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in that in the 17th verse of this chapter, he applies the space of time unto God's being grieved with them; as here, unto the people's sin. With whom was he grieved forty years ? Only it may be the apostle made this distinction of the words, to intimate that the wrath of God against the entering of that people into his rest, was not made after the end of forty years, as the order of the words in the Psalm seems to import. Forty years was I grieved with this generation, and said, It is a people that do err in their heart, and they have not known my ways; unto whom I sware in my wrath, that they should not enter into my rest.” They seem to intimate, that God thus sware in his wrath, after he had been grieved witi them forty years. But they do but seem so: really they only declare, that it was the same people with whom he was grieved, concerning whom he sware. For the oath of God here intended, is that mentioned, Num. xiv. 20—23. The people falling into a high sedition, and murmuring upon the report of the spies that were sent to search the land, the Lord sware by himself, that that whole generation should wander forty years in that wilderness, until they were all consumed. Now this was upon the next year after their coming up out of Egypt, and after which the forty years of their provocations and God's indignation ensued. But these things, as to time, were of the same duration. The people came out of Egypt, and entered into the wilderness in the first month of the year. At the end of the fortieth year, from their coming out of Egypt, the eleventh month of it, is issued the history of three of the books of Moses, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers. In the last month of that year, Moses reviewed and repeated the whole law, the dealings of God, and sins of the people, as recorded in the book of Deuteronoiny. About the end of that month, as is probable, he died, and was lamented thirty days, or all the first month of the forty-first year. After which, about three or four days, the people prepared to pass over Jordan, under the conduct of Joshua, Josh. i. 11. This was the space of time mentioned, containing as wonderful issues, and successes of things, as ever befel the church of God in the like space of time. Every year in the whole forty, was full of instances of the people's sins, provocations, temptations and unbelief; and every year also was filled with tokens of God's displeasure and indignation, until the close of the whole dispensation came, wherein that generation that came out of Egypt under Moses was consumed, and the indignation of God rested in their consumption. And it is not unlikely but that the apostle reminds the Hebrews of this space of time, granted unto iheir forefathers in the wilderness, after their coming up out of Egypt, with their abuse of it; because a like space of time was now in the patience of God allotted unto the whole

church and people of the Jews, between the preaching of Christ, and that wasting destruction that was to come upon them. And According to this type it fell out with them. For, as after their forefathers who came up under Moses out of Egypt, were consumed in forty years in the wilderness, a new church, a new gemeration, under the conduct of Joshua, entered into the rest of Cod: Ao within forty years after the preaching of spiritual deliverance unto thein, which was rejected by them, that whole generation was cut off in the wrath of God, and a new church of Jews and Gentilen, under the conduct of the true Joshua, enters into the rest of God.

Aun aporw n; Form, wherefore I was grieved.' The apostle here ulter the tenor of the discourse in the psalmist, by interposing a reference into the cause of God's being grieved with the peopole, in the word doo, wherefore;' that is, because of their mamitold temptations and provocations, not cured, not healed, alPhov for so long a season they beheld his works. They contipued in the same kind of sins, on the account whereof God was must provoked, and sware against their entering into the land. For as we have before observed, the oath of God passed against them n the beginning of the forty years. But they abiding uletinately in the same sins, the execution of that oaih had resprct to all their provocations during the whole forty years. NiqoruwigestionsI was grieved. This woni is supposed peculiar to the Hellenistical Jews, nor doth it occur in any other author, but one in the Gork version of the Old Testament, or is it pered by the LIV. in any place to express y, the word here od in the original, but they render it by kuua, saka, and utis. in the New Terenent, it is used only in this place, and thence Panelinned into the psalm. It is generally thought to be derived finneys or eventose the bank of a river, à rising hill or ruga hr the water side.' Thence is this to be offended, 'to brat a thing dienlily with tediousness and vexation, so as to rise up with indignation against it, like the ground that ristib

in the watan : receyem is the same with an addition of A fri for guatls utieved.' And this word, to be grieved," in embi purven in our langua; for it either is as much as Hola a to he witected with sorrow and griei, or a being * scrumpanied with indignation : * we sav, such or sucki #thing in privoin, that is, enana mol sturta, or troublesomt.' Anden in ihr worvl here midagi'ieved, ist á burdened and prikol, of indeci. So hicroma, Dentus mint ****!! 10 isla,

displeasul mo, Pow. 11, som sin tredhin late them. mt not wishoni mwalioomne Summerhips and Aquis rende the proprinel worthy opgaver. 'In he display

*): ja me thot pornon mind and a pn amb nous signifiPufman, 'to malo mantenut, to phomogic (hrnet by the

Arabie it is rendered - cursed them,') to be divided with trouble, offence, weariness and grief.' It is commonly in the feminine gender, and joined with 'vɔ], my soul,' or '77, my life.' This is the intendment of it: the appointed time of God's patience was worn out with their continued provocations, so that he was wearied with them, and weary of them, he could bear them no longer.

The Vulgar Latin, in some copies, reads, Proximus fui huic generationi, ' I was near to this generation.' And so are the words still in some of the Roman offices. Some think that countenance is given hereto by the sense of the word agorwydion which may signify, accedere or proximare ad ripam animo hostili, s to draw near to a shore, a bank, with a hostile mind.'

Now, it doth not denote only that particular provocation, when God in an especial manner entered his caveat against them, that they should not enter into his rest, seeing not only the psalmist in this place, but also our apostle, ver. 17. directly refers it to the frame of his mind towards them, during the whole forty years. He was wearied by them, and grew weary of them.

To 90114 sxton, that generation,' 7773, in the generation,' that is, with that generation.' 797, is an age of man, or rather the men of one age: Eccl. i. 4. “ One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh ;" that is, the men of one age." See Deut. xxxii. 7. So is geven; as in Homer's Iliad, .

'Omn tie geven tomada xao ανδρων. . And when it is taken for atas or seculum, it doth not primarily intend a duration of time, but the persons living in that time. Herodotus in Euterpe, reckons thirty years to a yoves, a generation. So doth Plutarch also in De Defect. Oraculorum. The generation here denotes no limited season, but compriseth all the persons that came up out of Egypt above twenty years of age, who all died within the space of forty years afterwards.

Au tikrwytes ta ragdra ; They always err in heart:' yn y On 235, . They are a people erring in heart.' The words of the psalmist are somewhat changed by the apostle, but the sense is absolutely the same ; for taking the people to be sufficiently signified, he adds a word to denote the constant course of their provocations : always, on all occasions, in every trial, not in any one condition did they give glory to God, neither in their straits nor in their deliverances, neither in their wants nor in their fulness, but continually tempted and provoked him with their murmurings and unbelief. On gas un OV, Populus errantes corde, or errantium corde, that is, populus væcors, ' a foolish, unteachable people.' nyn, is inost usually so to err, as to wander out of the way, Isa. liii. 6. Gen. xxxvii, 15. Prov.

vii. 25. And in Hiphel, it is to cause to err or wander, to seduce, to draw aside, Hos. iv. 12. Isa. xix. 13. It is properly rendered by πλαναν and πλαναομαι, which have both a neuter and an active signification, “to err, to wander,' and ' to seduce or draw aside;' whence #luyog is erro, vagabundus, ' a wanderer, a vagabond ;' and also deceptor, seductor, impostor, 'a seducer, a deceiver or impostor.' In loth which senses the Jews blasphemously applied it unto our Lord Jesus Christ, Matt. xxvii. 63. The words then denote not a speculative error of the mind, mistake or misapprehension of what was proposed unto them, in which sense the terms of error and erring are most commonly used; but a practical aberration or wandering by choice from the way of obedience made known unto them; and therefore are they said to err in their heart,' th xagère. For though that be comnionly taken in the Scripture for the entire principle of moral operations, and so compriseth the mind and understanding, yet when an immediate respect is had unto duties and sins, it hath an especial regard to the affections and desires of the heart; so that to err in heart, is through the seductions and impulsions of corrupt attections, to have the mind and judgment corrupted, and then to depart from the ways of obedience.

Αυτοι δε εκ έγνωσαν τας οδες με: • And they have not known my ways :' 1977 17X7007. The apostle renders ? by de, an adversative, but,' which is frequently used for xx, and,' as it is rendered by ours. Yet an opposition may also be intimated, • They have not known.” It is said before that they saw the works of God, which were parts of his ways; and his laws were made known unto them. Of these two parts do his ways consist. The ways of his providence, and the ways of his commands; or the ways wherein he walketh towards us, and the ways wherein he would have us walk towards him. And yet it is said of this people, that they knew not liis ways. As we said therefore before concerning their error, so we must now say concerning their ignorance, that it is not a simple nescience that is intended, but rather an affected dislike of what they did see and know. It seems to be made up of two parts. First, They did not so spiritually and practically know the mind, will, and intention of God in them, as thereon to believe in him, to trust him, and to honour him. This is the knowledge of God, which is required in the law, and promised in the covenant. Secondly, in that light and knowledge which they had of the ways of God, they liked them not, they approved them not, they delighted not in them. And this is the constant intention of that word to know,' where the object of it is God, his ways, or his will

925 WPL STX tv onogyn pesió So I sware in my wrath:' nuovo 90. The use of the word 72' is so various, as that it may denote either the persons spoken unto, or the reason of the things spoken. The Vulgar Latin, in some copies, reads in this place, quibus, ' to whom, as though it had taken ws for oss, but commonly sicut : as is often put for woms, quapropter, ' so that.' So Beza, 'whereupon, for which cause or reason ;' the consideration of the state, condition, and multiplied miscarriages of that people that came out of Egypt.

"I sware.” Of the oath of God, and his swearing, we must deal afterwards expressly. The declared unalterable purpose of God, about the dying of that people in the wilderness, expressed in the way of an oath, is that which is intended. And God is said to swear in his wrath, because he declared that purpose of his under a particular provocation. The whole matter is recorded, Numb. xiv. 21-23. and ver. 28-35. “But as truly as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord. Because all those men which have seen my glory, and my miracles, which I did in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and have tempted me now these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice; surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that provoked me see it. Say unto them, As troly as I live, saith the Lord, as ye have spoken in mine ears, so will I do to you: your carcases shall fall in this wilderness, and all that were numbered of you, according to your whole number, from twenty years old and upward, which have murmured against me, doubtless ye shall not come into the land concerning which I sware to make you dwell therein, save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nun. But

which ye

said should be a prey, them will I bring in, and they shall know the land which ye have despised. But as for your carcases, they shall fall in this wilderness. And your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and bear your whoredoms, until your carcases be wasted in the wilderness. After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, (each day for a year), shall ye bear your iniquities even forty years, and ye shall know my breach of promise. I the Lord have said, I will surely do it unto all this evil congregation, that are gathered together against me: in this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die.”

We have here the special occasion of this swearing of God. The whole fabric of the ark and tabernacle being finished, the worship of God cstablished, the law and rules of their polity being given unto them, and a blessed frame of government in things sacred and civil set up amongst them, their military camp, charge and order in marching, to avoid emulation and contusion, being disposed, all things seemed to be in a great readiness for the entrance of the people into the promised land. Voi.. IV.


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