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fort of gum, the brow being thus continued in a trait and narrow line till it joins the hair on each side of their face. They are well made, of the middle size, and, for the most part, plump; but they are distinguished by nothing so much and so universally as by a haughty, disdainful, and fupercilious air, with which they feem to look down upon all mankind as creatures of an inferior narur?, born for their service, and doomed io be their slaves ; neither does this peculiarity of countenance in any degree diminish their natural beauiy, but rather adds to it that sort of bewitching attraction, which the French call piquant.'

The President next endeavours to trace the origin of this strange and unnatural custom. He found, in Herodotus, an account of a remarkable similar custom among the Lycians; and he was led to conjecture that, from them, it was derived to the inhabitants of Metelin,' there being no impossibility in the supposition that fomne colony may have passed over troon Lycia into Metelin.' Fortunately, but by accident, he mes with a passage in Diodorus Siculus, which, in a great measure, satisfied his mind. “It seems that those Pelaigi, who under their leader Xanthus, the son of Triopas King of Argos, first inhabited Lesbos, had, before their fettling in that island, dwelt for some time in a certains part of Lycia which they had conquered, and may of consequence be supposed to have brought from thence the usage in question.'—This, to be sure, is, as his Lordship remarks, a very remote source; for Triopas, according to Blair, was King of Argos in the year 1553 before Chrift; or, according to Diodorus, ftill much earlier, as that Historian places the colonizing of Lesbos by the Pelasgi, under the fun of this prince, seven ages previous to the flood of Deucalion, which event took place in the year 1503 before the Chriftian æra:— but in the eye and estimation of a true antiquarian what are thirty or forty centuries?'Observations on the Description of the Theaire of Saguntum, as

given by Emanuel Murti, Dean of Alicant, in a Letter to D. Antonio Felix Zondadario. By the Right Hon. William

Conyngham, Treasurer to the Royal Irish Academy. Letter to fofeph C. Walker, Esquire, M. R. I. A. & C. from the

Right Hon. IV. Conyngham, Treasurer to the Royal Irish Academy; being an Appendix to his Memoir on the Theatre of saguntum.

This memoir, and the appendix, are curious and entertaining papers; any attempt, however, to abridge their contents would be unsatisfactory; as, to understand them, constanc reference must be had to the plans and fe&tion by which they are accompanied.

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Letier from Mr. William Beauford, A. B. to the Rev. George

Graydon, LL. B. Secretary to the Committee of Antiquities,
Royal Irish Academy.

This letier contains a commentary on the account given by,
Ptolemy, the Egyptian geographer, of ancient Ireland. It is
accompanied by two maps; one of ancient Ireland of the first
century, according to Ptolemy; the other of ancient Ireland of
the same date, according to the natives.
A Memoir respecting the Antiquities of the Church of Killosly, in

the County of Kildare; with some Conjectures on the Origin of the Ancient Irish Churches. By Mr. William Beauford, A.B.

The parish church of Killossy is curious for the construction of its tower; of which a plate is here given. This memoir closes the volume:- an alphabetical list of the members of the Academy is prefixed.

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Art. XII. A View of the Character and public Services of the late

John Howard, Esq. LL. D. F. R. S. By John Aikin, M. D.
Crown 8vo. pp. 248. 35. 6d. sewed. Johnson. 1792.
TH
HERE are exalted characters, which, by their own intrin-

sic energy, without any foreign aid, press on with irresistible force toward immortality. In this illustrious class of human beings must be ranked the benevolent Howard. Disinterested and hardy exertions, such as his were, in the service of mankind, while they are their own reward, command universal admiration, and can receive no additional splendor from panegyric. It is desirable, however, for the sake of posterity, that distinguished excellence of every kind should be worthily recorded ; and we observe with particular pleasure, that the task of embalming the name of Howard has fallen into hands in all respects so well qualified for the undertaking. In this work, the public will have the satisfaction of seeing a tribute paid to the memory of one, who reflected honour on human nature, not in the bloated style of pompous eulogy, but in a judicious 2nd faithful representation of those circumstances, which dirplay, in their rise and progress, the peculiar features of that character, which has obtained so much deserved celebrity. We have no intention, however, of writing a panegyric either on Mr. Howard or his biographer. We have so frequently had occasion to express our high respect for the merit of the former, and to beltow a willing tribute of applause on the literary productions of the latter, that we may be excused, if, in this article, as on some former occasions, we consult our own gratification and credit, by enriching' our work with a brief abftract of the life of the excellent man who is the subject of these Memoirs.

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abstract

John Howard was born about the year 1727. His father was an upholsterer and carpet-warehouseman in Long-lane, Smithfield; who, having acquired a handsome fortune, retired from business, and had a house first at Enfield, and afterward at Hackney. It was probably at the former of these places that Mr. Howard was born.

As Mr. Howard's father was a strict Protestant Dissenter, it was natural for him to educate his son under a preceptor of the same principles :—but his choice fell on a person lo deficient in the qualifications requisite for his office, that Mr. H. (according to his own account,) after continuing for seven years at school, left it, not fully taught any one thing. The loss of this period was irreparable. From this school he was removed to Mr. Eames's academy: but his continuance there appears to have been of short duration ; and whatever might be his acqutions, he certain!; did not supply the deficiencies of his carlier education.

• Mr. Howard's father died when he was young, and bequeathed to him and a daughter, his orly children, considerable fortunes. He directed in his will, that his lon should not come to the postes. fon of his property till his twenty-fifth year.

• It was, probabiy, in consequence of the father's direction that he was bound apprentice to a wholesale grocer in the city.• But fo irksome was the employment to him, that, on coming of age, he bought out the remainder of his time, and immediately set out on his travels to France and Italy.

• On his retorn he mixed with the world, and lived in the style of other young men of leisure and fortune. He had acquired that talte for the arts which the view of the most perfect examples of them is fitted to create ; and, notwithstanding the defects of his education, he was not without an attachment to reading and the study of pature. The delicacy of his constitution, however, induced him to take lodgings in the country, where for some time his health was the principal object of his attention. As he was supposed to be of a consumptive habit, he was put upon a rigorous regimen of diet, which laid the foundation of that extraordinary abstemiousness and indifference to the gratification of the palate which ever after fo much diftinguished him. It is probable that, from his firit appearance in a itate of independence, his way of thinking and acting was marked by a certain fingularity. Of this, one of the moft remarkable consequences was his first marriage about his twenty-fifth year. As a return of gratitude to Mrs. Sarah Lardeau (or Loidore), widow, with whom he lodged at Stoke Newington, for her kind attention to him during his invalid state, he proposed marsiage to her, though she was twice his age, and extremely fickly; and, notwithstanding her remonftrances on the impropriety of such an union, he persisted in his design, and it took place. She is re. 7

presented

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presented as a sensible, worthy woman; and on her death, three years afterwards (during which interval he continued at Newings ton), Mr. Howard was fincerely affected with his lofs; nor did he ever fail to mention her with respect, after his sentiments of things may have been supposed, from greater commerce with the world, to have undergone a change.

• His liberality with respect to pecuniary concerns was early dir. played ; and at no time of his life does he seem to have considered money in any other light than as an inftrument of procuring happiness to himself and others. The little fortune that his wife polfessed he gave to her sister ; and during his residence at Newington he bestowed much in charity, and made a handsome donation to the Diffenting congregation there, for the purpose of providing a dwelling-house for the minister.

• His attachment to religion was a principle imbibed from his earliest years, which continued steady and uniform through life. The body of Christians to whom he particularly united bimself were the Independents, and his system of belief was that of the moderate Calvinists.'

• It was his constant practice to join in the service of the establish. ment when he had not the opportunity of attending a place of difsenting worship ; and though he was warmly attached to the interests of the party he espoused, yet he had chat true spirit of catholicism, which led him to honour virtue and religion wherever he found them, and to regard the means only as they were subservient to the end.

• He was created a Feilow of the Royal Society on May 13. 1756.'— Three short papers by him' are published in the Trant. actions.

• After the death of his wife, in the year 1756, he set out upon another cour, intending to commence it with a visit to the ruins of Lisbon. The event of this design will be hereafter mentioned. He remained abroad a few months; and, on his return, began to alter the house on bis estate at Cardington near Bedford, where he settled. In 1758 he made a very suitable alliance with Miss Henrietta Leeds, eldest daughter of Edward Leeds, Esq; of Croxton, Cambridgeshire, King's Serjeant; and Gister of the present Edward Leeds, Esq; a Master in Chancery, and of Joseph Leeds, Esq; of Crovdon.'

• It seems to have been the capital object of his ambition, that the poor in his village should be the most orderly in their manners, the neatest in their persons and habitations, and poslefied of the greatest share of the comforts of life, that could be met with in any part of England. And as it was his disposition to carry every thing he undertook to the greatest pitch of perfection, so he spared no pains or expence to effect this purpose. He began by building a number of neat cottages on his eltate, annexing to each a little land for a garden, and other conveniences. In this project, which might be considered as an object of taste as well as of benevolence, he had the full concurrence of his excellent partner. I remember his relating, that once, having settled his accounts at the close of a

year,

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year, and found a balance in his favour, he proposed to his wife to make use of it in a journey to London, or any other gratification the chose. What a pretty cottage it would build," was her anfwer; and the money was so employed. These habitations he peopled with the most industrious and sober tenants he could find; and over them he exercised the superintendence of matter and father combined. He was careful to furnish them with employment, to affist them in fickness and distress, and to educate their children, In order to preserve their morals, he made it a condition that they hould regularly attend their several places of Worship, and abftain from public houses, and from such amusements as he thought per. nicious; and he secured their compliance with his rules by making them tenants at will.'.

• His charities were not confined to those more immediately connected with his property; they took in the whole circle of neighbourhood. His bounty was particularly directed to that fundamental point in improving the condition of the poor, giving them a sober and useful education. From early life he attended to this object; and he established schools for both sexes, conducted upon the most judicious plan.'

• In this manner Mr. Howard passed the tranquil years of his feuiled residence at Cardington; happy in himself, and the instrument of good to all around him. But this state was not long to continue. His domestic felicity received a fatal wound from the death of his beloved wise, in the year 1765, soon after delivery of ber only child. It is unnecessary to say how a heart like his mult have felt on such an event. They who have been witnesses of the fenfibility with which, many years afterwards, he recollected it, and know how he honoured and cherished her memory, will conceive his sensations at that trying period. He was thenceforth attached to his home only by the duties annexed to it; of which the molt interesting was the education of his infant son.'

In the year 1773, Mr. Howard was nominated High Sheriff for the county of Bedford. Being a Dislenter, and at the same time possessing an active spirit, and a degree of zeal not to be obstructed by personal hazard, he took on himself the office, without complying with the legal condition of qualification.

• He entered upon his office with the resolution of performing all its duties with that punctuality which marked his conduc in every thing be undertook. Of these, one of the most important, though lealt agreeable, is she inspection of the prisons within its jurisdiction. But this to nini was not only an act of dury, ic intereited him as a material concern of humanity.'

• The first thing which truck him, was the enormous injustice of remanding to prilon for the payment of fees, those who had beea acquitted or discharged without trial. As the magistrates of his county, though willing to redress this grievance, did not conceive themselves poilelled of the power of granting a remedy, Mr. Howard travelled into some of the neighbouring counties in search of a

precedent.

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