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Socrates. On the death of his teacher, Phædo collected a circle of disciples in his native town, who thence received the name of the Elean philosophers.? Plistanus is named as his successor, and Archipylus and Moschus as his pupils.. Beyond the names we, however, know nothing of any one of them. By Menedemus and Asclepiades, the school was removed to Eretria, and it was then called the Eretrian.6

sophus illustris,' and his writ- ever, they joined Stilpo at ings are spoken of as “ admo- Megara, and thence went to dum elegantes.' Even Diog. Moschus and Archipylus at ii. 47, enumerates him among Elis, by whom they were inthe most distinguished Socra- troduced to the Elean docticists.

trines. Returning to their Compare for his relations native city and becoming conto Socrates the Phædo, 58, D. nected by marriage, they con89, H.

tinued together in faithful 2 'HA Elakoi, Strabo, ix. 1, 8, p. friendship until the death of 393; Diog. ii. 105, 126.

Asclepiades, even after Mene3 Diog. ii. 105.

demus had risen to highest · 126. Perhaps these men rank in the state, and had were not immediate pupils of attained wealth and influence his. Since nothing is said of with the Macedonian princes. Menedemus' studying under The sympathetic, noble and Plistanus, the latter, we may firm character of Menedemus, suppose, was no longer alive. his pungent wit (on which

The account given by Diog. Plut. Prof. in Virt. 10, p. 81; ii. 125 of these philosophers in Vit. Pud. 18, p. 536), his modehis life of Menedemus (probably ration (Diog. ii. 129; Athen. taken from Antigonus of Cary- x. 419, e), his liberality and stus and Heraclides Lembus) is his merits towards his country, as follows: Menedemus of Ere- a subject of frequent tria, originally a tradesman, panegyric. Soon after the had been sent as a soldier to battle of Lysimachia, which Megara. There he became ac- took place 278 B.C., he died, quainted with the school of possibly by suicide-the result Plato (so Diog. says with Plato; of a grief which is differently but this is chronologically im- stated-at the age of seventypossible) and joined it together four. According to Antigonus with hisfriend Asclepiades, both in Diog. ii. 136, he left no cf them (according to Athen. writings. ir. 168, a) earning a living by 6 Strabo, ix. 1, 8; Diog. ii. working at night. Soon, how- 105, 126 ; Cic. Acad. iv. 42, 129.



Flourishing as was its condition here for a time, it CHAP. appears soon to have died out."

Among its adherents ? Phædo and Menedemus are B. Rethe only two respecting whose opinions any informa- mains of tion is to be had, and that information is little teaching. enough. By Timon 3 Phædo is classed with Euclid as a babbler, which points to an argumentative tendency. Perhaps, however, he devoted himself to Ethics more than Euclid did. Menedemus, at least, appears to have been distinguished from his cotemporary quibblers by having directed his attention to life and to moral questions. He is, however, spoken of as a sharp and skilful disputant. If he hardly went the length of Antisthenes in declaring every combination of subject and predicate impossible, it still sounds captious enough to hear that he only allowed affirmative judgments to be valid, but rejected nega

" Plut. Tranqu. An, 13, p. of morals, which Sen. Ep. 94, 472.

41, quotes from Phado. ? Athen. iv. 162, e, mentions 6 Diog. ii. 134 : Rv duokaa certain Ctesibius as a pupil τανοήτος ο Μ. και εν τω συνθέσθαι of Menedemus, but what he δυσανταγώνιστος. έστρέφετό τε says of him has nothing to do προς πάντα και ευρεσιλόγει ερισwith philosophy. A treatise τικώτατός τε, καθά φησιν 'Αντιof the Stoic Sphaerus against σθένης έν διαδοχαις, ήν. The the Eretrian School in 260 verses of Epicrates in Athen. B.C. is the last trace of the ii. 59, cannot well refer to this existence of the Eretrian Menedemus, since they are also school. Diog. vii. 178.

directed against Plato, who 3 Diog. ii. 107.

was then still living. 4 The Platonic Phædo does ? Even this is asserted. Acnot give the slightest ground cording to Phys. 20, a (Schol. for thinking, as Steinhart, Plat. in Arist. 330, a, 3), the EreW. iv. 397, does, that Phædo trians asserted undèv katà uewas inclined to a sceptical δενός κατηγορείσθαι. They apwithholding of judgment. pear in this passage to be con

5 Compare the short but founded with the Cynics and clever fragment on the subject the later Megarians.


tive and hypothetical ones.' Chrysippus 2 blames him as well as Stilpo, for their obsolete fallacies. It may also be true that he disputed the view that properties exist apart from particular objects, in the spirit of Cynic nominalism. On the other hand, it is asserted that in positive opinions he was a Platonist, and only employed argument for amusement. From what has been already stated, this seems incredible, nor can it be deduced from his disputes with Alexinus. Indeed, it is in itself most improbable.? Still so much seems to be ascertained, that, together with Stilpo, he attributed to ethical doctrines a value above criticism. For we not only hear that he admired Stilpo, who was his teacher, more than any other philosopher, and that he was himself often | Diog. ii. 135.

ως ουδαμώς εχούσας τι κοινών 2 Plut. Sto. Rep. 10, 11, p. ουσιώδες εν δε τοις καθέκαστα και 1036.

συνθέτοις υπαρχούσας. . 3 Hermann, Ges. Abh. 253, 5 Heraclides in Diog. ii. 135. refers to Menedemus the verses Ritter's conjecture, Gesch, d. of John Salisbury (Enthet. ed. Phil. ii. 155, that this MenePeters, p. 41), in which a certain demus is confounded with Me. Endymion is mentioned, who nedemus the Pyrrhæan, whom called fides, opinio vera, and we know from Plut. adv. Col. error, opinio fallax, and who 32, p. 1126, 8, and Athen., is denied that you could know hardly to be trusted.

For what was false, for no know. Heraclides Lembus had treated ledge could be deceptive. The the Eretrians in detail, as we allusion does not, however, learn from Diog., so that it is appear probable. The continu- difficult to imagine such a conation, that the sun corresponds fusion. The context also tells to truth, and the moon to false against that view. hood, that error and change Diog. 135, 136, says that he bear rule under the moon, but was constantly attacking Alexitruth and immutability in the nus with violent derision, but domain of the sun, certainly yet did him some service. does not come from Menedemus. 1 Diog. 134 : τών δε διδασκά

Simpl. Categ. Schol. in λων των περί Πλάτωνα και ΞενοArist. 68, 8, 24: oι από της κράτην ... κατεφρόνει. 'Ερετρίας ανήρουν τάς ποιότητας 8 Diog. 134.




derided for being a Cynic, but we know that he busied himself with enquiring as to the chief good in a practical way. He affirmed that there was only one good-intelligence, which, to his mind, was identical with a rational direction of the will.3 What are commonly spoken of as distinct virtues, are, he maintained, only different names of this one virtue ;4 and, by his activity as a statesman, he proved that he did not aim at dead knowledge. In his free views of religion he likewise reminds us of Stilpo and the Cynics.6 Zeno, however, having about this time united the most valuable and lasting parts of the Megarian and Cynic teaching in the more comprehensive system of the Stoics, stragglers, such as the Eretrians, soon found themselves unable to exercise any important influence.


1 Diog. 140: τα μεν ουν πρώτα δικαιοσύνην λέγεσθοι, καθάπερ καπεφρονείτο, κύων και λήρος υπό βροτών και άνθρωπον. των Έρετρείων ακούων.

5 That he exercised a con2 Cic. Acad. ii. 42: Diog. siderable influence

his 123 : προς δε τον ειπόντα πολλά friends by his teaching and τα αγαθά επίθετο πόσα τον αριθ- his personalty is shown by μον και ει νομίζοι πλείω των εκα- Plutarch, Adul. et Am. C. 11, τόν· and in Γ34 are some ques- p. 55 ; Diog. ii. 127-129. tions to prove that the useful 6 Diog. 125: Βίωνός τε επιμεis not the good.

λώς κατατρέχοντος των μάντεων, 8 Diog. 136 : και ποτέ τινος νεκρούς αυτόν επισφάττειν έλεγε: ακούσας, ως μέγιστον αγαθόν είη against which a trait of perτο πάντων επιτυγχάνειν ών τις sonal fear, such as is described επιθυμεί, είπε· πολύ δε μείζον" by Diog. 132, proves nothing. το επιθυμεϊν ών δει.

Josephus, Antiquit. Jud. xii. 2, 4 Ρlut. Virt. Mor. 2: Μενέ- 12. Tertullian's Apologet. 18, δημος μέν ο εξ 'Ερετρίας ανήρει language on Menedemus and των αρετών και το πλήθος και τας his belief in Providence, is διαφοράς, ως μιάς ούσης και χρω- probably as worthless as the μένης πολλοίς, ονόμασι το γάρ whole fable of Aristeas. αυτό σωφροσύνης και άνδρείαν και




of the

The Cynic, like the Megarian School, arose from a

fusion of the teaching of Socrates with the doctrines A. History of the Eleatics and Sophists. Both schools, as has Cynics. been already remarked, were united by Stilpo, and

passed over into the Stoa in Zeno. The founder of Cynicism, Antisthenes, a native of Athens, appears

It is accordingly not com- and Aristippus its effects on patible with an insight into happiness, according to his own the historical connection of imperfect conception of it. these schools to insert the 2 Antisthenes was the son of Cyrenaics between the Cynics an Athenian and a Thracian and the Megarians, as Tenne- slave (Diog. vi. 1; ii. 31 ; Sen. mann, Hegel, Marbach, Braniss, De Const. 18, 5; Plut. De Exil. Brandis, and Strümpell have 17, p. 607, calling his mother; done. Otherwise it is of no and Clemens, Strom. i. 302, C. in moment whether we advance calling himself a Phyrgian, are from the Megarians to Antis- confounding him with Diothenes and thence to Aristip- genes, or else must have been pus, or vice versa ; for these thinking of the anecdote in three schools were not being Diog. vi. 1; Sen. and Plut., developed from one another, l. c.; for further particulars but grew up side by side from consult Winkelmann, Antisth. the same origin. The order Fr. p. 7; Müller, De Antisth. followed above appears, how- vita et scriptis Marb. 1860, p. 3). ever, to be the more natural He lived, according to Xen. one; the Megarians confining Mem. ii. 5; Sym. 3, 8; 4, 34, themselves more closely to the in extreme poverty. The time fundamental position of So- of his birth and death is not crates; Antisthenes consider further known to us. Diodor. ing its practical consequences : xv. 76, mentions him as one of

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