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rule which ourtranslators have often tranfgreffed, to the darken. ing of the meaning of many passages.-11. In altering the pointing of some sentences, for the purpose of rendering their meaning more consonant to the context. – 12. In translating the Greek particles properly, according to that variety of meaning, in which they are used by the sacred writers.
The corrections comprehended under this last class, are so numerous, and, though minute, make such a change in the sense of the apoftolical writings, that any version, in which the Greek p rticles are properly translated, may well be accounted new, For it is certain, as was observed before, (p. 96, 97.) from B. Lowth, that upon the right rendering of the connective parts of fentences, depends the relation which the different members of the discourse have to each other : and that by the mutual relation of these members, the train of thought, the course of rea. foning, and the whole progress of the mind in continued dil. course, are laid open. Accordingly it will be found, that, in the following translation, the scheme of 'the apostle's reasoning is oftentimes entirely changed, from what it appears to be in the
common Old TRANSLATION.
GREEK TEXT. CHAP. I. 1. Paul a fer
1 Παυλος δελος Ιησε Χριvant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apoftle, separated 50,00ņTOS ATO50h05, «Qwpioa unto the gospel of God. μενος εις ευαίγελιον Θεε, ,
2 (Which he had promis- 2 Ο προεπηύγειλαιο δια ed afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures.)
των προφήων αυγε εν γραφεις
αγιαις, 3 Concerning his son Je
3 Περι τα υιε αυτα, τα sus Christ our Lord, which
Ver. 1.-1. Paul, a servant. The original word 8:19, properly signifies a save. Here it is a name of honour. For in the East, the chief ministers of kings were called 88701, flaves. In this fense, Moses is called dana fee, the save, or servant of God, Josh i. 1. This honourable name, therefore, denotes the high authority which Paul poffeffed in the kingdom of Christ, as one of his chief ministers.
2. A called apople. The name apojile was given to different orders of men, Rom. xvi. 7. note 4. But in its highest sense, it was appro, priated to the twelve, whom Chriit appointed to be with him, Mark jii 14 and whom, after his resurrection, he fent forth to preach the gospel. See Prel. El.p. 44.
3. Separated the gospel of God. We are told, Acts xiii. 2. That the Holy Gholl faid, separate me Barnabas and Saul, for the work whereunto I have called them. But this being nothing but a separation of
common vergon, merely by giving the particles their proper signification. But if the alterations comprehended under one! clafs only, make such a change in the train of the apostle's reasonings, as to' entitle this to the appellation of a new translation, the numerous corrections comprehended under the other classes, muft set it at a still greater distance from the common version, and fully justify the author in calling it A new translation from the original, of all the apostolical epistles.
It only remains to request the learned reader, to examine the translation of the epiftles, the commentary, and the notes, all now submitted to the public, by the principles laid down in the General Preface, and to judge of the whole with that candour, which is due to an attempt sincerely meant to exhibit the divinely inspired writings, in the genuine fimplicity of their meaning, that, being rightly understood, they may not be applied, as they sometimes have been, for supporting opinions de itructive of piety and morality,
N. B. The NUMBERS in the new translation, following the Greek words, mark the paragraphs of Ejay IV. where the transa lation of the word is supported by proper proofs. New TRANSLATION.
COMMENTARY. CHAP. I. 1. Paul a I. 1 Paul a servant of Jesus Chrift, fervant of Jesus Christ, and an apostle called expressly as the ç called apostle, separated3. other apostles were, and separated by to the gospel of God, 4 him to preach the good news from
God, 2 Which he promised 2 Which he promised before by his before, by his prophets, propheta in the holy fcriptures, should in the holy scriptures, be preached to the Gentiles;
3 Concerning his Son, 3 Concerning the coming of his who was born of the seed Son to save the world, who, as it was
Paul, from the teachers at Antioch, to go and preach to the Gen. tiles, the higher separation, mentioned Gal. i. 15. is here meant.
4. Gospel of God. See ver. 15. note. The gospel is said to be God's, because it is good news from God; than which a greater commendation of the gospel cannot be conceived.
Ver. 2. Wķich he promised before by his prophets, &c. The promise in the scriptures, that the gospel should be preached to the Gentiles, is taken notice of by the apostle, to convince the unbelieving Jews, that in preaching to the Gentiles, Paul did not contradi&, but fulfil the ancient revelacions.
Ver. 3.-1. Concerning bis Son. The gospel is good news from God, concerning the coming of his Son to save the world Wherefore the Son of God is the subject of the gospel, as well as its author.
was made of the seed of Da,
γενομενε εκ σπερμιαίος Δαβίδ vid, according to the flesh,
κατα σαρκα, , 4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, δυναμει, κατα πνευμα αγιωσυ
4 Τα ορισθεντος υιε Θεε εν according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection V95, EE avasaTEWS vexpwii from the dead :
Ικσε Χριςο τε Κυριε ημων. . 5 By whom we have re- 5 Δι και ελαβομεν χαριν και ceived grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith απος ολην εις υπακοην πιςεως among all nations for his εν πασι τοις έθνεσιν, υπερ το
ονοματος αυθα: 6 Among whom are ye 6 Εν δις εςε και υμεις, κληalsothe called of Jesus Christ.
του Ιησε Χριςο' 7 To all that be in Rome,
7 Πασι τοις εσιν εν Ρωμη, beloved of God, called to be
αγαπητοις Θεέ, κλητοις, αγι
2. Who was born of the seed of David, with respect to the flesh. Lagt, flejb, sometimes, denotes the human body, 1 Cor. vii
. 28. sometimes 'the human mind, Rom. vii. 19. 2 Cor. vii. 7. and sometimes the whole man, John iii. 6.-Here being opposed to the spirit of holiness, it fignifies our Lord's body. For, it cannot be thought, that he derived his human soul from his mother, because that would imply the divisibility of the foul of the parent. Beza, in his note on this verse, fuppofing that the word yevoue: os denotes the formation of our Lord's body, says, the Holy Ghost took of the substance of Mary's body, and formed it into a body for our Lord. He adds, that the ancients urged this text against Valentinus, Marcion, and the rest : fome of whom affirmed, that our Lord's body was only imaginary ; others, that it was formed of celestial matter, and sent into the body of his mother from heaven. But although the apostle, in this place, speaks only of our Lord's body, it does not follow, that he had nothing of the human nature but a body. The passages in which he is called a man, and the man Jesus Christ, and our brother, and in which his fuf. ferings are described, imply that he had a real human soul also.
Ver. 4.1. Declared, ogso Teto. The original word fignifies to fix the boundaries of a thing, consequently to make it appear what it
2. With power. Locke understands this of the miraculous power, described Eph. i. 19, 20. whereby Jesus was raised from the dead. I rather think power denotes the strength of the evidence by which he was demonstrated to be the Son of God.
3: By his resurrection from the deadl. Here I have fupplied the pronoun bis, because the scope of the reasoning requires it to be supplied.
- Jesus being put to death as a blasphemer, for calling himself Chrif she Son of the blessed, God woulů not have raised him from the dead, if
of David, with respect to foretold, was born of a woman dethe flesh,
scended from David, the king of
Ifraèl, with respect to his flesh, 4 BUT was declared 1
4 But was declared the Son of the Son of God with God, with great power of evidence, power,' with respect to with respect to his holy Spiritual nature, the spirit of holiness, by by his resurrection from the dead, after HIS resurrection FROM he had been crucified by the Jewish the dead: ? EVEN Ffus rulers for calling himself the Son of Christ our Lord.
God, even Jesus Christ our Lord. 5 (4 121.) From 5 From whom, fince his refur. whom we have received rection, I have received miraculous grace, and apostleship,' powers and apostleship, in order that in order to the obedience of through my preaching him as the faith? among all the Gen- Son of God, the obedience of faith tiles, (ÚTTES) on account of may be given to him, among all the
Gentiles, on account of his being the
Son of God. 6 Among whom, are 6. Among the number of which also ye, the called of Jesus Gentils are also ye the called disciples Chrift:
of Jesus Chrift. 7 To all who are in 7 Being thus commissioned, I Rome,' to the beloved' of write this letter to all who are in
his name ;
he had been an impostor, ; especially as he had often forrtold his own resurrection, and appealed to it as a proof of his being the Soi of Go!, John ii '9. His resurrection therefore was a public toiltimony, borne by God himself, to the truth of our Lord's pretentions, which put the matter beyond all doubt See Heb. i. 5 note i.
1. From whom we have received grace and apofleship. 'That is, the grace or favour of apofileship. See Gal
. ii 9. Eph 2. where the apoftolic office is ityled grace. Or, if grace and apofilesbip are taken separately, apostleship may fignify the otice, and jrace the supernatural endowments bestowed on Paul, to fit him for that office.
2. In order to the obedience of faih. Either obe ience from a principle of faith, or faith itself, called obedience fimply, chap. xvi. 19.
3. On account of his name. Name here fignifies the character of Christ, as the Son of God and Saviour of the world. This name, Paul was appointed to bear, or publish before the Gentiles and kings, and the children of Israel. Acts ix. 15.
And it is on account of this name or character, that all men are bound to obey him.
Ver. 7.--1. Unto all who are in Rome: This epistle being written to persuade the unbelieving Jews and Gentiles to embrace the gospel, as exhibiting the only effectual method of salvation, it was fitly addreffed to the whole inhabitants of Rome, to the heathens as well as to the Jews and Christians. See ver. 13, 14, 15.
faints: Grace to you, and oις: Χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη απο peace from God our Father, Θεα πατρος ημων, και Κυρια and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Ιησε Χρις υ. . 8 First, I thank my God 8 Πρωτον μεν ευχαριςω τω through Jefus Clarift, for you Θεω με δια Ιησε Χριςε υπερ all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole παντωνύμων, ότι η πιςις υμων world.
xała!yen del av ev on w Tw zoo
peq. 9 For God is my witness
9 Μαρτυς γαρ με εςιν ο whom I serve with my spirit in the goipei of his son, Θεος, ο λατρευω εν τω πνευμαthat without ceafing I make τι μου, εν τω ευαγγελιω τα mention of you always in υιε αυτά, ως αδιαλειπίως μνείmy prayers,
αν υμων ποιέμαι.
2. To the beloved of God, to the called, (see Rom. ix. 7. note,) to the Jainis. See Ef. iv. 48. These are the honourable appellations which God anciently gave to the Jewish nation, as his people and church. Put they now belonged to the disciples of Christ, as the visible church of God, substituted in place of the jews. By these honourable appeldations, therefore, the Christians at Rome were distinguished from the idolatrous inhabitants of the city, and from the unbelieving Jews; the whole being comprehended in the general description, All who are in Rome.
3. Grace to you. In the apostolic benedicions, grace £gnifies the jutluences and fruits of the Spirit, the favour and protection of God, the pardon of fin, the enjoyment of eternal life; all which are called grace, because they are gratuitously bestowed by God. 4.
And peace. The usual falutation among the easterns was, Peace be io you, by which they meant every kind of worldly felicity. But in Paul's writings, peace fignifies that satisfaction which results from being in friendship with God. Thus Rom. v. 1. Being jusified by faith, we have peace with God. It also fignifies the happiness of hea. ven, called, Philip, iv. 1. The peace of God, which paleth all comprebenfion. In this sense, I think, it is used in the apostolic benedictions, and Rom. ii. 9. - Because most of the Roman 'brethren were unacquainted with Paul, he judged it necessary, in the infcription of his letter, to assure them that he was an apostle called by Jesus Christ himself, and that he was feparated to preach the gospel to the Gentiles, in fulfilment of the promises which God had made by the prophets in the scriptures, that the gospel should be preached to them. These circumstances lle mentioned, to remove the prejudices of the believing, as well as of the unbelieving Jews, who he knew were displeased with him for preaching the gospel to the Gentiles. Withal, becaule the church of Rome had not been planted by any apostle, he instructed them în fonie particulars concerning the nature