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303. To is put likewise for dix Ti, why. Matt. vi. 28. T. peeglje!'ATE, Why are ye anxiously careful ?—Matt. xvii. 10. Why then say the scribes ? ---John i. 25: T. xv, Why then baptizesi thou ? See Whitby in loc.

304. Ti, Wkether, namely of two things. Luke v. 23. Tig Whether is easier to say, thy fins be forgiven thee *?

305. Tis, What fort, how great. Luke viii. 25. Tis apx étos, How great indeed is this man! for he conımandeth, &c.

306. Tos, Every one. I Cor. iv. 2. It is required in fiecare ards, that (T45) every one be found faithful.

'T II E P. 307. 'Ttep, with the genitive case, fignifies concerning. Rom. ix. 27. Esais also cries (STEP) concerning Israel*. - 2 Cor. i. 7. Our hope (umep) concerning jou is form. Ver. 8. I would not brethren have you ignorant (ime) concerning our trouble.--2 Cor. viii. 23. Whether any enquire (img) concerning Titus, he is my partner.-- 2 Cor. viii. 24. Our boasting (üneg ipwv) concerning you.—2 Theff. ii. 1.

Now we beseech you brethren, (unes) concerning the coming of cur Lord Jejiss Christ, and our gathering together unto him.

308. Tmeg, For, instead of, in behalf of. Rom. v. 7. Scarcelo (integ) for a righteous man*. ---Ver. 8. Christ died (Uteg nuwv) for us*.-Philip. i. 29. To you it is given (unes xg158) in behalf of Christ*. -Philem. ver. 13. Detained him with me, that (utreg cy) in thy fieau, he mig at have ministered.

309. *77&p, On account of. 1 Cor. xv. 29. What fball they da who are baptized (ursp) on account of the dead?

310. 'Ymeg, With respect to. Col. i. 7. Who is a faithful minister of Chrijl (07ey) with refpe&t to you.

311. 'Yzreg, From, denoting the motive of an action. Philipa ii. 13. Who worketh in you (ime) from good will.

3:2. ‘YTEQ, More than. Matt. x. 37. Loveth father or mother (ürtsp) more than we*.--1 Theil. iii. 10. Requesting (UTES &K TEPIC ) more than exceedingly, that is, most exceedingly.

TII O. 313. 'The commonly fignifies under ; but with a genitive it denotes the cause of a thing, and must be translated of, by, from,

Matte

Matt. ii. 17. Was spoken (úto) by Jeremiah*.--1 Cor. vii. 25.
I give my judgment as one who hath cbtained mercy (úto) of the
Lord*.--Heb. xii. 3. Such contradiction (uno) from finners.
314. T70, At.

Acts v. 21. They entered into the temple (UTTO TOV op, Içov) at day-break.- James ii. 3. Sit thou here (ÚTo) at my footstool.

315. 'Y70, Under, denoting subjection. Mat. viii. 9. Having foldiers (ümo) under me*, under my command.

12.

316. '12, preceded by ev, signifies because. Rom. viii. 3. The thing impossible for the law to do, (sv o:) because it was weak through the flesh.--Heb. ii. 18. Evi, Because he suffered, being tempted, he is able to save.—Heb. vi. 17. Erw, For which cause God willing, &c. In this sense, the best Greek writers use the phrase. See Vigerus, p. 364.

317. Ev w signifies while. Mark ii. 19. Can the children of the bride-chamber fast, (sv w) while the bridegroom*, &c.—Rom. ii. 1. Ev w yxg, For whilst thou condemneft, &c. ·

318. EQ u Because. Rom. v. 12. Ep , Because all kave finned*.

Ω Σ. See Καθας. 319. 's is sometimes used affirmatively, and must be translated indeed, truly, certainly, actually; for Hesychius and Phavorinus tell us, that ws is put for avtos, annwg. Neh. vii. 2. Autosas ayng aan Ins, He was indeed a true man. --Matt. xiv. 5. He feared the multitude, because they counted him (John, ws nagoputns) really a prophet.-- John i. 14. We beheld his glory, the glory, (u's Jovoyevns) indeed of the only begotten of the Father.-Acts xvii. 22. I see that in all things ye are (ws) certainly most religious.-Rom. ix. 32. But (s) actually by works of law.--2 Cor. ii. 17. Ana'wis EZ ELMXÇIvelas, ana' w's Ex 088, But indeed from fincerity, and from God.

Luke xx. 37. Now that the dead are raised, even Moses fewed at the bush, (ws hegel) when he called the Lord, the God of Abraham, the God of Ifaac*, &c.—Luke xxii. 66. Karws & Eveto ñuega, And when it was day.--Luke i. 23. 'B25 etano Gno av megai, When the days were fulfilled. Acts xxvii.i.

320. 225, When.

'S25, When it was determined*. -Philip. ii. 12. Not (ws) when in my presence only.

321. Ως, Seeing. 2 Cor. v. 20. Ως τε Θεε παρακαλοντος, Seeing God beseeches you by us, we pray in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.-Col. ii. 6. 'Ds, Seeing ye have received Christ Jesus, &c. Scapula likewise gives us this meaning.

322. '125, Namely. 2. Cor. xi. 21. I speak with respect to reproach, (ws ori) namely, that we have been weak.--2 Cor. v. 18. And hath given us the ministry of reconciliation. 19. (ws ótı) Namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself*.

323. '15, illative, Wherefore. Heb. iii. 81. 'D25, So (wherefore) I fware*.

324. '125, admiration, How! Rom. x. 15. '125, How beautiful !--Rom. xi. 33. 'S25, How unsearchable*!

325. '125, That. 1 Tim. i. 3. '125, That without ceasing*.

“Ω Σ Τ Ε. 326. 'Nse sometimes fignifies so then, so that.

I Cor. iii. 7. *S25, So then neither is he that planteth any thing.—2 Cor. ii. 7. 15€, So that contrarywise ye ought rather to forgive*.-Gal. iv. 16. *825€ ex Igos, So then I am become your enemy, because I speak truth to you?

327. 125€, In like manner. Iliad, B. line 474. M. line 278. 328. 1255, That. i Cor. v. 1. '125, That one should have*, &c.

329. 1250, denoting the end for which a thing is done. Rom. vii. 6. '12se, That we should serve in newness of spirit*.

330. 'Qse causal, for. 2 Cor. v. 17. '15, For if any man be, * &c.

331. 125€, illative. Wherefore. Rom. vii. 4. '125, Wherefore my brethren*.-Ver. 12. '15, Wherefore the law is holy*.1 Cor. X. 12. 125, Wherefore let him that thinketh be ftandeth*.

-1 Cor. xi. 27. '15, Wherefore whosoever all eat*. - 2 Cor. v. 16. 125, Wherefore henceforth we know no man after the flesh.

Conclufon. From the numerous passages of scripture produced in this essay, it appears, That the Greek particles, as used by the writers of the New Testament, have a great variety of fignifiVOL. I.

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cations: that no translation, especially of the apostolical epistles, in which the Greek particles have only a few of their significations given, will rightly express the meaning of these writings: and that the rectifying of the translation of the particles, though it be only by substituting one monosyllable for another, will often change the sense of a paffage entirely, and render it a chain of strict logical reasoning : whereas, by a wrong transa lation, it becomes quite incoherent, if not inconsequent.

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Sect. I. Of the Time when the Chrisian Religion was introduced

at Roine.

TH

HEscriptures do not inform us at what time, or by whom,

the gospel was first preached in Rome. But from the fol. lowing circumstances, it is probable that the church there was one of the first planted Gentile churches, and that it soon became very numerous.

When St. Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans, A. D. 57. their faith was spoken of throughout the whole world, Rom. i. 8. and many of them possessed fpiritual gifts, Rom. xii. 6. and their ebedience was known to all men, Rom. xvi. 19.-Farther, the fame of the church at Rome had reached the apostle long before he wrote this letter. For he told them, he had a desire for many years to come to them, Rom. xv. 23. The gospel therefore was introduced in Rome very early, perhaps by some of the disciples who were scattered abroad after Stephen's death, in the end of the reign of Tiberius. Or the founding of the Roman church may have happened even before that period : for among the persons

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