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All mankind are to live together like a flock. No nation may have its own special laws and boundaries severing it from others. Confining themselves to the barest necessaries of life, needing no gold, that source of so much mischief, abstaining from marriage and family life, they wished to return to the simplicity of a state of nature;' the leading thought of their enlarged political sympathies being not so much the oneness and the union of all mankind, but the freedom of the individual from the bonds of social life and the limits of nationality. Here again
1 The above description rests περί νόμου και περί πολιτείας, only in part on direct testi- which appears to be identical mony, but the combination with the modLTIKOS didroyos menwhich is the basis of it does tioned by Athen. v. 220, d, is not lack great probability. We in itself probable, and is conknow on authority that Dio- firmed by Plato's Politicus. genes in his hotela (Diog. Rejecting, as his dialogue does, 80) demanded a community of the analogy between stateswives and children, and that manship and the superintenin the same treatise he pro- dence of a flock, we might posed a coinage of bones or naturally think that Plato was stones (àotpayárol) instead of provoked to it by some such gold and silver, Athen. iv.159, e. theory; and since we know We know further that Zeno's from Plutarch's account of rollTela ran to this effect : Iva Zeno, that the Cynics reduced μη κατά πόλεις μηδε κατά δήμους the idea of the state to that of οικώμεν, ιδίοις έκαστοι διωρισμένοι και herd of men, it is most δικαίοις, αλλά πάντας ανθρώπους natural to think of them. ηγώμεθα δημότας και πολίτας εις Moreover, the description of δε βίος ή και κόσμος, ώσπερ αγέλης the natural state, Rep. ii. 372, συννόμου νόμο κοινό τρεφομένης, appears also to refer to AntisPlut. Alex. Vit. i. 6, p. 329; thenes. Plato at first describes and since this treatise of Zeno it as though from himself, but was always considered to ex- he afterwards clearly intimates press the opinions of the Cynic that it belongs to another, School, we have every reason when he calls it a state fit to look in it for a Cynic's views. for pigs. Nor do we know of That such views were on the anyone else to whom it could whole advocated by Antis- be better referred than to the thenes, probably in the treatise founder of the Stoic School,
may be seen the negative spirit of their morality,
destitute of all creative power. (C) Sup- The same character may be recognised in a feature pression of for us the most revolting in Cynicism-their demodesty.
liberate suppression of the natural feeling of shame. This feeling they did not consider altogether unreasonable, but they urged that you need only be ashamed of what is bad, and that what is in itself good may not only be unblushingly discussed, but done without reserve before the eyes of all. They therefore permitted themselves what they considered natural, without regard to places, not shrinking even from doing in the public streets 3 what other men
· It is expressly told of Dio. to breakfast in public. Folgenes, Diog. 37 ; 54, that he ex- lowing out this principle, he postulated with a woman who not only took his meals in publay in an indecent position in lic in the streets (Diog. 48 ; 58), a temple, and that he called but he also did many other blushes the colour of virtue. eccentric and startling things,
? See the following note, and in the sight of all passers by Cic. Off. i. 35, 128 : Nec vero (Diog. 35; 36).
It is even audiendi sunt Cynici aut si qui asserted of him, Diog. 69: fuerunt Stoici pene Cynici, είώθει δε πάντα ποιείν εν τω μέσα, qui reprehendunt et irrident, και τα Δήμητρος και τα Αφροδίτης. quod ea, quæ turpia non sint Theod. Cur. Gr. Aff. xii. 48, p. (for instance, the begetting of 172, says the same of him, children) nominibus ac verbis mentioning an instance. We flagitiosa dicamus (that we have already, p. 320, 4, observed consider it unseemly to name that these statements can them), illa autem quæ turpia hardly be altogether fictitious. sunt (stealing, &c.) nominibus But it is incredible that Crates appellemus suis.
and Hipparchia, as is said to * This is especially said of have been the case, consumDiogenes, Diog. 22: navtl Tpónomated their nuptials in the εχρήτο εις πάντα, άριστών τι και midst of numerous spectators. kabeúdwv kał diareyouevos, and There are, however, not a few according to Diog. 69, he sup- authorities for it: Diog. 97; ported this by the argument, Sext. Pyrrh. i. 153; iii. 200; If it is at all allowable to
Stromat. iv, 523, A.; breakfast, it must be allowable Apul. Floril. 14; Lact. Inst.
prefer to do in secret. Lest he should in any way forego his independence, the Cynic puts out of sight all regard for others, and what he is not ashamed of by himself, he thinks he need not be ashamed of before others. The opinion of men is to him indifferent. He is neither hurt by their familiarity with his personal life, nor need he fear such familiarity.
To the same source may be referred the Cynic (d) Reattitude towards religion. No course of study under
of religion. Antisthenes was needed to make men doubt the truth of the popular faith. Such doubts were raised on all sides, and since the appearance of the Sophists, had permeated the educated classes. Not even the Socratic circle had passed unscathed. From his intercourse with Gorgias and the other Sophists, Antisthenes in particular must have been familiar with freer views respecting the Gods and their worship, and specially with the principles of the Eleatics, whose teaching in other respects he also worked into his own.
For him, however, these views had a peculiar meaning. Hence, too, may be explained the
iii. 15, who mentions it as the phers, that a public consum-
sharp and hostile attitude of the Cynics to the popular faith, in which they so distinctly deviated from the example of Socrates. The wise man, independent of everything external, cannot possibly be dependent on a traditional faith. He cannot feel pledged to follow popular opinions, or to connect his well-being with customs and devotional practices, which have nothing to do with his moral state.' Thus in religious matters the Cynics are decidedly on the side of free thought. The existence of a God they do not deny, nor can their wise man do without one; but they object to a number of gods resembling men--popular gods, owing, as they say, 2 their existence to tradition : in reality there is but one God, who resembles nothing visible, and cannot be represented by any symbol. The same reasoning holds good of
In this way we must ex- αυτόν ουδείς εκμαθείν εξ εικόνος plain the free thought of Aris- dúvatai. Tertull. Ad Nat. ii. 2: todemus, Mem. i. 4, 2, 9-11; In reply to the question, Quid 14; who is also described by in cælis agatur ? Diogenes rePlato, Symp. 173, B., as a kin- plied : Nunquam ascendi; to dred spirit to Antisthenes. the question, Whether there
2 Cic. N. D. i. 13, 32: “An- were any Gods ? he answered : tisthenes in eo libro, qui phy- Nescio nisi ut sint expedire. sicus inscribitur, populares No very great dependence can, [vbum] Deos multos, natura- it is true, be placed in Tertul. lem (pvoel] unum esse dicens,' lian's sayings. Id. Apol. 14 ; which repeated by Minuc. Ad. Nat. i. 10: Diogenes nescis Fel. Oct. 19, 8, and Lact. Inst. quid in Herculem ludit, withi. 5, epit. 4. Clemens, Protrept. out, however, giving further 46, C., and also Stromat. v. particulars. Compare what 601, A., says: 'AvTionévns . was said of Socrates, p. 175. θεόν ουδενί έoικέναι φησίν • διόπερ • The Cynics are therefore αυτόν ουδείς εκμαθείν εξ εικόνος Atheists in the ancient sensedúvarai. Theod. Cur. Gr. Affect. of the term, i.e. they denied i. 75, p. 14: 'Αντισθένης the Gods of the state, although περί του θεού των όλων βοα: από from their point of view they εικόνος ου γνωρίζεται, οφθαλμοίς were certainly right in rejectουχ δράται, ουδενί έoικε διόπερ ing the charge of atheism.
the worship of the gods. There is but one way of pleasing God—by virtue ; everything else is superstition. Wisdom and uprightness make us followers and friends of the gods. What is generally done to secure their favour is worthless and unmeaning. The wise man honours God by virtue, and not by sacrifice,' which God does not require. He knows that a temple is not more holy than any other place. He does not pray for things which are considered goods by the unwise; not for riches, but for righteousness.4
Herewith the ordinary notion respecting prayer is also surrendered ; for everyone owes virtue to his own exertions. Hence Diogenes may be understood ridiculing prayers and vows. The same sweeping judgment is pronounced on oracles, prophecy, and prophets. The mystic rites also were assailed with biting scorn, both by Diogenes and Antisthenes; these philosophers, as far as religious views are con
Nothing follows from the anec- and philosophers, he thinks dotes in Diog. 37; 42.
man the most intelligent being, | Julian, Or. vi. 199, B., ex- but looking at interpreters of cusing Diogenes because of his dreams, or prophets, or credupoverty, says that he never lous believers in them, he conentered a temple or offered siders him the most foolish of sacrifice. Crates, ibid. 200, A., creatures. Similar statements promises to honour Hermes and in Diog. 43; 48; Theod. Cur. the Muses où datávals Tpu epais, Gr. Aff. vi. 20, p. 88; and Dio. αλλ' αρεταίς οσίαις. .
Or. x. 2 ; 17. Antisthenes ap2 See p. 315, 2.
pears also in Xen. Sym. 8, 5, to : See Diog. 73 : undev T1 have doubts upon the subject άτοπον είναι εξ ιερού τι λαβείν. of the daluóvlov of Socrates, but
+ See the prayer of Crates in no conclusion can be formed Julian 1. c. and Diog. 42. from a passage so jocular.
5 Compare the anecdotes in ? Diog. 4; 39; 42; Plut. Aud. Diog. 37; 59.
Poet. 5, p. 21; Clemens, Pro6 In Diog. 24 he says that, trept. 49, C. looking at pilots, physicians,