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whether they rather command esteem, or dislike, or CHAP.

XIII. commiseration. Previous enquiries, however, make it possible for us to refer these various peculiarities to one common source. The leading thought of Cynicism is the self-suffi- (1) Self

renunciaciency of virtue. Blunt and onesided in their con

tion, ception of this principle, the Cynics were not content with a mere inward independence of the enjoyments and wants of life. Their aim, they thought, could only be reached by entirely renouncing all enjoyment, by limiting their wants to what is absolutely indispensable, by deadening their feelings to outward impressions, and by cultivating indifference to all that is not in their own power.

The Socratic independence of wants? became with them a renunciation of the world. Poor to begin with, or renouncing their property voluntarily,” they lived as beggars.6 See p. 302.

guise, the staff and scrip; nor ? According to Diog. vi. 105, is the truth of his account imconf. Lucian, Cyn. 12, Dio- pugned by Sosicrates, in saying genes repeated the language that Diodorus of Aspendus which we saw Socrates used, p. was the first to do so; for this 64, 3. To the same effect is statement is not very accurate, the story that Diogenes, at the both Antisthenes and Diogenes beginning of his Cynic career, being older than Diodorus. refused to look for a runaway Nevertheless, in Diog. 22, Dioslave, because he could do genes is described with great without his slave as well as probability as the originator the slave could do without of the full mendicant garb, him. Diog. 55 ; Stob. Floril. 62, and he is also said to have been 47. Ibid. 97, 31, p. 215 Mein. the first to gain his living by

3 See pp. 303 ; 310, 1. begging. Diog. 38; 46 ; 49;

4 Such as Antisthenes, Dio- Teles. in Stob. Flor. v. 67; genes, and Monimus.

Hieron. adv. Jovin. ii. 207. 5 Such as Crates and Hip- His followers Crates (see the parchia.

verses in Diog. 85 and 90) and 6 According to Diocles in Monimus (Diog. 82) adopted Diog. vi. 13, Antisthenes al. the same course. ready assumed the beggar's

CHAP.
XIII.

Possessing no houses of their own, they passed the day in the streets, or in other public places; the nights they spent in porticoes, or wherever else chance might guide them. Furniture, they did not need.2 A bed seemed superfluous. The simple Greek dress was by them made still simpler, and they were content with the tribon 4 of Socrates, the ordinary dress of the lower orders, without any under

now

· Diogenes must have been 67, 20, p. 4, Mein. says is that the first to act thus. For An- they spent day and night in tisthenes in Xen. Symp. 4, 38, the open porticoes. In southstill speaks of having a house, ern countries they even although its furniture was con- often spend the night in a fined to the bare walls. Dio portico. genes, however, and the later ? The story that Diogenes Cynics lived as described. See threw away his cup, when he Diog. 22; 38; 76 ; 105: Teles. had seen a boy drinking with 1. c. and in Stob. Floril. 97, 31, the hollow of his hand, is well p. 215 Mein. Hieron. Lucian, known. Diog. 37; Plut. Prof. V. Auct. 9. Diogenes for a in Virt. 8, p. 79; Seneca, Ep. time took up his abode in a 90, 14; Hier. 1. c. He is also tub which stood in the en- reported to have trampled on trance-court of Metroon, at Plato's costly carpets with the Athens, as had been done by words, maTÔ Mátwvos Tühomeless folk before. Diog. pov, to which Plato replied, 23 ; 43 ; 105; Sen. Ep. 90, 14. ετέρωγε τύφο, Διογενές. Diog. But it cannot have been, as 26. Juvenal, xiv. 208, and Lucian, 3 Antisthenes in Xen. Symp. Consc. His. 3, represent it, that 4, 38, boasts that he slept adhe spent his whole life there mirably on the simplest bed. without any other home, even And the fragment in Demetr. carrying his tub about with de Elocut. 249 (Winckelmann, him, as a snail does its shell. p. 52), belongs here. As far as Compare Steinhart, 1. c. p. 302. Diogenes (Epict. Dido. i. 24, 7, Göttling, Ges. Abh. 258, and distinctly asserts this of DioBrucker's report of the discus- genes) and Crates are concernsions between Hermann and ed, they slept, as a matter of Kasæus, Hist. Phil. i. 872. course, on the bare ground. Equally fictitious is the roman- Compare the

passages tic story that Crates and Hip- quoted p. 54, 4. parchia lived in a tub. Simpl. 5 That is at Athens; at in Epict. Enchir. p. 270. All Sparta the tpißwv was univerthat Musonius in Stob. Floril. sal (Göttling, 256; Hermann,

CHAP.
XIII.

clothing. In scantiness of diet they even surpassed the very limited requirements of their fellow countrymen. It is said that Diogenes tried to do without fire, by eating his meat raw, and he is credited with saying that everything, without exception, human flesh included, might be used for purposes of food. Even in extreme age he refused to depart from his accustomed manner of living, and lest his friends should expend any unnecessary care on his corpse, he forbad their burying it at all. A life in harmony Antiquit. iii. § 21, 14), from 2 Their ordinary food conwhich it will be seen, that the sisted of bread, figs, onions, word did not originally mean garlic, linseed, but particularly something worn out, but a of the Oépuol, or beans of some rough dress which rubbed the kind. Their drink was cold skin; an ιμάτιον τρίβον not an water. Diog. 105; 25; 48; 85 ; iudTiov TET PruMévov, and that 90; Teles in Stob. Floril. 97, quátlov tpißw gevóuevov in Stob. 31; Ibid. p. 215, M.; Athen. iv. Floril. 5, 67, means a covering 156, c; Lucian, V. Auct. 9; which had grown rough. Dio Chrys. Or. vi. 12 and 21,

1 This was often done by the and Göttling, p. 255. But, in poor (Hermann, 1. c.) Anti- · order to prove their freedom, sthenes, however, or Diogenes, they occasionally allowed a according to others, made this pleasure to themselves and dress the dress of his order, others. Diog. 55 ; Aristid. Or. allowing the Tpißwv to be xxv. 560 (Winckelmann, p. 28). doubled for better protection 3 Diog. 34 ; 76 ; Pseudo-Plut. against the cold. Diog. 6; 13; de Esu Carn. i. 6, 995; Dio 22 ; 76; 105. Teles in Stob. Chrys. Or. vi. 25. Floril. 97, 31, p. 215. Mein. * In Diog. 73, this principle The Cynic ladies adopted the is supported by the argument, same dress, Diog. 93. This that everything is in everysingle article of dress was thing else, even flesh in bread, often in the most miserable &c. Diog. refers for this to a condition. See the anecdotes tragedy of Thyestes, the writer about Crates, Diog. 90, and the of which was not Diogenes, verses on him, Ibid. 87. Be- but Philiscus. A similar statecause of the self-satisfaction ment was subsequently made with which Antisthenes ex- by the Stoics. See Zeller's posed to view the holes in his Stoics, &c. cloak, Socrates is said to have 5 See Diog. 34. observed that his vanity peered 6 See the accounts which through them. Diog. 8. differ in details in Diog. 79;

CHAP.
XIII.

with nature, the suppression of everything artificial, the most simple satisfaction of all natural wants, is the watchword of his School.? They never weary of belauding the good fortune and the independence which they owe to this freedom from wants. To attain thereto, bodily and mental hardships are made a principle. A Diogenes whose teacher did not appear to treat him with sufficient severity,' is said to have undertaken self-mortification in this behalf.6

Even the scorn and contempt necessarily incurred by this manner of life were borne by the Cynics with the greatest com

4

52; Cic. Tusc. i. 43, 104; Teles in Stob. Floril. 97, 31,
Ælian, V. H. viii. 14; Stob. Mein. and the quotations p.
Floril. 123, 11. The same is 303, 2 and 3.
repeated by Chrysippus in 4 Compare p. 250, 1, and
Sext. Pyrrh. iii. 258; Math. Diog. 30. Diogenes' training
xi. 194.

appears to have been described 1 Which Diogenes also re- by Eubulus in the same glowquired, witness for instance ing terms as that of Cyrus was his saying in Diog. 71: Séov by Xenophon. Exc. e Floril. oûv årti Tv åxphotwv nóvwv Joan. Damasc. ii. 13, 68; 67. Tojs Karà púou enouévous (ộv Diogenes in Stob. Floril. 7, 18, ευδαιμόνως, παρά την

νοιαν κακο

expresses the view that mental δαιμονούσι.

vigour is the only object of all 2 Compare on this subject exercise, even that of the the expressions of Diogenes in body. Diog. 44; 35; Stob. Floril. 5,

Chrys. Or. viii. 2 41 ; 67, the hymn of Crates on (Stob. Floril. 13, 19); conf. EUTÉNELA, and his prayer to the Diog. 18. Muses in Julian, Or. vi. 199, in 6 According to Diog. 23; 34, addition to what Plut. de he was in the habit of rolling Sanit. 7, p. 125, Diog. 85; 93, in the summer in the burning and Stobæus tell of him. Com- sand, and in winter of walking pare also Lucian, V. Auct. 9, barefoot in the snow, and emand the anecdote of the mouse, bracing icy columns. On the the sight of which confirmed other hand, Philemon's words Diogenes in his renunciation of about Crates in Diog. 87, that the world in Plut. Prof. in Vir- he went about wrapped up in tut. 6; Diog. 22, 40.

summer and in rags in winter, 3 Compare the language used are probably only a comedian's by Crates and Metrocles in jest on his beggarly covering.

5 Dio

XIII.

posure;' nay, they accustomed themselves thereto, on CHAP. the ground that the reproaches of enemies teach man to know himself, and the best revenge you can take is to amend your faults. Should life from any reason become insupportable, they reserved to themselves the right, as the Stoics did at a later time, of securing their freedom by means of suicide.

Among external things of which it is necessary to (2) Rebe independent, the Cynics included several matters nunciation

of social which other men are in the habit of regarding as life. morally good and as duties. To be free in every respect, the wise man must be fettered and hampered by no relations to others. He must satisfy his social

1 Antisthenes in Diog. 7, μέλλουσι σώζεσθαι και φίλων δει requires : κακώς ακούοντας καρ- γνησίων ή διαπύρων εχθρών. τερείν μάλλον ή εί λίθοις τις βάλ. 4 Diog. in Plut. Inimic. Util. hoito. He also says in Epict. 4, p. 88 and Poet. 4, p. 21. Diss. iv. 6, 20 (conf. Diog. 3): 5 When Antisthenes in his βασιλικόν, ώ Κύρε, πράττειν μεν last illness became impatient , Kak@s so åkovely. It is said under his sufferings, Diogenes of Diogenes, Diog. 33, and offered him a dagger (Diog. also of Crates, Diog. 89, that 18) to put an end to his life, when his body had been ill. which Antisthenes had not the treated, he only wrote by the courage to use. That Diogenes side of his blains the names of made away with himself is those by whom they had been indeed asserted in several of inflicted.

the accounts to which refer. ? Diog. 90 says of Crates, rds ence has been made, but canπόρνας επίτηδες ελοιδόρει, συγ- not be proved. In Ælian, V. γυμνάζων εαυτόν προς τας βλα- Η. Χ. 11, he refuses the conσφημίας. .

temptuous challenge to put an 3 Antisthenes remarks, Diog. end to his sufferings by sui12: προσέχειν τους εχθρούς» πρώ- cide; for the wise man ought Tou gào Tậv åpaprnudrwv aiold- to live. Nevertheless, Metro

He also says in Plut. cles put an end to himself Inim. Util. 6, p. 89, and the (Diog. 95), not to mention same saying is attributed to Menedemus (Ibid. 100). So Diogenes in De Adul. 36 p. 74; also Crates in Diog. 86; CleProf. in Virt. ii. p. 82: tois mens. Strom. ii. 412, D.

νονται,

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