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foon, I confructed upon two thick planks, well pinned together, a map of the world; it was 8feet by 44, allowing a margin ; and when finished, by cutting a Itrong outline to mark both continents and islands, (taken from a small plain chart,) it was hung up in Rajab Moodo's hall, where, unless destroyed by fire, it is likely long to remain ; while paper maps, had I had such to present him, would, it is most likely, be lost, tore, or neglected.

• Since then, I have often said to myself, during my solitary aquatic travels, Why does nobody turn a level verdant plain of a very few acres into a map of the world? When sometimes inven. tion is ftretched co lay out grounds with taste in the gardens of mea cf fortune, such a thing surely would not either be absurd or on. useful. I rather think the contrary; the project could not be attended with great expence, would be pleasant and healthful to young folks, especially in the execution, and make very young persons expert in fimple geography, far beyond what they get from booles and maps even at a more advanced age.

• Let a spot of level ground, 360 yards in length from east to welt,' and 180 yards in breadth from north to south, be inclosed by a wall (in these directions) of a very small height, perhaps one or two feet; let 36 marks be made on the east and we walls, and 18 be made on the north and fouth walls, to fix the degrees of Jongitude and latitude at 10 degrees, or 600 miles alunder; let 4 pieces of oak timber be made, 30 feet long, and 8 inches square, with holes bored in them at the distance of 3 inches, or 5 miles, from one another: thus, 36 inches, or 3 feet, on this piece of timber (which is easily transported and put under cover, and wbich I call scale) are a degree; and the whole scale to degrees or 600 miles in length*

« These scales being placed upon or ftuck in the ground, at any of the large divisions of 10 degrees made on the walls, and oppofite to each other, afford an opportunity, by cross log-lines, or packthread, of determining the particular town, city, or head-land, that is to be marked on this map, in the fame maoner as upon a Theet of paper on a table, with a Gunier scale and a pair of compasses.

" The continents and islands may be made in turf, the sea in gravel: the boundary or outline may be a hard terrace made of mortar, pieces of flate fixed in mortar, or the marrow-bones of bullocks; which some forty years ago I have seen beyond Whitechapel used as a kind of fence near the turnpike-road (this may be remembered by many); or a border of common box may be planted, as is usual in many gardens.

• Ac particular places on this ocean of gravel, posts may be fixed up, indicating particular circumstances of monsoons, trade-wiads,

*' An equator and middle meridian of terras, made narrow and low, and graduated at each 10 degrees, would facilitate the confruc. tion of the map, dividing the wɔole into four, and admit the logo lines to be shorter.'


and currents, &c. prevailing in particular parts, to amuse the contemplative owner, who, taking a few turns before breakfast on the surface of this fat globe, where Nature's volume is attempted to be widely exposed to view, (as Thomson says,) the powers of his mind expand; and he will, I am persuaded, be often inclined to say, This is obvious; ( lee this circumstance in a new light from what I formerly learned from books and maps only. I see a passage from the Downs to India is nothing: the difficulty disappears, compared with the hardships and fatigue of sailing in 'narrow seas. Here seems to live kind ease; while in a passage from London to Newcastle, what with anchoring and weighing every twelve hours, reefing and handing of fails, heaving the lead, &c. in a dittance of lels than 300 miles, and perhaps leven or eight times in a summer, a young man must learn the duty of a seaman. Such reflections will naturally occur to the contemplative mind, and many others of the same nature. I therefore take upon me to say, that the idea of making such a map is worthy of a prince, and within the reach of a private gentleman ro pue in execution. I think it would very much adorn ihe villa of the Minister of a great commercial nation; nay, even the palace of Royalty itself.'

For our account of Capt. Forrest's Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangam, see Rev. vol. Ixx. p. 264.W...s.


Art. XII. Views Taken on or near the River Rhine, at Aix la

Chapelle, and on the River Maeje, by the Rev. J. Gardnor; en-
graved in Aqua Tinta by the Rev. J. Gardnor, and Richard
Gardnor, jun. 4to. 1)11s. 60. in English. Proofs, 2 Guineas.
In French 4s. 68. extra. Walter, Charing-cross. 1792.
*His elegant work confifts of upward of thirty views of the

most picturesque castles, abbeys, and other striking objects, on the banks of the Rhine; objects which have often been viewed at a distance with delight, but which few travellers have had the courage to approach, and which none, as far as we know, have hitherto taken the pains to delineate. The work therefore enjoys the advantage of novelty, to which (if it be allowable to judge in matters of this kind from recollection, merely,) we would say, that it joins the merit of fidelity. To the views in acqua tinta, Mr. Gardnor has added verbal descriptions, which are short, perspicuous, and enlivened by entertaining hints of the occurrences that took place in his tour. As a specimen of the descriptive part of the work*, we insert the following passage, because it contains a general view of these romantic Scenes, as well as an account of the kind of labour in which their inhabitants are chiefly employed :

* Of she engsavings, specimens are not to be expected in a äterary journal.


Gg 2

• In the excurgon we made, during our stay at Baccharah, we louk a complete survey of the many striking objects and romantic scenes which are found in the admired environs of that city. Amongst these, the vine.grounds particularly attracted our notice: they were the first, indeed, of any extent, we bad palled through; but even in a distant or tranhent view, they far excelled any others we had seen, in pittoresque beauty. In our walks through them, we traversed the almolt perpendicular sides of an immense mounlain, which extends upwards of three miles below Baccharah, on the western bank of the Rhine; the vines overspreading it in many parts, from the summit to the water's edge; in others, the verdant cloathing was broken by tremendous rocks, projectiog from the bosom of the mountain, and bending o'er its fides, as if in fond contemplation of the beauty and luxuriance of their dress. Groves of walnut-trees interspersed among the vines, with frequent and varied views of the river, contributed very greatly to the embellishments of this enchanting place. We had not intended to proceed further in our present expedition, than the end of the vineyards; but, when we arrived at that point, the town of Pfaltz, with a calle on a rock in the middle of the Rhine, presented a view which I could not suffer to escape me. I descended therefore to che river fide, and made the drawing from which the fifth plate is engraved.

· The vineyards of Baccharah were formerly esteemed above all others for the excellence of the wine they produced; but the wines of Heidleberg, Hoygesteim, and the Rhinegau, are at present in much greater vogue. Whether this be owing to any real superiority in their quality I know not; for I had no opportunity of giving my opinion of the Baccharah wine, being unable, either by money or favor, to procure a single bottle ; but if its qualities be at all proportioned to the labour employed in producing it, there can be no doubt of its excellence : for unless Providence had wisely formed the bodies and disposed the minds of men in all countries to the local offices to be performed, the cultivation of the vineyards of Baccharah would be ioo arduous for human patience or strength to endure. The side of the mountain on which the vines are planted, is cut into a great number of fallow terraces, which are carried quite to its summit; forming an ascent, almolt perpendicular,' of at least half a mile: by these terraces, the peasants akcend the mountain, and convey manure, which they carry on their shoulders to every part of the vineyard. When properly diftributed, they fecure it, in the beft manner the nature of the ground will admit, by a slight feace;. but they have often the mortification to see their labours frustrated by violent rains, which sweep away both foil and manure, and leave the roots of the vines bare. This produces a failure of the vintage; which, from whatever cause it happens, generally reduces the propriecors of vineyards to the humble fituation of day-labourers, whole poverty and wretchedness are not to be conceived from any condition or circumitances to which the lowest of the people of England either are or can be expofed.'

The views are executed with minute diligence, not devoid of taste: but the black colour, we think, too strongly predominates ; which often gives them an aspect rather gloomy than agreeably romantic. This sable hue is sometimes, indeed, in its proper place; as in the views of the Castle of the Cat: but the views, where it less prevails, as that of Hui, and several others, are, on this account, the more pleasing.


Mr. Gardnor's style of writing is generally good, though he is sometimes chargeable with a degree of obscurity. Thus, in page 150, he tells us, " There is a singular part of Brufsels, which is in fact a little town; for it is inclosed by a wall and a ditch, and divided into streets. It is called the Bequinage. The number of Bequines is near a thousand, governed by matrons, and under the spiritual direction of the Bishop of Antwerp.' It would have been useful to most readers to have said, that, in the Low Countries, Bequines are widows or maidens, who, without taking religious vows, retire from the society of the male sex, with a view to avoid the temptations of the world, and to lead a life of purity and devotion.

The paper, and the press-work, of this publication are very neat. We have seen an advertisement which mentions, that

the prints may be had, stained yellow, at il. 16s.; in colours, 51. gs.; mounted for frames, 61. 6s. ; which are very little, if at all, inferior to drawings. The same views, unbound, 20 inches by 17, price 81. 8s.; proofs, 121. 125.; coloured, 251. 45. The Englith letter-press alone, in a pocket volume,


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ART. XIII. Remarks on Mr. Gilbert Wakefield's Enquiry into the

Expedienty and Propriety of Public or Social Worship. By Anna

Lætitia Barbauld. 8vo. pp. 76. 25. Johoron. 1792. W:

7 HILE dulness plods on in a beaten track, and apologizes

for the feebleness of its expressions, by lamenting that every topic is exhausted, genius is continually making bold excursions into new regions; and, on subjects the most hackneyed, is capable of producing something original. Though the benefit of public worship has often furnished a theme for declamation, the subject affumes, in the hands of Mrs. Barbauld, a new and interesting form. The practice of mankind, in all paft ages, with respect to public worship, is described; and succeeding generations of men are brought before the reader's imagination, expressing their homage to the divinity, by sacrifices, festivals, dancing, music, and prayers. The natural propensity of men to social worship; its fuperiority, in many respects, to folitary devotion; and the reasonableness of poiting in acts of prayer and praise; are well illustrated. Se



veral juft observations are made on the argument for public worship, drawn from authority: but the considerations chiefly discussed, are those derived from utility; and here much good fenfe and elegant writing are employed to fhew that publie worship, beside its obvious influence on the religious and moral ftate of the mind, is attended with many collateral advantages. Among these are considered its effect in civilizing the lower orders of society; in affording them an agreeable relief from Jabour and tervitude; in furnising them with opportunities of instruction; and in bringing men together on the footing of equality. What is offered on this last head is new, and worthy of the attention of our readers :

• Let it be observed, in the next place, that public worship is a civic meeting. The temple is the only place where human beings, of every rank and sex and age, meet together for one common purpose, and join together in one common act. Other meetings are either political, or formed for the purposes of splendor and amusement; from both which, in this country, the bulk of inhabitants are of necelliiy excluded. This is the only place, to enter which nothing more is necessary than to be of the lame species; the only place where man meets man not only as an equal but a brother; and where, by contemplating his duties, he may bec me sensible of his rights. So high and haughry is the spirit of aritto. cracy, and such the increasing pride of ine privileged claffes, that is is to be feared, if men did not attend at the same place here, it would hardly be believed they were meant to go to the fame place hereafter. It is of service to che cause of freedom therefore, no less than to that of virtue, that there is one place where the invidious diliinctions of wealth and cities are not admitted; where all are equal, not ty making the low, proud, but by making the great, bumble. How many a man exilts who poflefies not the smalleft property in this earch of which you call him lord; who, from the narrowing spirit of properiy, is circumscribed and hemmed in by he poffeffions of his more opulent neighbours, till there is scarce y an unoccupied spot of verdure on which he can set his foot to admire the beauties of nature, or barren mountain on which he can draw the fresh air without a trespass. The enjoyments of life are for others, the labours of its are for him. He hears those of his class (poken of collectively, as of machines, which are to be kept in repair indeed, but of which the sole use is to raise the happiness of the higher orders. Where, but in the temples of religion, fall he jearn chat he is of the same species? He hears there (and were it for the first time, it would be with infinite astonishment) that all are considered as alike ignorant and to be instructed; all alike finful ad peeding forgiveness; all alike bound by the same obligations, and animated by the same hopes. In the intercourses of the world

man is seen, but not noticed; he may be in the presence of his upcriors, but he cannot be in their company. In every other place it would be presumption in him to let his voice be heard along with theirs; here alone they are both sailed together, and bleoded


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