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derately and kilfully kiln-dried, yet while it continues new, it must be turned over at least once in twenty days.-When this practice has been continued, till the grain becomes sufficiently firm and quite dry, generally in two years, it is rarely necessary to turn it any more. --By this method of management, they have expe. rience of prelerving the grain in perfect soundness for many years, and they have no doube that it may be so preserved even for a century.---When I saw this granary, the lowest apartment was full of wheat from Barbary.-It is a very fine large grain, and they say it makes excellent bread.-1 had hopes of obtaining a collection of the laws, regulations, and economy, by which the public granaries are here rendered effectual means of restraining monopolies, moderating the markets. and preventing the calamities of scarcity, or excessive prices for bread. - But in this I was disappointed by my fhort stay at Geneva.- I have been as much as I was able attentive and elaborate on this article, because I am convinced that such granaries, wisely regulated and well managed, would be greatly beneficial to our burghs in Scotland, and will probably be adopted, if ever che administration of their revenues Mall be establihed on a proper plan of integrity and public interest'

At the close of the work is given a pleasing account of the rise and progress of the village of Lawrencekirk*, between Perth and Aberdeen, raised by the generosity and public spirit of Lord Gardenstone. Concerning this useful project, he says, • I have tried, in some measure, a variety of the pleasures which mankind pursue, but never relished any so much as the pleasure arifing from the progress of my village.'

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Art. V. Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Nicholas Ferrar.

By P. Peckard, D D. Matter of Magdalen College, Cambridge. 8vo.

pp. 332. 55. fewed. Payne. 1790. MR. Ferrar, the subject of these memoirs, is now almost

forgotten : although his connection with the well-known Herbert, rector of Bemerton, and formerly known by the appellation of the divine Herbert, may, in some degree, have preserved bis memory.--He was indeed a singular and very remarkable man; a devotee, a recluse almost to monachism; yet, under the guidance of reason and virtue, firmly fixed as to the foundations of religious and Christian truth, but milled in the application by enthusiastic and romantic notions, together with a mixture of superstition :---yet, though he gave into practices which well deserve the epithet superstitious, his great mind could never allow him to consider piety as consisting in forms and geltures, nor to reverence a bigotted zeal about them, however he might regard them as fubfervient to practical de

* See Rev, vol. Ixiii. p. 145.

votion,

votion. It is impossible not to regret, in perusing these me. moirs, that so much wisdom, learning, and integrity, should not have been better employed; and that a man of such abilities, both natural and acquired, should have allowed himself, on some subjects, to be so confined and partial. He lived, indeed, at a time when reformation had produced a wonderful change as to ecclesiastical affairs, but in which the spirit of inquiry was ftill greatly checked and restrained; in which, knowlege was with difficulty attained ; in which, subjects of truth and liberty were imperfectly understood; and in which, the divine right of kings, paflive obedience, the inherent sanctity of priests, buildings, vestments, tables, times, &c. &c. were considered by numbers as topics concerning which it was deemed impious and profane to entertain any doubt, or to employ any research. Such notions were, indeed, very convenient and pleasant to the abettors of priest-craft and arbitrary power; though founded on principles which reason and religion, when guided by real Christianity, will effectually overthrow : but which, nevertheless, seem to have gotten a strong and lasting bold of a mind, in other respects, so sagacious and praise-worthy as that of Ni. cholas Ferrar.

The learned editor of this work, Dr. Peckard, (who, by marriage, is nearly connected with the family,) informs us of the difficulty and disappointment which he has experienced, and which have prevented his publishing the volume sooner. A manuscript life of Mr. Ferrar, fairly written, and prepared for the press, by Mr. Francis Peck, was bequeathed, among other books and papers, to the Doctor. This manuscript he had been solicited, and intended, to make public : but having lent it to a friend who died soon afterward, he has never been able to regain it. ' Having now, (he says,) after near twenty years' fruitless inquiry, given up all hopes of recovering his property, he is nevertheless determined, as far as it is in his power, to gratify the solicitations of his friends. This he does, by means of the original manuscript from which Mr. Peck's work was composed. In a very fair and satisfactory manner, he speaks of some alterations which are made, and of some reflections which he has occasionally interspersed : leaving no room to doubt that the present production is faithful, in every thing of moment, to the original. Mr. Gough, in his Britith Topography *, published several years ago, mentions Mr. Ferrar; and it is to be wished, (says the present writer,) that the author had exprefled himielf with less disrespect of a family, every way worthy of his admiration, though perhaps far above

* See Review, vol. xl. p. 455. Rey. JULY 1792.

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modern

modern imitation.' Mr. Gough may possibly be too harsh when he styles Mr. Ferrar a useless enthusiast, and in some other reflections which he makes on the family; yet such excess of austerity and appearances of superstition will excite ridi. cule or pity,-even when united, which is far from being always the case, though it was in the present infance, with real piety and virtue.

Mr. Nicholas Ferrar was the third fon of an eminent merchant of the same name in London ; his family was respectable, not merely for opulence, in which it was not deficient, but for what is infinitely fuperior to wealth or rank, for truth, probity, and goodness, to which they were all early and conftantly trained He was born on the 23d of February 1592. His childhood and youth were distinguithed by little incidents, and by the considerable advancement which he made in science and other accomplishments. At the university, he was conspicuous for virtuous and amiable manners, and for great proficiency in different parts of learning. He left the college- life with many testimonies of applause and esteem; and, under the same advantage, he seems to have pursued his travels into different parts of Europe ; for every where he gained refpect, which even his endeavours for concealment could not prevent. Concerning this part of his history, we shall infert the testimony that was given of him after his decase, by Dr. Robert Byng, one of his contemporaries at college :-“ So well did he improve the time, that beside the knowledge which he had gained in the principal of the Western languages, Low and High Dutch, Italian, French, and Spanit, he was able to make relation observable of the most remarkable passages which had been incident to any of those places where he had made any considerable abode ; as myself, with many others who had the happiness to hear him discourse thereof, can give due testimony." Beside the languages in which he had so well qualified himself both for writing and discourse, his attentive mind was directed with affiduity to laws, manners, customs, doctrines; practices, civil, ecclefiaftical, and medical; trades, arts, military and naval affairs, revolutions, &c. Thus was travelling, by Mr. Ferrar, directed to much wiser and better purposes, than it has been by the far greater part of those who, in these days, make what is called the Tour of Europe.

Mr. Ferrar appears to have been always determined for the Christian ministry, and probably also for celibacy and the ascetic life: but when he returned to England, with his mind cultivated and improved, he met with very particular engagements of a domestic, and also of a public nature, requiring that affiftance which he was able to give, and which he was willing to

behow,

bestow *. His family stood high in the mercantile line, and were connected with affairs of great importance to the nation. His father died in a year or two after his arrival, having appointed his son Nicholas his sole executor.-- This (says his biographer,) was a great addition to the business already lying on him : but he had abilities equal to any thing, with firmness of mind and integrity equal to his ability.' The great public concern which employed him, was the Virginia company, in which several adventurers, under the protection of government, were embarked. This is an informing and instructive part of the volume, displaying, to much advantage, the abilities of Mr. Ferrar, natural and acquired, and also his fidelity and rectitude of mind; and it discovers, as true history always does, the chicanery and knavery of courts and statesmen : yet this gentleman, wise and well-instructed as he was in other respects, though he could perceive the fraud and injustice, was much infatuated by the notions of passive submission to crowned heads. Mr. Ferrar was soon afcerward called to parliament, and still pursued the object which he had undertaken for the Virginia company; for though inclined to be tamely acquiescent in the decisions of sovereignty, he was inflexible in his attachment to truth and rectitude of conduct. His labours were indefatigable ; one proof of which, among others, was his having secured attested copies, transcribed at his own expence, of the original papers which had been all violently seized by the order of a capricious and selfish monarch. These transcripts were carefully preserved: but whether they are now in being, appears uncertain.

The diffolution of the company seems to have been regarded by Mr. Ferrar as the proper bint for disengaging himself from society: he now determined to carry into execution the plan on which he had long set his heart, to bid farewell to the busy world, and spend the remainder of his days in religious retirement, and a striet course of devotion.' He settled with his mother and other branches of the numerous family, at Little Gidding in the county of Huntingdon, in the year 1625, where he continued to the time of his death, which was in 1637. The regulations of this household, their observances, ceremonials, proceffions, different employments, &c. occupy the remainder of the volume; to which we must refer the reader for farther particulars.

Some part of the time, in this retreat, was allotted to surgery and medicine, of which the neighbourhood occasionally received the benefit. Mr. Ferrar also composed discourses on • He returned A. D. 1618, being twenty-fix years old. T 2

different entertained

different subjects, together with dialogues, histories, fables, and eslays, for the use of the family: but one principal occupation of the gentlemen, and sometimes of the ladies also, was forming harmonies of the scriptures, in English, and in several other languages. Dr. Peckard gives a particular relation of the manner in which they were formed ; and, by way of comparison, adds an account of the method which Dr. Priestley pursued for the same purpose, corresponding very remarkably with the other. The exact agreement, (says this writer,) between two men of uncommon genius and abilities, with refpect both to the plan and conduct

of the work, men living at one hundred and sixty years difference of time, men too, in learning, penetration, and judgment, perfe&tly qualified for lo arduous an undertaking, affords the strongest presumptive proof of the excellence of the method, and at the same time the highest recommendation of it to the observation and practice of all who are engaged in a fimilar course of study.'—This paslage indicates candour and liberality in the editor of this volume ; and we have remarked other similar instances in the course of our perusal of these Memoirs.

It ought again to be observed, in respect to Mr. Ferrar, (and we suppose also to the other members of the family,) that, though surrounded by objects and practices of a superftitious or fanciful kind, which he had himself instituted, and accustomed to austere severities, he does not appear to have been bigotted, nor uncharitable, nor to have placed religion in any exteriors. He considered such observances as matters of propriety and decency; and, possibly, to him, and to those connected with him, they might yield some sort of service; though there is great danger of their having a different, and indced an opposite effect. To ignorant minds, nothing is more prejudicial; fiery zealots and persecutors are thus produced ; immorali:y is often consistent with this kind of religion, which indeed contradias and overthrows the whole purpose of Christianity. Mr. Ferrar's devotion, though mistaken, was not of this base and illiberal kind; it breathed good will to all men. We consider it as a proof of his mild and candid piety, that, amoo many other books which he translated, one was The one hundred and ten Considerations of Valdesso, a - noble Spaniard, who was thought to lean to the doctrines of the Unitarians, in opposition to the Trinitarian system; and there are said to be some passages in the work, which even seem to depreciate the authority of the scriptures.

After all that may be alleged in vindication of Mr. Ferrar, whose ability, acquirements, and worth, we estimate as of a luperior kind, we can never concur in the views which he 13

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