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heed brethren;" wherefore, take heed brethren. There is therefore a hyperbaton in the discourse, the words that agree in sense being separated by an interposition of other things. And there is between them a digression to an example or argument for the better enforcement of the exhortation itself.
Katus Asyti to flysuped to lov, as the Holy Ghost saith,' or, that I may use the words of the Holy Ghost. There is an emphasis in the manner of the expression. To Ilvovace to dysor,
that Holy Spirit,' so called tæt' išoxan, by way of eminency. The third Person in the Trinity, who in an especial manner spake in the penmen of the Scripture. Those holy men of God, spake iwo rivivucalos áryis Pipoqueiros
, “ moved,' acted, inspired “ by the Holy Ghost,” 2 Pet. i. 21.
Ketwasys, as he saith.' This may intend either his first immediate speaking in his inspiration of the psalmist, as it is expressed, chap. iv. 7. Asyw - Aabid saying in David,' where these words are again repeated; or, his continuing still to speak those words to us all in ihe Scripture. Being given out by inspiration from him, and his authority always accompanying them, he still speaketh them.
The words reported by the apostle are taken from Psalm xcv. 7-11. He mentions not the especial place, as speaking, unto them who either were, or whom he would have to be exercised in the word, 2 Tim. iii. 15. Besides, though such particular citations of places may be needful for us, for a present help unto them that hear or read, it was not so to the holy penmen of the New Testament, whose writings are continually to be searched and meditated upon all our lives, John v. 39. Whereas ours are transient, and for the present occasion. Every thing in their writings which makes us attentive and industrious in our search, is to our advantage. The leaving therefore of an uncertainty, whence particular quotations are taken, is useful to make us more sedulous in our inquiries.
This psalm the apostle makes much use of, both in this chapter and the next. "In this he manifests it to contain an useful and instructive example, in what happened to the people of God of old. In the next he shews, that not only a moral example may be taken from what so fell out, but also that there was in the things mentioned in it, according to God's appointment, a type of our state and condition ; and moreover a prophecy of the gospel state of the church under the Messiah, and the bles. sed rest therein to be obtained. Here we have the consideration of it, as historical and exemplar; in the next we shall treat of it as prophetical.
The Jews had a tradition that this psalm belonged unto the Messiah. Hence the Targum renders those words of the first , , '
קרם תקיף ; to the rock of our salvation ,לצור ישענו ,verse
*37718, 6 before the mighty one of our redemption;' with respect unto the redemption to be wrought by the Messiah, whom they looked for as the Redeemer, Luke ii. 38. So ver. 7. 797 871, in that day,' seems to refer unto the same season. And the ancient Jews do frequently apply these words, “ Today if you will hear his voice," unto the Messiah. For from these words they have framed a principle, that if all Israel would repent but one day, the Messiah would come, because it is said, " To-day, if you will hear his voice.” So in the Talmud, Trac. Taanith distinc. Mamarai Maskirin. And the same words they used in Midrash Shirhashirim, cap. v. ver. 2. And this is no small witness against them as to the person of the Messiah, for he is God undoubtedly concerning whom the psalmist speaks, as is evident from ver. 2—7. He whose voice they are to hear, whom they acknowledge to be the Messiah, is " Šehovah, the great God,” ver. 3. “ who made the sea, and formed the dry land,” ver. 5. 6. The Lord our Maker," ver. 6. And indeed this psalm, with those that follow unto the civ, are evidently of those new songs which belong unto the kingdom of the Messiah. And this is among the Jews the w71 7W, or “principal new song," expressing that renovation of all things which under it they expect. The next psalm expresseth it, “ , a " saith Rashi, “ This psalm is for the time to come," that is, the days of the Messiah, repiger, 17, hodie, “to-lay, this day.' A certain day or space of time is limited or determined, as the apostle speaks in the next chapter. And the psalm being in part, as was sliewed, prophetical, it must have a various application. For it both expresseth what was then done and spoken in the type, with regard to what was before as the foundation of all; and intimateth what should afterwards be accomplished in the time prefigured, in wliat the words have respect unto as past.
The general foundation of all lies in this, that a certain limited present space of time is expressed in the words. This is the moral sense of them; limited, because a day; present, because to-day. And this space may denote in general, the continuance of men's lives in this world. DM, that is, saith Rashi, 717 Da, in this world,' in this life; afterwards there will be neither time nor place for this duty. But yet the measure of such a day is not merely our continuance in a capacity to enjoy it, but the will of God to continue it. It is God's day that is intended, and not our's, which we may out-live and lose the benefit of, as will afterwards appear.
Again, the general sense of the word is limited to a special season, both then present when the words were spoken, and intimated in prophecy to come afterwards. For the, present or
David's time, that refers, saith Aben Ezra, to nine 82, 'come, let us fall down and worship,' ver. 6. as it he had said, • If you will hear bis voice, come and worship before bim this day. And in this sense it is probable, that some special feast of Moses' institution, when the people assembled themselves to the solemn worship of God, was intended. Many think that this psalm was peculiarly appointed to be sling at the feast of tabernacles. Neither is it unlikely; that feast being a great type and representation of the Son of God coming to pitch his tabernacle amongst us, John i. 14. Let this then pass for David's typical day. But that a further day is intended herein, the apostle declares in the next chapter. Here the proper time and season of any duty, of the great duty exhorted unto, is first intended, as is evident from the application that the
apostle makes of this instance, ver. 13. “ exhort one another dai. ly, whilst it is called 0907 cmuigov, to-day;" that is, whilst the season of the duty is continued unto you. So was it also originally used by the psalmist, and applied unto the duties of the feast of tabernacles, or some other season of the performance of God's solemn worship.
Eww, si, if,' a mere conditional, as commonly used. But it is otherwise applied in the New Testament, as Matt. viii. 19. “ I will follow thee orou sav ans%n, whithersoever thou shalt go." And chap. xii. 36. 66 every idle word, o sąv noci nowowy ór an3qwwo, which men shall speak.” There is no condition or supposition included in these places ; but the signification is indefinite; whosoever, whatsoever, whensoever. Such may be the sense of it in this place, which would, as some suppose, remove a difficulty which is cast on the text. For make it to be merely a conditional, and this and the following clause seem to be coincident. If you will hear, that is, obey his voice, barden not your hearts. For to hear the voice of God, and the not hardening of our hearts, are the same.
But there is no ne. cessity, as we shall see, to betake ourselves unto this unusual sense of the word.
Της φωνης αντου ακουσατι. . "You will hear his voiee.' 139pa woun. Wherever this construction of the words doth occur in the Hebrew, that yow is joined with supa, whether it be spoken of God in reference unto the voice of man, or of man in reference unto the voice of God; the effectual doing and accomplishment of the thing spoken of is intended. So Num. xiv. 22. “ They have tempted ine these ten times, Spa wo 839 and have not heard my voice;" that is, have not yielded obedience to my command. So of God, with reference unto men, Josh, s. 14. “ There was no day like unto that, before nor af
, Lord should the voice of a man;" that is, effectually to do so great a thing, as to cause the sun and moon to stand still in heaven. So between man and man, Deut. xxi. 18—20. See Matt. xvii. 19, 19. It is frequently observed, that tò hear, to hearken, in the Scripture signifies to obey, or to yield obedience to the things heard : as to see doth to understand or believe; and to taste denotes spiritual experience. Words of outward sense being used to express the inward spiritual acts of the mind. Sometimes I say it is so, but this phrase is always so used. The Holy Ghost therefore herein lays down the duty which we owe to the word, to the voice of God when we hear it in the way of his appointment; that is, to yield sincere obedience unto it; und the hindrance thereof is expressed in the next words. Now as this command is translated over into the gospel, as it is by our apostle in the next chapter, it hath respect unto the great precept of hearing and obeying the voice of Christ as the great prophet of the church, given originally, Deut. xviii. 19. * Whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name; (for the Father speaketh in the Son, Heb. 1.1) I will require it ot' him," Acts iii. 22. which was solemnly again renewed upon his actual exhibition, Matt. svj. 5. " This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased, bear ye him," See 2 Pet. i. 17. And he is thereon, as we have seen, compared with Moses in his prophetical office, and preferred above him, John i. 17, 18.
753 This ev5 YTP: the voice of the Lord,' is sometimes taken for his power; inasmuch as by his word, as sa incinta ard signification et'the power which he puts forth theren, created and disseth ot all things. See Psal. xxix. 3, 4, 5.1, S. 9 where the mighty works of God's power and providence are asiged unto his revic Also see. Mie. v. 9. Sometimes it is used for the revelatics of his will in his commands and promises. This is the eyes saporizas of God, the word et bis will ad peasere. But it is withal certain that map and an are used principaliv, if not solely, fer a sudden transient voice or speaking. For the word of God is deriver. ed in the Scripture 27 and donos, sometimes (44*, not to or fur. So the Ping up of the voice amongst tren, is to moze sense salta olter; as, Tbev litted up their voice and wete. These words then do ordinarür si a sudden, maneileus spesi: ot Gai tiun heaven, testitving upto any tior. So deth Porta Mark i. ll. x * wyremo in tur sparer,
and there w 3 a voice trom haven.' So Muit. xvii. 5 Luke 1.29. Jobnyi. S. 1135 x wym sx 58 pers, there came there. tore x voice from heaven;' ich when the muit:tule beard, ther vid, por mayor one, that it themlereu ,' for thunder was cgie Shin the voice ci Gud sotie mais, stise prices, 'Evd. xix. 1o. that securedite per light
if * ,אן ברת קלה תשמעון ,the Syriac version in this place
the spirit of ,רוה הקדוש or רוה נבואה second temple
בעלי הקבלה אומרים שהוא קול של מדה אחת הנקראת ,us The Cabalists say that it is the voice of a ,קול ואולי כן הוא
enings,' that is, the thunders that were at the giving of the law, are rendered by our apostle, $win (Matwy, lleb. xii 19. that is, the thunders from heaven which accompanied the words that were spoken: so is curn used, Acts x. 13. 15. xxvi. 14. Hence came the Supra Bath kol among the ancient Jews; or, as in the Chaldee xsp07, Gen. xxxviii. 26. There came filia rocis, the daughter of the voice' from heaven. And so
, , you will hear the daughter of the voice.' They called it so, as being an effect or product of the power of God, to cause his mind and will to be heard and understood by it. They thought it was not the voice of God himself immediately, but as it were the echo of it; a secondary voice, the offspring of another. And whereas they acknowledge that after the building of the
, , prophecy and of inspiration' ceased in their church ; they contend that revelations were made by the Supra, or immediate voice from heaven ; though they can instance in none but those which concerned our Saviour, which the apostles declared and made famous, 2 Pet. i. 17. But it may be there is that in this tradition which they understand not. Elias in his Tishbi, tells ,
, · a property in God, which is called kol, and it may be it is so.'
They have no other way to express a person in the divine nature, but by 1777, a special property. . And one of these, they say, is called KOL; that is, “the Word,' the eternal Word or Son of God. His especial speaking is intended in this expression, which is true. So his speaking is called, his speaking from heaven, Heb xii. 26. Although I deny not but that the immediate speaking of the Father, in reference unto the Son, is sometimes so expressed, Matt. xvii. 5. 2 Pet. i. 17. But an especial extraordinary word is usually intended. So our Saviour tells the Pharisees, that they had not heard on oury, the voice of God at any time, nor seen his sidos, his shape,' John v. 37. They had heard the voice of God in the reading and preaching of the word; but that was é nogos, his word;' his Oum they had not heard. Notwithstanding all their pretences and boastings, they had not at any time, extraordinary revelations of God made unto them. For there is an allusion to the revelation of the will of God at Horeb, when his sp or pwin or voice was heard, and his 1787 or iôcs, his shape appeared, or a miraculous appearance of his presence was made, both now being accomplished in himself in a more eminent manner, as the apostle declares, John i. 16–18. It'is true the Lord Christ calls his ordinary preaching, as we say, viva voce, ton 119, his voice,' John X. 5, 16, 17. But this he doth because