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Two of the basest of its later representatives are known to us in the persons of Menedemus ' and Menippus. Soon after it became extinct as a School,

I A pupil of Echecles, and cian Ikaromen. 15, who makes previously, as it would seem, Menippus an eye-witness of a of the Epicurean Colotes (Diog. number of things, all of which vi. 95, 102), of whom we only happened about 280 B.C. In hear that he occasionally ap- the face of so many clear peared in the mask of a fury, proofs, the language of Diog. to add greater force to his vi. 99, who, speaking of Mephilippics. A pupil of his is leager living about 100 B.C. Ktesibius, whom Athen. i. 15, says, Toll kat aŭrdy yeuouévou, c. iv. 162, e, names

cannot go for much. There is cotemporary of Antigonus (Go probably here a mistake in the natas).

text; perhaps nat' is written 2 Menippus was, according for pet', or as Nitsche, p. 32, proto Diog. vi. 99, conf. Gell. poses, we ought to read Toù Kai N. A. ii. 18, 6, originally a αυτού γενομένου κυνικού. . ProPhænician slave. He is said to bably this Menippus is the have amassed a considerable same person as Menippus of fortune by money-lending Sinope, called by Diog. vi. 95, (Hermippus in Diog. 1. c.), the one of the most distinguished loss of which he took so much men of the school of Metro to heart that he hung himself. cles; for Diog. vi. 101 in His career must fall in the first counting up the various Mehalf of the third century. Dio- nippuses does not mention him genes indicates that, placing as well as this Menippus, but him between Metrocles and calls him as Athen. xiv. 629, e, Menedemus, it being his habit 664, e, likewise does MéVITTOS Ó to mention the philosophers of κυνικός. The name Σινωπεύς is this school in chronological thus explained : his master was order ; also the story that he a certain Baton of Pontus was the author of a treatise (Achaicus in Diog. vi. 99), with respecting the festivities of whom he probably lived at Epicurus' birthday (Diog. vi. Sinope. (Compare also Nietz.101), and of an Arcesilaus sche's Beitr. z. Quellenkunde (Athen. xiv. 664, c.; the Acade- u. Kritik des Laërt. Diogenes. mician of this name died at a Basel, 1870, p. 28.) According to great age in 240 B.C.); also Diog. 13 treatises of Menippus the circumstance that a portion were in circulation, of which he of his writings was attributed gives the titles of seven, and to a Zopyrus (Diog. vi. 100), Athen. the titles of two more. probably the friend of the Sil. That they were not his own lograph Timon (Ibid. ix. 114); production is probably only also Probus who (Virg. Ecl. vi. enemy's slander. All these 31) calls Menippus much writings appear to have been earlier than Varro; also Lu- satires. His proficiency as a

and only reappeared at a very much later time as an CHAP.

XIII. offshoot of Stoicism.' The Cynic philosophy claims to be the genuine B. Cynic

teaching. teaching of Socrates. The many-sidedness, however, (1) Depreof Socrates, whereby the intellectual and the moral ciation of

theoretical elements were completely fused, and the foundations knowledge. thus laid of a more comprehensive and deeper-going science, was above the powers of Antisthenes. Naturally narrow and dull, but fortified with singular strength of will, Antisthenes admired 4 above all things the independence of his master's character, the strictness of his principles, his self-control, and his universal cheerfulness in every position in life. How these moral traits could be in a great measure the result of free enquiry on the part of Socrates, and how they could thus be preserved from narrowness, satirist may be gathered from school. It would fully explain the fact that he was not only these statements that he was imitated in ancient times by attaching himself as a writer Meleager (Diog. vi. 99), but to Menippus. also by Varro in his Satiræ 2 See p. 285, 2, and Diog. vi. Menippeæ (Cic. Acad. i. 2, 8; 11. Gell. N. A. ii. 18, 6, also 8 This his teaching proves Macrob. Saturn. i. 11; conf. independently of the opinions Probus, l. c.), and that even of opponents, such as Plato, Lucian gives him a prominent Theætet. 155, E., in which the place in his dialogues. Conf. words σκληρούς και αντιτύπους Riese, Varr. Sat. Rel. p. 7. ανθρώπους and μάλ' ευ άμουσοι

| Besides the above, Me- refer without doubt to Antisleager of Gadara should be thenes and not to the Atomentioned, could we be sure mists; Soph. 251, B. yepbvTwv that he was a member of the τοις όψιμάθεσι υπό πενίας Cynic School. But the mere της περί φρόνησιν κτήσεως τα fact that Athen. iv. 157, 6, in tolallTa redavuakooi. Arist. Meaddressing a Cynic calls him taph. v. 29, 1024, b, 33, viii. 3; ó apoyovos pôv, and that he is 1043, b, 23. perhaps mentioned by Diogenes 4 As Cic. De Orat. iii. 17, 62, as a Cynic, does not prove and Diog. vi. 2, remark, appathe continuance of the Cynic rently on the same authority.


he did not understand ; nor did he see that the prin: ciple of a knowledge of conceptions reached far beyond the limits of the Socratic platform. All knowledge not immediately subservient to ethical purposes he accordingly rejected as unnecessary, or even as injurious, as the offspring of vanity and love of pleasure. Virtue, he maintained, is an affair of action, and can dispense with words and with wisdom. All that it needs is the strength of will of a Socrates.? Thus he and his School not only regarded logical and physical enquiries as worthless, but passed the same opinion on all arts and sciences which have not the moral improvement of mankind 2 for their immediate

1 Diog. 11, Antisthenes teach- τoύντας τα δ' ίδια αγνοούντας: es αυτάρκη δε την αρετήν προς και μην και τους μουσικούς τας ευδαιμονίαν, μηδενός προσδεομένην μεν εν τη λύρα χορδάς αρμότότι μή Σωκρατικής ισχύος. την ττεσθαι, ανάρμοστα δ' έχεις της αρετήν των έργων είναι, μήτε ψυχής τα ήθη τους μαθηματικούς λόγων πλείστων δεομένην μήτε αποβλέπειν μεν προς τον ήλιον και μαθημάτων.

την σελήνην, τα δ' εν ποσί πράγ2 Diog. 103 : αρέσκει ούν αυ- ματα παροράν τους ρήτορας λέτοις τον λογικών και τον φυσικόν γειν μέν έσπoυδακέναι τα δίκαια, τόπον περιαιρείν, εμφερώς 'Αρί- πράττειν δε μηδαμώς. The pasστωνε τη Χίο, μόνο δε προσέχειν sage on astronomers may posτο ηθικώ. According to Dio- sibly have been supported by cles, Diogenes said—what the story of Thales falling others attribute to Socrates into a well whilst contemplator Aristippus (see_p. 150, and ing the heavens. An answer Plut. in Eus. Pr. Ev. i. 8, 9)- thereto is the passage in the that we ought to learn όττι Theaetetus 174, Α, 175, D, on the τοι εν μεγάροισι κακόν τ' αγαθόν Thracian maiden who upbraidτε τέτυκται, παραιτούνται δε και ed him for so doing. The τα εγκύκγια . περιαιρούσι δε mother of Antisthenes was a και γεωμετρίαν και μουσικής και Τhracian slave, and the words πάντα τα τοιαύτα. When a dial which Plato puts into the was shown him, Diogenes re- mouth of the Thracian girl plied, that it was not a bad closely resemble those quoted instrument to avoid being late by Diogenes. It would also for meals. Ιbid. 27: τους δε tally with the character of γραμματικούς εθαύμαζε [Diog.]τα Antisthenes, that he as μεν του Οδυσσέως κακά αναζη- απαίδευτος should be charged



object; for, said Diogenes, as soon as any other object intervenes, self is neglected. Even reading and writing Antisthenes declared could be dispensed with.?

The last statement must in any case be taken with considerable limitation, nor can the Cynic School as a whole be regarded as so hostile to culture as this language would seem to imply. In fact, some decided language as to the value of culture is on record coming from Antisthenes,1 Diogenes,5 Crates,

with not troubling himself in a man so fond of writing.
about the general conception If it is not altogether a fancy,
of things. Diog. 73 says of Dio- it may either rest upon some
genes: μουσικής τε και γεωμετρικής individual expression, such as,
και αστρολογίας και των τοιούτων that it would be better not to
αμελείν ώς αχρήστων και ουκ αναγ- read at all than to read such
καίων. Conf. Diog. 24; 39; nonsense, or it is based upon
Julian, Or. vi. 190, a; Seneca, more general statements such
Ep. 88, particularly 8 7, 32 ; as that quoted by Diog. 5, that
Stob. Floril. 33, 14 ; d. 80, 6: wisdom must not be written in
an astronomer pointing to a books, but in the soul.
map of the heavens says : 4 Exc. e Floril. Jo. Damasc.
ουτοί εισιν οι πλανώμενοι των ii. 13, 68: δεί τους μέλλοντας
αστέρων: upon which Diogenes αγαθούς άνδρας γενήσεσθαι το
replies, pointing to those pre- μεν σώμα γυμνασίοις ασκείν, την
sent : μή ψεύδου: ου γαρ ούτοι δε ψυχήν παιδεύειν. Ιbid. 33, in
εισιν οι πλανώμενοι, αλλ' ούτοι. answer to the question ποιος
The saying of Diogenes in στέφανος καλλιστός έστιν, he
Simpl. De Colo, 33, b, Schol. in replied: και από παιδείας.
Arist. 476, b, 35, that even an

την παιδείαν ass takes the shortest cut to είπε τοις μεν νέοις σωφροσύνην, his food and to the water, was τοις δε πρεσβυτέροις παραμυθίαν, probably meant as a hit at τοις δε πένησι πλούτον, τοις δε geometry and its axiom of the πλουσίοις κόσμος είναι.--- Exc. e straight line.

Floril. Jo. Damasc. 13, 29: η 1 Excerp. e Joan. Damasc. ii. παιδεία ομοία εστί χρυσό στε13, 61. (Stob. Floril. ed. Mein.) φάνη· και γάρ τιμήν έχει και

2 Diog. 103 : γράμματα γούν πολυτέλειαν. Ibid. 74, 75. μη μανθάνειν έφασκεν ο 'Αντι- 6 Diog. 86 : ταύτ' έχω όσσ' σθένης τους σώφρονας γενομένους, έμαθον και εφρόντισα και μετά ίνα μη διαστρέφουντο τοις άλλοτ- Μουσών σέμν' εδάην. τα δε πολλά ρίοις.

και όλβια τυφος έμαρψε. A pa3 It would be hardly credible rody of this verse is the epitaph

5 Diog.






and Monimus.' Diogenes too is said to have zealously impressed on bis pupils the sayings of poets and of prose writers. Besides, it cannot be conceived that men, who wrote so much that was good, should have declared war against all culture. One thing we may however take for established, that the value of culture was exclusively estimated by its efficacy in producing the Cynic type of virtue. Hence this School depreciated all speculative knowledge, only studying logic and physics, in as far as these sciences seemed necessary for ethical purposes. From this judgment we are not justified in exempting even the founder.

on Sardanapalus in Clem. Stro- λέξεως, 'Αλήθεια, Περί του διαλέmat. ii. 411, D.

γεσθαι, Σάθων και περί του αντι1 Floril. Jo. Damasc. ii. 13, λέγειν, Περί διαλέκτου, Περί όνο88: Μόνιμος έφη κρείττον μάτων, Περί ονομάτων χρήσεως, είναι τυφλόν ή απαίδευτον τον Περί έρωτήσεως και αποκρίσεως, μεν γαρ εις τον βάθρον, τον δ' Περί δόξης και επιστήμης, Δόξαι εις το βάραθρον εμπίπτειν. . ή εριστικός, Περί του μανθάνειν

? Diog. 31, according to Eu- tpoßanuata. To the second, lepi bulus ; κατείχον δε οι παίδες πολ- ζώων φύσεως, Περί φύσεως (perλά ποιητών και συγγραφέων και haps the same which Cicero των αυτού Διογενούς, πασάν τ' mentions N. D. 1. 13, 32), Ερώέφοδος σύντομος προς το ευμνημό- τημα περί φύσεως. A commenνευστον επήσκει. .

tary on the writings of Hera* Krische, Forschungen, 237. clitus, which Diog. ix. 15 menSee Ritter, ii. 120.

tions, does not belong to him. 4 Although the division of phi. See Zeller, Phil. d. Griech. i. losophy into Logic, Ethics, and 527, and Krische, p. 238. So Physics can have been hardly little, however, is known of introduced in the time of Anti- these writings, that no sthenes, and hence the words clusions can be arrived at in Diog. 103 cannot be his, it which contradict the above does not thence follow that the assumptions. His logical writstatement there made is false. ings, to judge by their titles, Amongst the writings of Anti- appear to have contained those sthenes some are known to us, polemical dissertations on conwhich would be called logical ceptions, judgments, and exwritings, to use a later division; pressions, which were required others are on physical subjects. as a foundation for critical . To the first class belong lepi researches. Of the writings

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