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cerned, holding a perfectly independent attitude towards the popular faith. Not but that they gladly took hold of points which mythology supplied for their own arguments, taking all the more occasion to do so, in proportion to the earnestness of their desire to influence the masses : Antisthenes being aided in so doing by the sophistical training which be had previously enjoyed. The various traditions must all be explained in harmony with this view. Hence we find Antisthenes in no small degree engaged in allegorical interpretations of the myths and the poets, and in an explanation of Homer, which he committed to writing in numerous volumes. Looking for a hidden meaning 3 in legendary stories, he was everywhere able to discover moral teaching, and to build on moral reflections. Indeed, by laying down the further axiom, that the poet does not always express his own sentiments," he

For the allegorical inter- Symp. 3, 6; Plato, Rep. ii. 378, pretations of that period con- D. ; Io, 530, C. sult Krische, Forsch. 234 ; Xen. 4 Thus on Od. i. 1, he enSym. 3, 6; Plato, Theætet. 153, quired in what sense molut poC.; Rep. ii. 378, D. ; Io, 530, Tia was meant for praise. On C.; Phædrus, 229, C.; and Od. v. 211; vii. 257, he reZeller's Phil. d. Griech. i. 930, marked, that no reliance could 3; also pp. 755, 831; Stoics, be placed upon lovers' pro&c.

mises. In Il. xv. 123, he found ? Diog. 17, mentions twelve his doctrine of the oneness of or thirteen volumes of his on virtue. See the passages in Homer and various portions of Winkelmann, p. 23_28. the Homeric poems, and one 5 Dio Chrys. Or. liii. 5, says on Amphiaraus. Here, too, that whereas the same had been belong the treatises on Hercu- previously said of Zeno, ó les. Julian, Or. vii. 209, A.; Nóyos ollToS 'AVTio Aévous ¿OTI 215, C. ; 217, A., also testifies πρότερον, ότι τα μεν δόξη τα δε to the fact of his frequently αληθεία είρηται το ποιητη· αλλ' using myths. See Krische, ο μεν ουκ έξειργάσατο αυτόν, και δε 243.

καθ' έκαστον τών επί μέρους εδή2 The υπόνοια Or διάνοια. Χen. λωσεν.

on the

had no difficulty in finding anything anywhere. CHAP.

XIII. Traces of this allegorical interpretation may also be found in Diogenes. Yet the Cynics do not seem to have carried this process nearly so far as the Stoics ;? which is also quite natural, Cynic teaching being very imperfectly expanded, and the taste for learned activity being with them very small. From the above it will be seen in what sense the E. Their

influence Cynics spoke of the self-sufficingness of virtue. The wise man must be absolutely and in every respect world. independent; independent of wants, of desires, of prejudices and of after-thoughts. The devotion and strength of will with which they compassed this end, has certainly something grand about it. Disregarding, however, the limits of individual existence, and putting out of sight the conditions of a natural and a moral life, the Cynic grandeur borders on pride, and their strength of principle on self-will. A value out of all proportion is attached to the form of life, to such an extent that they again become dependent on external circumstances. The sublime becomes ridiculous, and every humour at last claims to be honoured as being higher wisdom. Plato, or whoever it was who called Diogenes a Socrates gone mad, was not far wrong in what he said.4 According to Stob. Floril.

their Ethics 29, 92, he explained the legend scanty enough, and their sysof Medea boiling up the old tem gave no opportunity for into young to mean that, by those lengthy, physical disbodily exercise, she made ef- cussions, on which the Stoics feminate men young again. were so great.

2 Dio says this expressly, 4 Ælian, V. H. xiv. 33; Diog. and little has come down to us vi. 54. of Cynic interpretations.


8 Even



Notwithstanding these pretensions, the independence of these philosophers was not so great that they could dispense with every relation to others. It was only natural that they should wish to see all virtuous persons united as friends;' and, besides, they considered it the wise man's business to raise the rest of mankind to his own level. Anxious not to monopolise the blessings of virtue, but to share them with others, they sought for work as educators of their people, desiring, if possible, to bring a lax and effeminate nation back to the days of moral strictness and simplicity. The mass of men are fools, slaves of pleasure, suffering from self-conceit and pride. The Cynic is a physician to heal their disease, a guide to lead them to what is good. Hence he considers it his mission to care for the outcast



· Diog. 11 : kal èpareho co dal praising the Spartans, replied : δε μόνον γαρ ειδέναι τον σοφών, ουδέ γάρ ιατρός υγιείας ών ποιητιτίνων χρή εράν. 12 : αξιέραστος κος εν τοις υγιαίνουσι την διατριο αγαθός : αι σπουδαίοι φίλοι. βήν ποιείται. Accordingly, DioAntisthenes wrote both

genes calls himself in Lucian, Ερωτικός and 'Ερώμενος V. Auct. 8, ελευθερωτής των αν(Diog. 14; 18), and he had Opúrwv kaì larpos Twv Tadôv, and mentioned love in his Hercules he expresses astonishment in (Procl. in Alc. 98, 6; Winckel- Dio. Or. viii. 7, that men less mann, p. 16). An 'Epwtirds of frequently apply to him, the Diogenes is also mentioned, healer of souls, than they do to Diog. 80.

an oculist or dentist. 2 See p. 314.

4 When Diogenes was purDiog. 4: 'Avrloo évns épwTn- chased by Xeniades, he is said θείς διά τί πικρώς τους μαθηταίς to have told Xeniades that he επιπλήττει, και οι ιατροί, φησι, would have to obey his slave, τοϊς κάμνουσιν· Ιbid. 6: και οι just as in another case he ιατροί φησι, μετά των νοσούντων would have to obey a pilot or eioiv, åxx' tupéTTOVOLV. In physician. Diog. 30; 36; conf. Stob. Floril. 13, 25, Diogenes, 74; Plut. An. Vitios. c. 3, p. when asked why he remained 499; 'Stob. Flor. 3, 63; Philo, in Athens, whilst he was always Qu. Omn. Pr. Lib. 833, E.



and despised, only the sick needing a physician,' and no more fears contamination from such intercourse than the sun fears impurity from shining in the dirtiest haunts.2

The improvement of mankind, however, is no easy task. He who will be saved must hear the truth; nothing being more destructive than flattery.4 Yet truth is always unpleasant ;5 none save either an incensed enemy or a real friend dare tell it. This friendly service, the Cynics propose to render to mankind. If in so doing they give offence, matters not to them ;8 a good kind of man being always disagreeable to bear with ;9 he who annoys no one is of no good to any It was moreover a principle of theirs to pitch their demands both in word and example above what they really wanted, because men only imperfectly conform to them." Thus they pressed themselves on friends and strangers alike with their exhortations,l2 which Diogenes, in particular, in



According to Epict. iii. 24,

6 See p. 319, 3. 66, Diogenes read a lesson to ' Diogenes in Stob. Flor. 13, the pirates who captured him. 26 : οι μεν άλλοι κύνες τους έχIt cannot, however, have done θρούς δάκνουσιν, εγώ δε τους much good, for they sold him φίλους, ίνα σώσω. notwithstanding; and the story 8 See p. 318. is altogether very uncertain. 9 δυσβάστακτον είναι τον ασ.

? Diog. 63, and above, p. 332,3. Telov.---Antisth. in Philo. Qu.
3 Diog. 4, and p. 332,

Omn. Pr. Lib. 869, C.
4 Diog. 4; 51; 92; Stob. 10 In Plut. Virt. Mort. c. 12,
Floril. 14, 16; Antisthenes in g, E., p. 452, Diogenes says of
Plut. Vit. Pud. c. 18, g, E., p.

Plato: τι δ' εκείνος έχει σεμνόν, 536.

δς τοσούτον χρόνον φιλοσοφών 5 Diogenes in Exc. e Floril. ουδένα λελύπηκεν και Joan. Damasc. ii. 31, 22: TO 11 See p. 308, 1. αληθές πικρόν εστι και αηδές τους 12 Compare what Diog. vi. 10, ανοητοίς. . It is like light to says of Antisthenes, and vi. 26; those who have weak eyes. 46 ; 65 of Diogenes ; also


stilled in the coarsest manner, although more gentle traits are not altogether wanting. At the same time the coarseness of their manner was somewhat relieved by their humour in which Diogenes and Crates more particularly excelled. They loved to clothe serious teaching in the form of a joke, or of poetry, and to hurl sharp-pointed words at the folly of mankind ;5 Diogenes even, like the oriental prophets, giving greater force to his utterances by symbolical actions, and thus attracting for them attention.

No doubt the position occupied by the Cynics in the Greek world is a peculiar one. Ridiculed because of their eccentricities, and admired for their self


Lucian V. Auct. 10. Because + Hermog. Progym. c. 3;
of his importunity, Crates re- Theo. Progym. c. 5; Nicol. Pro-
ceived the name of Qupetavol- gym. c. 3.

Plut. Qu. 5 Abundant examples of
Conv. ii. 1, 7, 4, p. 632; Apul. these ways of the Cynics are
Floril. iv. 22.

to be found in the αποφθέγματα Diog. 24; 32; 46; Ex. e of Diogenes, in his. sixth book, Floril. Jo. Damasc. i. 7, 43. and in Stobeus Floril. See

2 Plut. De Adul. 28, p. 69, also Winckelmann, Antisth. relates that when Demetrius Frag. ; Plut. Prof. in Virt. c. 11, Phalerius, after his banish- p. 82; Virt. Doc. c. 2, p. 439; ment, fell in with Crates, he Coh. Ira, c. 12, p. 460; Curios. was not a little surprised at C. 12, p. 521; Cup. Div. c. 7, being received with friendly p. 526; Exil. c. 7, p. 602; An. words of warm comfort in- Seni. s. Ger. Rep. i. 5, p. 783; stead of the violent language conf. Præc. c. 26, 141 ; De Alex. he expected. The attractive- Virt. c. 3, p. 336; Epict. Diss. ness of the conversation of iii. 2, 11; Gell. xviii. 13, 7; Antisthenes and Diogenes is Tertullian, Apol. 39; pot to also commended, Diog. 14. mention others. Conf. Xen. Symp. 4, 61.

6 See Diog. 26; 31; 39; 64; 3 See Diog. 27; 83; 85; De 41 (the lantern); Stob. Flor. 4, metr. de Elocut. 170; 259; 261; 84. This eccentricity becomes Plut. Tranqu. An. 4, p. 466 ; a caricature in Menedemus, Julian, Or. vii. 209, a; Antisth. : Diog. 102. ένια διά των μύθων απήγγελλε. ? Diog. 83, 87, 93. Similarly, Ibid. 215, C; 217, a.

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