmatic and torpid constitutions; but more especially in a weakened or relaxed state of the stomach, occasioned by the prevalence of viscid mucus. If this root is given in powder, great care should be taken that it be young and newly dried, when it may be used in the dose of a scruple or more twice a day: but in rheumatisms and other disorders requiring the full effects of this medicine, the root should be given in a recent ftace, and to cover the insupportable pungency it discovers on the tongue, Dr. Lewis advises us to administer it in the form of emulsion, with gum arabic and spermacæti, increasing the dose from ten grains to upwards of a scruple three or four times a day; in this way it generally occafioned a sensation of flight warmth about the stomach, and afterwards in the remoter parts manifestly promoted perspiration, and frequently produced a plentiful sweat. Several obstinate rheumatic pains were removed by this medicine, which is therefore recommended to fursher trial.”
We cannot omit quoting the remarks on the effects of Dia gitalis Purpurea; concerning the utility of which medicine there are different opinions.
• The leaves of Fox-glove have a bitter nauseous taste, but no remarkable smell; they have been long used externally to sores and scrophulous tumours with confiderable advantage. Respecting the internal uie of this plant, we are told of its good effects in epilepsy, Scrophula, and phthisis; but the incautious manner in which it was employed rendered it a dangerous remedy: thus we find Ray (after reciting the case of epilepsy cured by it, as mentioned by Parkingom, Says, i. Verum medicamentum hoc robuftioribus cancum.convenit, siquidem violenter admodum purgat & vomitationes immanes exci. tatt:” and others, speaking of its successful exhibition in fcrophula, remark, “ Sed ob nimiam remedii vehementiam, continuationem ejus neceffariam detrectavit 1." Yet while Digitalis was generally known to possess such medicinal activity, its diuretic effects, för
Bergius speaks highly of the efficacy of Arum in these head. achs, which were of the most violent kind, and refifted all the means he employed, till be used the powder of this root, which never failed to relieve them.' • + Raii Hist. p. 767.' Vide Murray's Ap. Med. vol. 1. p. 192.'
which it is now deservedly received in the Materia Medica, were wholly overlooked; that in this discovery Dr. Withering has an undoubted clain, and the numerous cases of dropsy, related by him and other practitioners of established reputation, afford inconteftible evidence of its diuretic powers, and of iis practical importance in the cure of those diseases * From Dr. Withering's extensive experience of the use of the Digitalis in dropfies, he has been enabled to judge of its fucceis by the following circunstances :-" It feldom succeeds in men of great natural strengen, of tense fibre, of warm kin, of florid complexion, or in those with a tight and cordy pulle. If the belly in ascices be tense, hard, and circumscribed, or the limbs in analarca solid and refilling, we have but little hope. On the contrary, if the pulle be feeble, or intermitting, the countenance pale, che lips vivid, the skin cold, the swollen belly soft and fuctuating, the apasarcous limbs readily pirting under the pressure of the finger, we may expect the diuretic effects to follow in a kindly mannert. Of the inferences which he deduces, the fourth is, “ that if it (Digitalis) fails, there is but little chance of any other medicine fucceeding.” Thus we are so infer, that men of great natural strength, and under the other circumitances just mentioned, when affected with dropsy, have little to hope for from the use of this diuretic, and fill less from any other medicine f. As this observation is the result of experience, and of confiderable practical consequence, we wish particularly to preís it on the attention of the medical reader. Although the Din gicalis is now generally admitted to be a very powerful diuretic, and many cases may be adduced of its successful ulell in addition to those already published, yet it is but justice to acknowledge that this medicine has more frequently failed than could have been reasonably expected, from a comparison of the facts stated by Dr. W.$ -" The dose of the dried leaves, in powder, is from one grain so three twice a day. But if a liquid medicine be preferred, a dram of the dried leaves is to be infused for four hours in half a pint of boiling water, adding to the strained liquor an ounce of any spiri.
See his account of the Fox.glove, published 1785; a book, which, in the opinion of Dr. Cullen, “ should be in the hands of every practitioner of physick,” (M. M.)'
•L. C. p. 189. & feq.'
' I In such cales Dr. W. attempts to induce a change in the conftitution, and thereby to fit it for the action of the Digitalis. Woold not repeated purging, according to Sydenham's plan, íucceed best in these cases?"
•|| The author could bring many instances, were it necessary, of the good effects of the Digitalis : a clinical patient at Guy's hora pital, created by Dr. Relph lait winter, afforded a Ariking proof of the efficacy of this medicine in hydrothorax.'
Among the principal of the unsuccessful cases, we may notice the eight fatal ones related in the Medical Memoirs by Dr. Leita fom.' In reply to these cases, Dr. Withering fent me the followtuous water. One ounce of this infusion, given twice a day, is a medium dose. Ic is to be continued in these doles till it either acts upon the kidneys, the stomach, the pulle, (which it has a remarkable power of lowering) or the bowels."
After what we have already observed, we scarcely need say that we expect much gratification from the remaining volumes of this useful and very amusing work. 0. ing letter, which is published by the permission of Dr. Lettrom, who auchorizes me to say, that as his only object in this business is the investigation of truth, he willingly appeals to the justice and candour of the public, how far his practice is fairly represented in Dr. Withering's letter.
« * Sir,
• Please to accept my thanks for your offer of inserting any thing new which I might have to say respecting the Digitalis; but I really bave nothing new to observe, nor have 1 any thing to retract of what I said before. Under my own management, under that of the medical practitioners in this part of England, and I may add, also in the hands of some worthy and respectable clergymen in village situations, it continues to be the most certain, and the leaft offensive diuretic we know; in such cases, and in such constitutions, as I have advised its exhibition. I have also the fatisfa&ion to find, by letters from some of the most eminent physicians in different parts of England, that it is equally useful and safe in their hands. But I complain of the treatment this medicine has had in London. Its ill success there cannot be altogether owing to difference of constitutions. Dr. Letisom has relaied his unsuccessful attempts with a degree of courage, and of candour, which do the highest honour to his integrity t; but no one can compare his choice of patients, with my declaration of the fit and the unfit, or the doses he prescribed, and the perseverance he enjoined, with my dores, rules, and cautions f, without being aftonined that he could suppose he had been giving this medicine “ in the manner prescribed by mell."--I am fully satisfied, that, had I prescribed it in fuch cases, such forms, such doses, and such repetitions as he has done, the effects would, in my hands, have been equally useless, and equally deleterious. I muft therefore suppore, that he had forgotten what I had written, without being conscious that his memory had deceived him. Had it been otherwise, after perusing the cases I had published at pages xx. and pages 151, &c. of my ACCOUNT, &c. he would hardly have thought it necessary to bave published more instances of what I had ftigmatized as bad pradice; or to have fought for further proofs, that an active and useful medicine might be employed so as to prove a deleterious poison.'
• + Memoirs of the Medical Society of London, vol. ii. p. 145.' • İ Account of the Fox-glove, p.181. 184, et feq.' li Memoirs of the Medical Society of London, vol. ii. p. 169.'
Art. XII. The Annals of Chemistry, or, A Collection of Memoirs
relative to Chemistry, and the Arts with which it is connected. By Messrs. De Morveau, Lavoisier, Monge, Berthollet, De Four. eroy, Baron de Dietrich, Hassenfratz, and Adet. Translated from
the French. Vol. I. 8vo. pp. 240. 35. 63. sewed. Johnson. 1791. THE The Annales de Chimie (which should be translated Chemical
Annals, not The Annals of Chemistry ) commenced in 1789, and continue to be published in monthly numbers, three of which make a volume: of these volumes, ten still remain to complete the translation to the present time. The translator should himself have mentioned these particulars, that his readers might form fome idea of the extent of the undertaking.
These Annals are more comprehensive in their objects, than the title-page would lead to expect. Befide several original Memoirs in each Number, by the editors themselves or their correspondents, they give a compendious view of the labours of others, and of all the discoveries successively made in chemistry, and in the chemical arts and manufactures, throughout Europe. It is likewise a material part of their plan, to repeat the interesting experiments of others, and to give an account of the results that take place in their own hands.
The importance of such a work is obvious to every one; and the execution of it has hitherto done credit to the well. known abilities of the gentlemen who have undertaken it. The translator also has acquitted himself, as such, sufficiently well * : but he should have confidered, that the speedy and éomplete communication of discoveries and improvements is professedly the main object, and that, in this respect, he has by no means put the English reader in possession of the same advantages which the French reader enjoys. The French have other collections, similar in kind, but different in contents : the Journal de Physique, a monthly publication, of long standing and great celebrity, contains many valuable original papers, as well as extracts from the works of others; and, being in the fame language as the Annals, it may be prefumed to be equally known to those who are acquainted with that language, and cqually unknown to those who are not: to the impartial philoSopher they are indeed equally necessary; for as the editors have espoused different theories, it is natural for each party to have a predilection for such papers, and such correspondents, as are most favourable to his own. Not that we mean to recommend
The only material error shat has occurred to our notice, is a lip of the peo, or of the press, at the top of p. 21, alkalies of the lime, for alkalies or lime. Rey. JUNE 1792.
a translation of both : the bulk and expence of such a work would probably defeat its intention : but, by judicious abftra&s and selections, the interesting parts of them might be reduced to a very moderate compass. Such an article as the following, which makes an entire page (184) in the present publication, cannot be supposed to be of any importance to the English reada er, especially when a work of the same nature has been much better executed, three years ago, in our own language * : • Supplement 10 the Second Edition of the Elements of Chemistry and
Natural History, By M. De Fourcroy. i Vol. O&avo. • The name of M. de Fourcroy appears in the title of this little work by mistake. It is by Mr. Adet, whom M. de Fourcroy desired to undertake it. This work does not appear to us to admit of being analysed, as it states, chapter by chapter, the additions which M. de Fourcroy has made to his work. But we believe that Mr. Adet has pursued in this performance the best mode that could be devised.'
Some other articles, of much greater length, are equally (uninteresting to the English reader ; though they may, doubtless, at the time of their original publication, have contributed not a little to give celebrity to the system which the editors were labouring to propagate.
The most important papers in the present volume are the following:
M. Adet on the fuming muriat of tin, or smoking spirit of Libavius; which is found to confift of tin combined with oxygenated muriatic acid and caloric, deftitute of water : on introducing about one third of water, the caloric is extricated, and the muriat becomes a solid mass, no longer fuming.
M. LATOISIER on the combustion of iron in vital air ; Ahew. ing that the vital air unites wholly with the iron : but that with zinc, notwithstanding its well-known combustibility, the phenomenon does not succeed; a circumstance for which the author does not attempt to account.
M. BERTHOLLET on the Pruffic acid; which he finds to confift of azote, hydrogene, and carbone, in unknown proportions. On metallic oxids, or calces; which appear to act as acids with alkalies or lime; as alkalies with acids, and sometimes to unite with one another, like an acid with an alkali, as gold with tin in the purple precipitate : the preparation of argentum fulminans is described, and its effects are explained. Abridgment of Pelletier's Memoir on the indirect combination of phosphorus with metallic substances, by Auxing them with glass of phosphorus and charcoal : it united with gold, platina, filo • See vol. iii. of our New Series, p. 163.