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stances to keep cheerful. Come what may, there is a bright side to things, and he knows how to wear the beggar's rags and the robe of state with equal grace. Pleasure he loves, but he can also dispense therewith.4 He will continue master of his desires.5 His temper shall not be ruffled by any risings of passion. Some importance is attached to riches, but hardly any independent value, and therefore the want of them is never felt. He is lavish of them because he does not cling to them. If necessary, he can do without them, and is readily consoled for

· See pp. 355 and 360. tells a saying of the same kind

? Hor. Ep. i. 17, 23: omnis which Aristippus uttered on Aristippum decuit color et sta- paying a visit to his mistress, tus et res, tentantem majora to the effect that there was no fere, præsentibus æquum. Plut. need to be ashamed of going de Vit. Hom. B., 150 : 'Aplo. there, but there was of not τιππος και πενία και πόνοις συνηνέ- being able to get away. . χθη έδρωμένως και ηδονή αφειδώς 6 See p. 360, 2 & 3. Plut. N. P. expho ato. Diog. 66. p. 163, 3; Suav. v. sec. Epic. 4, 5, p. 1089 : 355, 2.

οι Κυρηναϊκαι

ουδέ ομιλείν * According to Diog. 67, Plato αφροδισίοις οιόνται δείν μετά is said to have remarked to φωτός, αλλά σκότος προθεμένους, him : σοι μόνη δέδοται και χλανίδα όπως μή τα είδωλα της πράξεως φέρειν και ράκος. The same re- αναλαμβάνουσα διά της όψεως mark, and not the story of the ευεργώς εν αυτή η διάνοια πολλάpurple dress, is referred to by kis dvarain Thu ipeğiv. The same Plut. Virt. Alex. 8, p. 330: way of thinking is expressed in 'Αρίστιππον θαυμάζομαι τον Σωκ- his definition of pleasure as a ρατικόν ότι και τρίβωνι λιτή και gentle motion of the mind. The Μιλησία χλαμυδι χρώμενος δι' storms of passion would change αμφοτέρων ετήσει το εύσχημον, this gentle motion into a violent and Hor. Ep. i. 17, 27, on which one, and turn pleasure into pain. passage the Scholiast tells how

? See p. 347, 1 Aristippus carried off the sur- 8 See p. 363, 4, and the story coat of Diogenes from the bath, that he bade his servant who leaving his purple cloak in- was carrying a heavy burden stead, which Diogenes refused of gold cast away what was too to wear at any price.

much for him. Hor. Serm. ii. 4 Diog. 67, p. 363, 4.

3, 99 ; Diog. 77. 5 έχω ουκ έχομαι. Diog. 69, 9 Finding himself on board a


their loss. To him no possession appears more
valuable than contentment, no disease worse than
avarice. He lives an easy life, but he is not on that
account afraid of exertion, and approves of bodily
exercise. His life is that of the flatterer, but he
often expresses himself with unexpected candour.
Freedom he esteems above all things, and hence will
neither rule nor be ruled, nor belong to any com-
munity, being unwilling to forfeit freedom at any
pirate vessel, he threw his 5 Several free expressions of
money into the sea with the his towards Dionysius are told
words: duervov taūta di' 'Apio- by Diog, 73, 77; Stob. Floril.
τιππον ή διά ταύτα 'Αρίστιππον 49, 22 ; conf. Greg. Nat. Carm.
åtoléodai. Diog. 77; Cic. In- ii. 10, 419, vol. ii. 430 Codd.;
vent. ii.58,176; duson. Idyl. iii. not to mention the anecdotes
13; Stob. Floril, 57, 13, taking in Diog. 75, repeated Ibid. vi.
care to read with Menage and 32; Galen. Exhort. ad Art. c. 8,
Stein, p. 39, to åpyúplov for i. 18, k.
αγρός. .

6 On the principle mentioned In Plut. Tranq. An. 8, p. 469, by Hor. Ep. i. 1, 18: nunc in Aristippus having lost an estate, Aristippi furtim præcepta relaone of his friends expresses bor, et mihi res, non me rebus sympathy with him, upon which subjungere conor. According Aristippus replies : Have I not to the context, however, the now three estates, whilst you principle should not be conhave only one ? Ought I not fined to Aristippus' relations to rather to sympathise with you? outward possessions. Here, too,

2 Hor. see p. 365, 2, Diog; ii. the saying belongs Plut. in 72 : τα άριστα υπετίθετο τη θυ- Ηes. 9, vol. κίν. 296, Hu.: συμγατρί 'Αρήτη, συνασκών αυτήν βούλου δείσθαι χείρον είναι του υπεροπτικήν του πλείονος είναι, προσαιτεϊν. Conf. p. 363, 3. Hence the same story in Ep. ? Xen. Mem. ii. 1, 8. In reply Socrat. 29, the compiler of this to Socrates, who asked whether late and miserable counterfeit he considered himself among not having used the earlier the number of those who rule, genuine letters to Aret. men- or those who are ruled, Aris. tioned by Suid 'Apior.

tippus states: έγωγ' ουδ' όλως γε 3 see further details in Ρlut. τάττω εμαυτόν εις τήν τών άρχειν Cupid. Div. 3, p. 524.

Bourouévwv Táčlv. For, as is ex. * See p. 365, 2, Diog. 91 : Tv plained here and p. 17, there is σωματικής άσκησιν συμβάλλεσθαι no man who is more troubled προς αρετής ανάληψιν. ,

than a statesman: εμαυτόν τοί


Still less did he allow himself to be restrained by religious considerations or traditions. We have at least every reason for asserting this both of Aristippus personally, and of his School. Theodorus was probably the first to gain notoriety for his wanton attacks on the popular faith ;? still a connection between the Cyrenaic philosophy and the insipid rationalism of Euemerus is far from certain. Nor ought it to be forgotten, that Aristippus strove to make life easy not only for himself, but also for

VUV ráttw és tous Boulouévous ñ vernment, a good one is natuδαστά τε και ήδιστα βιοτεύειν. rally preferable to a bad one; When Socrates met this by ob- and accordingly the saying serving that those who rule are attributed to him in Stob. better off than those who are Floril. 49, 18, touching the ruled, he rejoined: årı'égó tol difference between a despotic ουδέ εις την δουλείαν αι εμαυτόν and a monarchical form of goτάττω· αλλ' είναι τίς μοι δοκεί vernment has about it nothing μέση τούτων οδος, ήν πειρώμαι improbable. Nevertheless, at βαδίζειν, ούτε δι' αρχής ούτε διά a later period Aristippus may δουλείας, αλλά δι' ελευθερίας, ήπερ have relaxed his views on civil μάλιστα προς ευδαιμονίαν άγει. life to a certain extent. At any And after further objections: rate he formed a connection αλλ' εγώ τοι, ίνα μη πάσχω ταύτα, with a family with which he ουδ' εις πολιτείαν έμαυτόν κατα- would previously have nothing Kleiw, årà févos tautayoû ciut. to do. Certainly Diog. 81, proves Quite in keeping with this nothing. See p. 341, 4. homeless life is the language

a natural conseused by Aristippus, according quence of their scepticism, that to Teles in Stob. Floril. 40, 8, they followed Protagoras in his vol. ii. 69, Mein., that to him it attitude towards religion; and was of no moment to die in his by means of their practical country; from every country turn that freedom from relithe way to Hades was the same. gious prejudices was decidedly His address to Dionysius in promoted, which they espeStob. Floril. 49, 22, is also quite cially required in the wise in harmony with Xenophon's man. Diog. 91, see p. 360, 2. description : Had you learnt Clemens, Strom. vii. 722, D., aught from me, you would says more generally that they shake off despotic rule as a di- rejected prayer. sease. Being obliged, however, 2 Particulars of this below. to live under some form of go- 3 See p. 343, 5.

1 It was


others. Possessed of pleasing and attractive manners,' an enemy of vanity and boasting, he could comfort friends with sympathy, and bear injuries with calmness. He could avoid strife, mitigate anger, and conciliate an offended friend. The most extraordinary spectacle to his thinking is said to have been a virtuous man steadily pursuing his course in the midst of the vicious; 8 and that such was really his opinion is shown by his reverence for Socrates. It may therefore be true, that he congratulated himself on having become, thanks to Socrates, a man capable of being praised in all good conscience. In a word, with all his love of enjoyment, Aristippus

1 ήδιστος is the name which 4 Plut. Prof. in Virt. 9, p. 80. Greg. Naz. 307, gives him, and 5 Diog. 70; Stob. Floril. 19, 6. Ibid. 323, he commends him for 6 Stob. Floril. 20, 63. το ευχάριστον του τρόπου και στρω

? See the adventure with μύλου. .

Æschines in Plut. Coh. Ira. 14, 2 See Arist. Rhet. ii. 23; p. 462, Diog. 82, which Stob. Diog. 71, 73. See also p. 363, 3. Flor. 84, 19, probably by mis

3 Athen. V. H. vii. 3. men- take, refers to the brother of tions a letter of sympathy ad. Aristippus. dressed to some friends, who 8 Stob. Floril, 37, 25: 'Api. had met with a severe misfor- στιππος ερωτηθείς τί αξιοθαύμαστόν tune. He quotes from the in- έστιν εν τω βίω; άνθρωπος επιεικής, troduction the words: αλλ' είπε, και μέτριος, ότι [ος or όστις?] έγωγε ήκω προς υμάς ουχ ώς εν πολλοίς υπάρχων μοχθηροίς ου συλλυπούμενος υμίν, άλλ' ίνα παύσω διέστραπται. υμάς λυπoυμένους. . In theory, 9 Which is told by Diog. 71. Aristippus could only estimate Few of the anecdotes about the value of friendship by its Aristippus rest on good author. utility, as Epicurus did at a ity. Agreeing, however, as they later time. Diog. 91 : tor qirov all do, in portraying a certain της χρείας ένεκα, και γάρ μέρος character, they have been used σώματος, μέχρις άν παρή, ασπά- as the material for a historical Seolal. Something similar is sketch. They may be spurious also found in Socrates, see pp. in parts, but on the whole they 151, 3 ; 222, 3; and he employs give a faithful representation of the same argument Xen. Mem. The man. i. 2, 54.

appears to have been a man of high feelings and a CHAP.

XIV. cultivated mind, a man knowing how to preserve calmness and freedom of mind in the perpetual change of human affairs, how to govern his passions and inclinations, and how to make the best of all the events of life. The strength of will which can beard destiny, the earnestness of high feelings intent upon great ends, and strictness of principles may not be his; but he is a proficient in the rare art of contentment and moderation, while the pleasing kindness and the cheerful brightness of his manners attract far more than the superficial and effeminate character of his moral views repel. Nor are these traits purely personal; they lie in the very nature of his system, requiring as it does that life should be directed by prudence. Theory and practice cover one another quite as much with Aristippus as with Diogenes, and in the case of each one may be explained by the other,

From Socrates indeed both are far enough D. Posiremoved,

tion of His was a theory of a knowledge of conceptions; theirs a most downright subservience to tem to the senses. His was an insatiable thirsting for know- Socrates,

their sys

Even Cicero, who is not ge- iis, qui bene dicta male internerally his friend, says (Off. i. pretarentur : posse enim asotos 41, 148), that if Socrates or ex Aristippi, acerbos e Zenonis Aristippus placed themselves in schola exire. The same is attriantagonism with tradition, they buted to Zeno by Ath. xiii. 566, ought not to be imitated there. d, on the authority of Antiin: magnis illi et divinis bonis gonus Carystius: those who mishanc licentiam assequebantur; understood him, might become and he also quotes (N. D. iii. 31, vulgar and depraved, kabátep of 77) a saying of the Stoic Aristo: της Αριστίππου παρενεχθέντες αιnocere audientibus philosophos ρεσέως άσωτοι και θρασείς. .

в в

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