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judges of language, know that the alteration of a single word in a sentence, and even a different pointing, will change its meaning entirely; as was shewn by some examples, p. 30. Gen. Pref. But to have illustrated in the same manner all the alterations and corrections which the author hath introduced into his translation would have swelled the work to an enormous size. , And therefore to shew in what particulars this differs from the common version of the epistles, the author hath contented himself, as was observed, p. 26. with printing what is different in Italic characters, and hath left it for the most part to the reader's own iagacity, not only to judge of the propriety of his corrections, but to investigate the reasons by which they are supported.
Yet to prevent cursory readers from disregarding this tranflation of the epistles, merely because a number of the corrections which it offers, are of the minute kind, the authoř will here compare one of its chapters only with the common English version of the same chapter, and will shew, that even by the slightest alterations, when made agreeably to the original, such a change in the sense is sometimes produced, as throws great light on the sentiments and reasonings of the inspired writers. The chapter chosen for comparing the two translations, shall be the first of the epistle to the Romans; not because the alterations introduced into the new translation of that chapter, are either of greater magnitude, or more in number, or of higher importance than those in the other chapters of the epistle, (for in reality, they are fewer, more minute, and of less importance,) but be. cause the reader will naturally fix his eye on that chapter first, from its presenting itself first to his view.
Rom. i. 3. Who was made of the feed of David according to the flesh. This leads the reader to think of the formation of our Lord's body. Whereas the apostle's meaning is, that with respect to his flesh he was descended from David, and that by a female. In the new translation, these ideas are suggested, by substituting the word born (which is one of the literal significations of yevollsvc-) in place of the word made, in this manner: Who was born of the seed of David, with respect to the flesh.
Ver. 4. Was declared to be the Son of God with power, by the resurrection from the dead. This implies that Jesus was declared to be the Son of God, by his raising other persons from the dead. But as Jesus himself often appealed to his own resurrection in proof of his being the Son of God, the phrase e avaslatews tengwu is undoubtedly an ellipfis, in which two words are omitted. One of them is supplied by our translators, namely the word from : the other word his is supplied in the new translation, which runs thus: Declared the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead. The meaning is, that Jesus was declared the Son of God by his own resurrection, and not by raising others from thie dead.
Ver. 5. By wkom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations for his name.
This rendering, besides being inelegant, is faulty in two particulars. For firft, Paul did not receive his apostleship by Chrift; that is, from God by the intervention of Christ, but from Christ himself, a3 holding the right originally of making an apostle. Secondly, ÜTAMONU TNS T15EWS does not signify obedience to the faith, but the obedience of faith. In the new translation these faults are thus corrected. From whom we have received grace and apostleship, in order to the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles, on account of his name. The apostle received his office from Christ himself, that by preaching him every where as the Son of God, and Saviour of the world, he might produce the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles, on account of his dignity and authority as the Son of God. Ver.
9. Without ceasing making mention of you always in my prayers, is a tautology, which, in the new translation, is avoided, by joining the clause, always in my prayers, with the word requesting in the beginning of ver. 10. with which it stands connected in the Greek.
Ver. 12. Tyto de est, that is to say. According to this translation, ver. 12. is an explication of ver. 11. But every reader muft be fenfible, that the things contained in the two verses are entirely different. Wherefore 7810 de ssi fhould not be translated, that is to say, as in our bible, where de is neglected as an expletive, and the words to say, are supplied, but the verse should be supplied and translated in the following manner. And this is proposed, that I may be comforted together with you, by the mutual faith of you and me.
Ver. 15. So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the sof pel to
are in Rome also. The new translation of this verse is more perspicuous and emphatical. Therefore, (namely because I am a debtor, &c.) I am willing, according to my ability, to preach the gospel even to you who are in Rome. For to hinder the Romans from suspecting that the apostle had hitherto avoided coming to Rome, because he was afraid to preach the gospel to such a learned and intelligent people, he told them, that notwithstanding their great learning, he was willing to preach the gospel even to them. And to shew that this is his meaning, he added, ver. 16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, &c.
Ver. 17. For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith : as it is written, The just sall live by faith. The righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith, is an affemblage of words, to which no distinct meaning can be affixed. But the
priginal rightly construed, gives the following clear literal sense. The righteousness of God by faith, is revealed in it, in order to faith. The apostle was not ashamed of the gospel, because à righteous. ness of God's appointment, to be obtained by faith, is revealed in it, in order to produce faith in them to whom it is preached. The latter clause, as it is written, the just Mall live by faith, were better translated, The juft by faith, fall live. For although in the Hebrew it is, The just shall live by his faith, the copy of Habakkuk's prophely, from which the LXX took their translation, and the apostle his quotation, certainly wanted the pronoun bis. Be. sides, as the apostle's design in making this quotation, was to prove, that Habakkuk wrote concerning a righteousness by faith, either the most ancient and best copies of his prophesy wanted the pronoun, or the passage must be construed and traníJated thụs : The just by his faith, the man who is just by his faith, shall live. For otherwise translated, this quotation is no proof of the apostle's assertion, that Habakkuk hath written of a righteousness by faith.
Ver. 9. That which may be known of God is manifeft in them. According to this translation, the apostle's meaning is, That the knowledge of God, attainable by the light of nature, was manifest in the minds of the Grecian philosophers. But to say, that knowledge is manifest in any one's mind, merely because it exists there, is very improper." Knowledge in the mind cannot be manifest, except it be Thewn either by words, or by actions. That the heathen philosophers did not manifest the existence of the knowledge of God in their minds by their actions, is plain from their public institutions of religion, in which they shewed the groffest ignorance of God. As little did they manifest that knowledge, in their discourses to the common people. They rather unrighteously concealed it from them, as the apostle affirms, ver. 18. By their writings only, they manifested their knowledge of God to the few who could read them. This therefore being the apostle's meaning, to express it, the word xv, instead of being translated in, as in our bible, ought to have been translated among, as in the new translation. That which may be known of God, is manifeft among them, for God hath manifested it to them.
Ver. 20. For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, so that they are without excuse. The phrase, from the creation of the world, is ambiguous : for it may signify either, by the creation of the world, or since the creation of the world. The latter is „the apostle's meaning ; because clearly seen by the creation of the world, is precisely the same in sense with the clause which fole lows it; namely, being understood by the things that are made;
which thus becomes a tautology. But, both the ambiguity and the tautology will be removed, if the preposition ano is translated fince, as it is Luke ii. 36. thus: His invisible things, even his eter, nal power and Godhead, ano, fince the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being underflood by the things that are made, so that they are inexcusable, &c.
Ver. 21. Because that when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful. The apostle's meaning is not, that at what time they knew God, they glorified him not, &c. but that alt:ough the legislators and philosophers knew the true God, they neither glorified him as God, by making him the object of the people's worship, nor appointed any public thanksgivings to be offered to him, as the author of all the good things mankind enjoy. These ideas the common translation does not express diftinctiy: but in the new version, they are suggested with fufficient plainnefs, by rendering the words n evzapisnoav literally, neither gave him thanks, and by giving the participle quotes its adversative sense, thus : Because although they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, neither gave him thanks, but became foolish by their own reajunings: those reasonings, by which they pretended to justify polytheism and idolatry, as the most proper religion for the vulgar.
Ver. 32. Who knowing the judgment of God, that they who commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but take pleasure in them that do them. The new translation of this verse is more accurate and emphatical. Who though they knew, to àındwua, the law of God, that they who practise such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but even are well pleased with those who practise them. The heathen legislators, instead of punishing, were well pleased with their people, when they practised the enormities mentioned in the preceding part of this chapter.
There are other variations in the new translation of this chapter, by which it is brought more close to the original than the version in common use : but it is needless to mention them, as the examples produced may suffice to shew, that even the smallest alterations in the translation, when conformable to the original, make a great change in the meaning of the passages. It is of more importance to observe, that from the above examples, the reader may justly conclude, that the minute alterations in the other chapters of the Romans have the same effect, as they likewise have in all the chapters of the other epistles, where they are introduced; consequently, that they should not be passed over slightly, but considered with attention, that their importance may be understood. It is necessary also to observe, that notwithstanding so much has been-said to fhew the value
these minute alterations, the reader must not therefrom conclude, that all, or even the greatest part of the alterations in this translation, are of the minute kind." In every epistle, there are many of much greater magnitude, than those in the first chapter to the Romans. But there is no occasion to shew this by examples. They will strike the reader at first sight. Neither is it necessary here to point out, in what respects they alter the meaning of the passages 'where they are introduced. In the notes, the propriety of many of them is sufficiently illustrated : and for the rest, they will recommend themselves to the learned by their exact agreement with the original.
By this time, the reader no doubt understands, that the alterations and corrections, concerning which so much hath been said in this premonition, are those which, in the following translation, are made on the English version commonly used. But the principles on which these alterations are founded, having been explained at great length in different parts of the General Preface, no farther information concerning them is requisite, except to put the reader in mind, that they consist in the following particulars. 1. In substituting modern English words and phrases in place of such as are now become obsolete.-2. In corre&ing the language of the common version, where it is ungrammatical.
-3. In rejecting ambiguous expressions, of which there are many in our English bible.-4. In placing the words of the translation in the order which the corresponding words hold in the original, as often as either the meaning, or the perspicuity of any passage depends on that order.-5. In fupplying the elliptical expreslions properly: and for the most part, either from what goes before, or from what follows in the text.-6. In excluding all such words and clauses as have been added by our translators unneceffarily. Of this kind, there are a number in their version, which hurt the sense.-7. In accurately marking those words, which in the common translation are added to the text, without being marked as added ; but which being retained in this, as necessary to complete the sense, it was fit to distinguish them from the original words, that the reader may judge of their propriety.-8. In rightly construing the Greek text, where it requires to be construed ; and in translating the paffages according to that right construction.-9. In translating the Greek words and phrases according to their true literal meaning, both where they have been mistranslated, and where they have been paraphrased : because, in general, the literal will be found to agree better with the context, and to be more emphatical and beautiful, than any free translation whatever.-10. In not varying the translation of the same words and phrases in the same Lentence, unless they are evidently used in different senses: 'a N4