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denial, despised as beggars, and feared as moralists, full of contempt for the follies, of pity for the moral miseries of their fellow men, they met both the wisdom and the effeminacy of their time with the rude vigour of a resolute will, hardened even to insensibility. Possessing the pungent, ever ready native wit of the plebeian, benevolent, with few wants, full of whims and jokes, and national even to their very dirtiness, they resemble in many points the friars of the Middle Ages;' nor can it be doubted that, notwithstanding all their extravagances, their action was in many ways beneficial. For all that, philosophy could expect but little from this mendicant philosophy. Not until it had been supplemented by other elements, regulated and received into connection with a wider view of the world in the Stoa, was Cynicism able to bear fruit on a large scale. The Cynic School, as such, appears to have had only a very narrow extension, a fact which will not appear strange, considering the terrible severity of its demands. Besides it was incapable of philosophic expansion, and even its practical action was chiefly of a negative character. It attacked the vices and the follies of men. It required independence and self-denial, but it separated man from man. It placed the individual entirely by himself, thus offering play to moral pride,

· The Cynics really have a rean asceticism, which exerhistorical connection with the cised, partly directly and monks of Christendom. The partly through the Essenes, so link between the two is the important influence Cynicism of the time of the eastern monasticism. Cæsars, and the late Pythago




vanity, and the most capricious whims, which were not left unindulged. The abstract sovereignty of the personal will resulted ultimately in individual caprice, and thus Cynicism trenched on the ground of the philosophy of pleasure, to which as a system it was diametrically opposed.




RESPECTING the Cyrenaic branch of the Socratic school, the information we possess is quite as imperfect, or even more so, than that which we A. History have touching the Cynics. Aristippus 2 of Cyrene, Cyrenaics.

of the the founder, had been brought to Athens 4 by a call from Socrates, whose extraordinary personal influence had unusual attractions for him, although his

See Wendt, De Philosophia his teaching from Ischomachus, Cyrenaica, Gött. 1841.

and was at once so taken by it 2 The accounts of ancient that he did not rest till he had and the views of modern made his acquaintance. See writers on the life of Aristip- Diog. ii. 78; 80. pus are found in detail in

5 Aristippus is not only uniH. v. Stein's De Philosophia versally described as a follower Cyrenaica, Part. prior. de vita of Socrates (Diog. ii. 47; 74 ; Aristippi (Gött. 1855), which 80; Strabo, xvii. 3, 22, p. 837; ought to have proceeded some- Eris. Pr. Ev. xiv. 18, 31; Stein., what more sceptically. There p. 26), but he also regarded too are references to the earlier himself as such, and paid a literature.

tribute of most genuine respect 3 All authorities without ex- to his teacher. According to ception state this. His father Diog. ii. 76, he prayed that he is called Aritadas by Suid. 'Apl. might die like Socrates. I bid.

71, he says that if anything * Æschin. in Diog. ii. 65, says good can be truly repeated of that he came to Athens katà himself, he owes it to Socrates, κλέος Σωκράτους, and Plut. and Arist. Rhet. ii. 23; 1398, Curios. 2, p. 516, gives full b, 29, says, 'AplotITTOS apos particulars how at the Olympic Πλάτωνα επαγγελτικώτερόν τι games he heard of Socrates and είπόντα, ώς ώετο· αλλά μην και

στιππος. .

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character was too weak to endure in the last trial.'
From Cyrene, his luxurious home, which at that time
was at the height of its wealth and power, he had
brought habits far removed from the simplicity and
abstemiousness of Socrates. Perhaps he had been
already touched by those Sophistical influences which
may be observed in his subsequent career.
rate we may assume that he had attained to a certain

At any

εταιρός γ' ημών, έφη, ουδέν τοιού- escape the painful interval
Tov, négwv Tov Ewkpárnu (which pending the death of Socrates,
Steinhart, Plat. Leben, 303, 17, cannot be ascertained.
contrary to the natural sense, ? See Thrige, Res Cyrenen-
refers to Plato's too sanguine sium, 191.
expectations of the younger * This may be gathered from
Dionysius). We also see from Xen. Mem. ii. 1, 1, in addition
Xen. Mem. i. 2, iii. 8, that he to the proof afforded by his
was on an intimate footing later conduct. That Aristippus
with Socrates; and Plato in belonged to a wealthy family
blaming him, Phædo, 59, C., would seem to be established
for being absent from the circle by his whole mode of living,
of friends who met on the day and by the journey which he
of Socrates' death, evidently undertook to Athens.
reckons him as belonging to 4 We might have imagined
this circle. Conf. Stein., p. that a city so rich and culti-
25, who also, pp. 50 and 74, vated as Cyrene (on this point
groups together the authorities see Thrige, l. C., p. 340, 354),
respecting Aristippus’ relations would not have been neglected
to the pupils of Socrates. by the Sophists, even if there

| Plato, l. C., who however were no express evidence to
only says that Aristippus and prove it. It is, however, known
Cleombrotus bad been in from Plato, Theætet. 161, B.;
Ægina; that on this fertile 162, A., that the celebrated
island they caroused on the mathematician, Theodorus of
day of their master's death, as Cyrene, was a friend of Pro-
Demetr. de Elocut. 288, asserts, tagoras, and the principles of
is barely possible. The accu- Protogoras are also afterwards
racy of Plato's statement is met with in Aristippus. From
indisputable, notwithstanding the zeal with which Aristippus
Diog. iii. 56 ; ii. 65; but followed Socrates it may be
whether Aristippus left Athens further conjectured that the
from excessive regard for his study of philosophy was to him
own safety, or whether his no new thing.
weakness led him to wish to


maturity of thought when he first became acquainted with Socrates. It is, therefore, no cause for wonder that this talented young man 2 met his teacher with a considerable amount of independence, not on the whole so blindly following him as to sacrifice his own peculiarities. He is even said to have come forward as a teacher before the death of Socrates ;4 that he did so afterwards is a better established fact, and also that, contrary to the principles of his greatest friend, but quite in harmony with the practice usual among the Sophists, he required payment for his instruction. In yet another point he followed the

| The chronology of his life have been from all that is is very uncertain. Neither the known. See Stein., p. 29. time of his birth nor of his 3 See Xen. Mem. ii. 1; iii. 8. death is known to us. Accor- 4 According to Diog. ii. 80, ding to Diodorus, xv. 76, he Socrates blamed him for taking was living in 366 B.C., and pay for his instruction. How Plut. Dio. 19, tells us that he little dependence can be placed met Plato on his third visit to upon this story will be seen Sicily, which is placed in 361 from the fact that Aristippus B.C. But Diodorus probably says, in his reply, that Socrates derived from Dionysius his did the same, only taking less. anecdote about the interview Another passage, Diog. ii. 65, with Plato. Its accuracy can- seems to imply, on the authority not therefore be relied upon; of Phanias, that Aristippus and as we are ignorant how old offered to give Socrates some Aristippus was at the time, of the money he had gained in these accounts are anything this way. Perhaps, however, but satisfactory. According all that Phanias said was, that to Diog. ii. 83, however, it Aristippus had taken pay, and would appear, he was older by offered it to his teacher, withseveral years than Æschines; out however bringing the two and it would also appear, from facts into closer temporal conwhat has been said p. 337, nection. 4, that at the time he followed 5 Phanias in Diog. ii. 65; Socrates he was independent Ibid. 72; 74; 80, where it is in his civil relations, and fur- also stated in what way he dether that he was connected fended this conduct. Alexis in with him for several years. Athen. xii. 544, e; Plut. Edu.

2 This is what he appears to Pu. 7, p. 4; Stob. Exc. e Floril.

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