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good things of life;' freeing from the prejudices and fancies which stand in the way of success, such as envy, passionate love, superstition ; ? preserving from regret for the past, from desire for the future, from dependence on present enjoyment; and guaranteeing that freedom of soul of which we stand in need would we at every moment rest contented with our present lot.3

Hence the cultivation of the mind is urgently advocated by these philosophers,and philosophy in particular pointed to as the way to a truly human life. They even assert that therein lies the essential condition of happiness; for although mankind are too far dependent on external circumstances for the wise man to be invariably happy, and the foolish man invariably miserable, yet as a rule so it is. Nor

i Demetr. (Elocut. 296) men- pus in Diog. ii. 72; Plut. Ed. tions as an είδος του λόγου Αρισ. Pu. 74. He is also mentioned τιππείον· ότι οι άνθρωποι χρήματα by Diogenes ii. 68 (Conf. Εχο. μεν απολείπoυσι τοις παισιν επισ- e Floril. Joan. Damasc. ii. 13, τήμην δε ου συναπολείπoυσι την 146) as the author of the sayXpnoouévny aŭtois. The thought ing, which Cic. Rep. i. 2; Plut. is Socratic. See p. 141, 2. adv. Col. 30, 2, p. 1124, attri.

2 Diog. 91 : Tòv coody uhte bute to Xenocrates, that the φθονήσειν μήτε ερασθήσεσθαι (on conduct of the philosopher this point compare the lan. would remain the same, supguage used by Aristippus re- posing all laws to be abolished. specting his relations to Lais) 6 Diog. 91 : åpéo KEL SO autois η δεισιδαιμονήσειν, whereas he is μήτε τον σοφόν πάντα ηδέως ζήν, not preserved from fear and μήτε πάντα φαύλον επιπόνως, , sorrow as being natural conse- αλλά κατά το πλείστον. In the quences.

same way the Cyrenaics would 3 See p. 355, 2.

not deny that the oppoves were Many expressions to this capable of certain virtues. effect are on record, particu. Probably this was only exlarly those of Aristippus, Diog. pressly stated by later memii. 69, 70, 72, 80. Plut. Frag. bers of the School in agree9, 1, and comment. in Hes. ment with the Cynics and

5 See the saying of Aristip- Stoics.


is this a departure from the fundamental principle of CHAP.

XIV. the School, the pursuit of pleasure, but certainly something very different has come of it from what might at first have been expected.

Herewith agrees all that is further known as to C. Practhe views and conduct of Aristippus. His leading tical life, thought is comprised in the adage, that life offers renaics. most to him who, without ever denying himself a pleasure, at every moment continues master of himself and his surroundings. The Cynic freedom from wants is not his concern. Prudent enjoyment he says is a greater art' than abstinence. He lived not only comfortably, but even luxuriously.” A good table he enjoyed,y wore costly clothing, 4 scented himself with perfumes, and caroused with mistresses. Nor were

· Stob. Floril. 17, 18: kpatel according to Alexis; Ibid. viii. ηδονής ουχ ο απεχόμενος, αλλ' ο 343, according to Soter; Timon χρώμενος μεν μη παρεκφερόμενος in Diog. ii. 66 ; Ιbid. ii. 69, . Diog. 75: To kpateîv kal ud iv. 40; Lucian. V. Auct. 12;

Trão dai ndovậv spátlotov, To Clemens, Pædag. ii. 176, D. ; μη χρήσθαι.

Eus. Pr. Ev. xiv. 18, 31; Epiph. 2 Xen. Mem. ii. 1, 1, already Exp. Fid. 1089 A.; Steele, p. calls him ακολαστoτέρως έχοντα 41 ; 71. προς τα τοιαύτα [προς επιθυμίαν 3 See the anecdotes in Diog. βρωτού και ποτού και λαγνείας], ii. 66, 68, 69, 75, 76. etc. He says himself then, 1, 9, 4 Max. Tyr. Diss. vii. 9; that his object is dầorá ti kal Lucian, l. c.; Ibid. Cic. Acc. 23; Hdiota BIOTEVELV • and Socrates Tatian adv. Grac. c. 2; Tert. asks whether he depended for Apol. 46. his homelessness on the cir. 5 That he made use of fracumstance that no one could grant perfumes, and defended like to have him even as a this practice, is told by Seneca, slave? Tis yàp av èoénoi dvopwTov Benef. vii. 25, 1; Clem. Pæd. ev oikią šXELV Tovel mèv undè ii. 176 D., 179 B., Diog. 76, all εθέλοντα, τη δε πολυτελεστάτη apparently from the dialın xalpovra ; this picture source, the others mentioned by was afterwards more deeply Stein, 43, 1, probably doing coloured by later writers, and likewise. certainly not without exagge

6 His relations to Lais are ration. See Athen. xii. 544,6, e. well known. Hermesianax in



the means neglected by which this mode of life was rendered possible. On the contrary, he argued that the more of these you possess, the better for you. Riches are not like shoes, which when too large can not be worn. He accordingly not only demanded payment for his instruction ; 2 but did not hesitate to enrich himself by means, and for this purpose to submit to things which any other philosopher would have considered below his dignity. The fear of

Athen. xiii. 599, b, 588 c; xii. is found in Stob. Floril. 3, 46, 544, b, d. ; Cic. ad Fam. ix. 26; and in a somewhat different Plut. Erot. 4,5, p. 750 ; Diog. 74, connection, Diog. 70 and 81. 85 ; Clemens, Strom. ii. 411, C.; Yet Schleiermacher on Plato's Theod. Cur. Gr. Aff. xii. 50, p. Republic, vi. 489, has no busi. 173; Lact. Inst. iii. 15. A few ness to refer this passage to other stories of the same kind this remark, because of Arist. may be found, Diog. 67; 69; Rhet. ii. 16, 1391, a, 8, but he 81; iv. 40.

is quite right in setting down i Stob. Floril. 94, 32.

the Scholiast who wished to 2 See p. 339, 5.

attribute the remark of Socra3 Here belong. many of the tes to Aristippus. Of the liberal anecdotes which relate to Aris- offer made by Dionysius to tippus' stay at the court of Plato, he remarks in Plut. Dio. Dionysius. According to Diog. 19: CopaAs terakówuxov 6ĩvai 77, Aristippus is said to have Διονύσιον αυτοίς μεν γαρ μικρά announced to Dionysius, on his διδόναι πλειόνων διομένοις, Πλάarrival, that he came to impart τωνι δε πολλά μηδέν λαμβάνοντι. what he had, and to receive Dionysius at first refusing to what he had not; or, according give him any money because

more probable version, the wise man, on his own show. Ibid. 78, when he wanted in- ing, was never in difficulties, struction he used to go to So- he replied, Give me the money crates for it, now that he this once, and I will explain to wanted money, he had come to you how it is; but no sooner Dionysius. To the same person, had he got it, than he exclaimed, too, according to Diog. 69, his Ah! was I not right ? Diog. remark was addressed that the 82, Diog. 67, 73, and Athen. xii. reason why philosophers ap- 544, tell further, on the authorpeared before the doors of the ity of Hegesander, that once rich, and not the contrary, was having been placed at the because philosophers knew bottom of the table by Diony. what they wanted, whilst the sius because of some free exrich did not. The same story pression, he contented himself

to a


death too, from which his teaching professed to deliver,' was not so fully overcome by him that he could face danger with the composure of a Socrates.?

It would, nevertheless, be doing Aristippus a great injustice to consider him an ordinary, or at most a somewhat more intellectual pleasure-seeker. Enjoy he will, but, at the same time, he will be above enjoyment. He possesses not only the skill of adapting himself to circumstances and making use of persons and things, not only the wit which is never at

with remarking, To-day, this is ests. He is represented as a
the place of honour which he flatterer and parasite of Diony-
assigns. Another time he is sius, by Lucian V. Aut. 12;
said to have taken it quite Parasit. 33, Bis Accus. 28 ; Men.
quietly when Dionysius spat in 13.
his face, observing : A fisher- See Diog. 76: at the same
man must put up with more time the Cyrenaics consider
moisture, to catch even a smaller fear to be something natural
fish. Once, when begging a fa and unavoidable. See p. 360, 2.
vour for a friend, he fell at the 2 On the occasion of a storm
feet of Dionysius, Diog. 79, and at sea he was charged with dis-
when reproached for so doing, playing more fear than others,
Wherefore, he asked, has Diony- notwithstanding his philoso-
sius ears on his legs? It is a phy, to which he adroitly re-
common story that Dionysius plied: ου γάρ περί ομοίας ψυχής
once asked him and Plato to αγωνιωμεν αμφότεροι, Diog. 71;
appear dressed in purple: Plato Gell. xix. 1, 10; Ælian, V. H.
refused to do so, but Aristippus ix. 20.
acceded with a smile. Sext. : Diog. 66 : hvod ikavds
Pyrrh, iii. 204, i. 155; Diog. 78 ; αρμόσασθαι και τόπο και χρόνο
Suid. 'Αρίστ.; Stob. Floril. 5, και προσώπω, και πάσαν περίστασιν
46; Greg. Ναα. Carm. ii. 10, . αρμοδίως υποκρίνασθαι· διό και παρά
324 : the latter unskilfully Διονυσία των άλλων ευδοκίμει
places the incident at the court μάλλον, αεί το προσπεσόν εν διατι-
of Archelaus. Stein, 67. The Déuevos. A few instances of this
observation in Diog. 81, is like. skill have been already seen
wise referred to Plato, that he (p. 362, 3). Here, too, belongs
allowed himself to be abused what is told by Galen. and Vi.
by Dionysius for the same truv. (see p. 340), that after
reasons that others abused him: having suffered shipwreck, and
a preacher of morals after all lost everything, he immediately
is only pursuing his own inter- contrived in Syracuse or Rho-


a loss for repartee, but he possesses also calmness of mind and freedom of spirit, which can forego pleasure without a pang, bear loss with composure, be content with what it hath, and feel happy in any position. His maxim is to enjoy the present, leaving care either for the future or the past, and under all circum

des to procure an ample supply dish of fish : dpas oův . , . Őt of necessities. Further, it is συν εγώ οψοφάγος, αλλά συ σιλαρstated in Plutarch, Dio. 19, púpos. Another time he argues that he was the first to notice that if good living were wrong, the growing estrangement be- it would not be employed to tween Dionysius and Plato. In honour the festivals of the gods. Diog. 68, he answers the ques. Ibid. 68. Another time, when tion, What good he has got some one took him to task for from philosophy, by saying: his good living, he asked him το δύνασθαι πάσι θαρρούντως ομιλ. to dinner. The invitation being eiv—and Diog. 79, relates that accepted, he at once drew the when brought as a captive be- conclusion that he must be too fore Artaphernes, some one stingy to live well himself. asked him how he liked his Ibid. 76. When Dionysius situation, to which he replied, offered him the choice between that now he was perfectly three mistresses, he chose them at rest. Well-known is the all, with the gallant observa. answer which he is reported to tion, that it had been a bad have given to Diogenes (which, thing for Paris to prefer one of however, is told of others), three goddesses, but bade them Dog. vi. 58, ii. 102: Gieo Bồets all farewell at his door. Ibid. ανθρώποις ομιλείν, ουκ αν λάχανα 67. When attacked for his reČT Auves. Diog. 68; Hor. Ep. i. lations to Lais, he answered 17, 13; Valer. Max.iv. 3, Ext. 4. with the well-known éxw kai

See p. 362, 1; 363, 2. ουκ έχομαι. The same relation similar way he could defend is said to have given rise to his luxuriousness. When blamed other light jokes; it was all the for giving fifty drachmæ for a same to him whether the house partridge, Aristippus asked if in which he lived had been he would have given a farthing occupied by others before; he for it. The reply being in the did not care whether a fish liked affirmative; I, said Aristippus, him, if he liked the fish. The do not care more for fifty Cynicism is betrayed by the drachmæ than you do for a far- anecdotes in Diog. 81, p. 341, thing. Diog. 66, 75; or with a 4, although they are not otherdifferent turn in Athen. viii. wise at variance with Grecian 313, C., where the story is told morals. of him and Plato à propos of a

In a

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