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in the full chores of praise. In every orher place it would be an offence to be near them, without thewing in his attitudes and deportment the conscious marks of inferiority; here only be sees the proftrations of the rich as low as his, and hears them boih addressed together in the majestic fimplicity of a language that knows no adulation. Here the poor man learns that, in spite of the distinc. tions of rank, and the apparent inferiority of his condition, all the true goods of life, all enat men dare petition for when in the prelence of their Makera sound mind, a healthful body, and daily bread, lie within the scope of his own hopes and endeavours; and that in the large inheritance to come, his expectations are no less ample than theirs. He rises from his knees, and feels himself a man. He learns philosophy without its pride, and a spirit of liberty without its curbulence. Every time social wornip is celebrated, it includes a virtual declaration of the rights of man.'

Many other judicious observations are added, particularly respecting the good effects that may be expected from the attendance of men of learning and refinement on public worship; and on the improvements which are desirable in the present methods of conducting public services.

Mrs. B. compliments the Diflenters, we suppose not without some authority from experience, on their openness to conviction, and on their readiness to profit by every sober and liberal remark which may aflilt them to improve their religious addreffes. She advises them to give their places of worship a more cheerful and a more democratic form; to allow the people to have a considerable share in the performance of the service, by the intermixing of their voices; to introduce a more systematic method of teaching, in which a connected series of instruction may be delivered on natural and revealed religion, and on moral duties, without regard to the custom of prefixing a text of scripture to every discourse ; and to join to religious information some inftru&tion in the laws of our country.

Several of these hints appear to merit attention. There will be no reason to regret Mr. Wakefield's attack on public worhip, if the result be, not an abolition of the practice, but its correction and improvement.


ART. XIV. The Iliad and OdyDey of Homer, translated into English

Blank Verse. By W. Cowper, of the Inner Temple, Esq. 410, 2 Vols.

21. 125. 6d. Boards. Johnson. 1791. THE He attention of the public has been fixed on the volumes

before us by many and various causes. The venerable name of the original writer, a name endeared to us by the en. thusiasm of our youthful studies, and sanctified by the homage of countless generations; the splendid success of Mr. Pope,

whose given because


whose version, though obnoxious to criticism, seemed to defy competition; and the poetical reputation of Mr. Cowper, who, inftead of fhrinking from the contest, boldly challenged the prize ;-all these circumstances have induced us to peruse this translation with avidity, and to reconsider some parts of it with no common share of attention.

Our remarks, however, will be the less numerous, because a few specimens, impartially selected, will enable both the Greek scholar and the English reader to appreciate its general character.

Mr. Cowper's own words will best explain his design, and what he conceives to be the peculiar excellence of his work:

That he (Mr. Pope) has sometimes altogether supprefied the sense of his author, and has not seldom intermingled his own ideas with it, is a remark which, on this occasion, nothing but necessity should have extoried from me. But we differ sometimes so widely in our marter, that unless this remark, invidious as it seems, be premised, I know not how to obviate a suspicion, on the one hand, of care. less overlight, or of factitious embellishment on the other. On this head, therefore, the English reader is to be admonished, that the matter found in me, whether he like it or not, is found also in Homer, and that the matter not found in me, how much foever he may admire it, is found only in Mr. Pope. I have omitted nothing; I have invented nothing

• There is indisputably a wide difference between the case of an original writer in thime and a translator. In an original work the author is free; if the rhime be of difficult attainment, and he cannot find it in one direction, he is at liberty to seek it in another; the macier that will not accommodaie itself to his occafions he may discard, adopting such as will. But in a translation no such option is allow able; the sense of the author is required, and we do not sure render it willingly even to the plea of necessity. Fidelity is indeed the very esence of transation, and the term itself implies it. For which reason, if we fuppress the sense of our original, and force into its place our own, we may call our work an imitation, if we please, or perhaps a paraphrase, but it is no longer the same author only in a different dress, and therefore it is not translarioo.

· My chief boast is that I have adhered closely to my original, convinced that every departure from him wou d be punished with the forfeiture of some grace or beauty for which I could subtitute no equivalent. The epithets ihat would consent to an English form I have preserved as epithets; others that would not, I have melted into the context. There are none, I believe, which I have not translated in one way of other, though the reader will not find them sepeated so often as most of them are in Homer, for a realon that need not be mentioned.

• Few persons of any confideration are in:roduced either in the Iliad or Odyssey by their own name only, but their patronymic is 4

given also. To this ceremonial I have generally attended, because it is a circumstance of my author's manner.

• Homer never allots less than a whole line to the introduction of a speaker. No, not even when the speech itself is no longer than the line t at leads it. A practice to which, since he never departs from it, he must have been determined by some cogent reafon. He probably deemed it a formality necessary to the majesty of his narration. In this article, therefore, I have scrupulously adhered to my pattern, considering these introductory lines as heralds in a procession; important persons, because employed to usher in persons more important than themselves.

• It has been my point everywhere to be as little verbose as posfible, though, at the fame time, my constant determination not to {acrifice my author's full meaning to an affected brevity.

• In the affair of Atyle, I have endeavoured neither to creep nor to blufter, for no author is fo likely to betray his translator into both these faults, as Homer, though bimself never guilty of either. ! have cautiously avoided all terms of new invention, with an abund, ance of which, persons of more ingenuity than judgment have not cariched our language, but incumbered it. I have also everywhere used an unabbreviated fullness of phrase as most suited to the nature of the work, and, above all, have studied perspicuity, not only because verse is good for little that wants it, but because Homer is the most perspicuous of all poets.'

What are the natural and indefeasible rights of a translator how far they are either contracted or extended by the established laws of criticism ; beyond what point poetical fidelity becomes really treason against the majesty of the original, and reformation may be styled loyalty; are questions of nice and hazardous discussion. We suspect, however, that Mr. C. disa claims some of the necessary privileges of his fraternity, and that, by contending so strongly for the doctrine of passive and unlimited obedience to his author, he attempts to mutilate a charter of very ancient date.

Would Mr. C. himself, or any other poet who merits the praise of foreign nations and diftant pofterity, subject his own writings to a tranflation con ducted on such principles? Would he not rather entrust them to men of kindred genius, and cultivated taste, -men who, transplanting no Aower that would perish by removal, but softening only what is harsh, and adding nothing that is incongruous, would transfule the energy, the spirit, the general character, and the colour, of his poem, into their vernacular language? This we have never seen atchieved by the advocates for literal translation, even when suffered to expatiate in blank verse, an advantage of which Mr. Cowper has judiciously availed himself, As the vehicle of a translation of Homer, the Milionic versification is, in our opinion, superior to that of Mr. Pope; not only because it renders fidelity more easy, but ν. 174. Αλλ' αγι, τω δ' εφες ανδρι βελος

203 of the

At yon chief

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Verf. 142.

Ib. 157.

Verf. 191.

Verfion. Dispatch an arrow'
vii. 99. Αλλ' υμεις μεν παλες υδωρ και γαια γενoισθε

Hμενοι αυθ. έκαςοι ακηριοι, ακλεις αυλας.
Verf. 111.

• Daftards, deaf to glory's call Rot where


ic.'. viii. 218. Ει μη επι φρεσι θηκ' Αγαμεμνους ποινια Ηρη, Αυλω ποιπουσαι, θοως οτρυναι Αχαιες.

• But Juno mov'd the mind Of Agamemnon, vigilant himself,

To exhortation of Achaia's hoft.' xiii. 11. Και γαρ ο θαυμαζων ησο πολεμον τε μαχην τιVer. 16.

- The fir Admiring thence and tempest of the field.' 1b. H4. Ημεας γ οπως εσι μεθιεμεναι πολεμοιο.

Ye at least the fight decline,

Blameworthy, and with no sufficient plea.'
xvii. 122. γυμνον is, we think, νulgarly tranlated bare.
Vers. 145. My gallant Ajax, hafte, come quickly, strive

With me to rescue for Achilles' fake
His friend, though bare, for Hector hath his arms,

-οιον ' α.δρας εσερχείαι, οι περι παιρης
Ανδρασε δυσμενεσσι πονον και δηρον εθελο.

• such as in the breast resides Of lab’rers in their country's dear behalf.' xviii. 3ο6.

P8 μιν εγαγε
Φευξομαι εκ πολεμοιο δυσηχεος, αλλα μαλ’ αλην
Στησομαι -

The epithet δυσηχεος is happily rendered deep-toned, but the passage ends miserably in Mr. C.'s tranflation

• I Thall not for his fake Avoid the deep-toned batile, but will firm

Oppofe bis utmost.' The description of Vulcan leaving his forge, and dreffing to receive the visit of Thetis, is not remarkable for its delicacy in the original : but, in the hands of Mr. C., it degenerates, we think, into coarse vulgarity: xviii. 414. Σπογίω δ' αμφι προσωπα, και αμφωχεις και απομοργου,

Αυχενα τε σιβαροι, και τηθεα λαχνηενία"
Δν δε χων' ελε δι σκηπτρον παχυ" βη δε θυραζι

Verf. 511.' Then, all around with a wet sponge be wiped

His visage, and his arms and brawny neck
Purified, and his fhagey breast from smutch;
Latt, putting on his veft, he took in hand
His flurdy ftaff, and shuffled through she door.'

Verf. 377.

Verl. 334.

Verf. 532.

Verf. 270.


xxi. 282. Ερχθεντ' εν μεγαλω πολαμω, ως παιδα συφορβον.

• Whelm'd in deep waters like a swineherd's boy

Drown'd in wet weather while he fords a brook, xxxiii. 426. Αντιλοχ αφραδεως ιππαζιαι

• Antilochus, at what a madman's rate

Diiv't chou'Odyssey, 1, 216.

8γας πω τις εον γονου αυλος ανεγνώ

- fince no mortal knows His derivation.' ii. 146.

αιετω ευρυοπα Ζευς Υψοθεν εκ κορυφης ορεος προεηκε

πελεσθαι. Vers. 200, • The thundrer from a lofty mountain-top

Turn'd of two eagles' iv. 471. Ως εφαμεν' ο δε μ' αυίις αμειβομενος προσεειπε

Sol-when thus the old one of the waves.' χίν. 412. Κλαγη δ' ασπέλος ωίο συων αυλιζομεναων.

• And loud The hubbub was of swine prison's within,' xvii. 78. Πειραι' και γαρ τ' ιδμεν όπως εσαι ταδε εργα.

• Piræus, wait, for I not yet foresee

The uphor.' xviii. 27. Γρης καμινοι ισος

“ like an old hag Collied with chimney fmutch.'

Verf. 573.

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Verf. 94

Verf. 33.

Verf. 379.

v. 85. 'Pedæus, whom, altho' his fporious son

Antenor's wife, to gratify her lord,

Had cherish'd as her own, him Meges flen.'
ν. 330. ---ο δε Κυπριν επωχθο νηλεί χαλαν
Γιγνωσκων και αναλκις εην θεος.

He, fierce in arms,
Pursu'd the Cyprian goddess, conscious whom.'
Ib. 395. Τλη δ' Αϊδης εν τοισι πελωριος-
Vers. 461. Nor suffer'd Ploto less, of all the gods

Gigantic moft'
vi. 62. - και δ απο εθεν ωσαλο χειρι

Ηρω’ Αδρηςον" τον δε κρειων Αγαμεμνων
Ουτα κατα λαπαρην

." He with his hand
Thrust back Adraltus, and himself, the king,

His bowels pierc'd' x. 383.

Pass, I will Their army through' xi. 755. Οφρ επι Βεπρασια πολυπερα βησαμεν ίππος.

" till we our steeds had driven To the Buprasian fields laden with corn.'

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Verf. 913:

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