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In this way

first recast after the mind of Socrates.
the one-sidedness of the smaller Socratic schools
was indirectly instrumental in enforcing the demand
for a comprehensive treatment which should connect
the different aspects of the Socratic philosophy more
closely with each other and with earlier systems, and
decide the importance of each one relatively to the
rest. In both ways these Schools influenced Plato
and Aristotle, Euclid supplying to Plato the basis
for his theory of ideas, Antisthenes and Aristippus
the groundwork for his theory of the highest good.

Of greater importance is the fact that those followers of Socrates prepared the way for the course taken by philosophy after the time of Aristotle. True as it is that the post-Aristotelian systems are not immediately connected with the imperfect Socratic Schools, and that those systems would have been impossible without Plato and Aristotle; still it must not be forgotten that these thinkers are also deeply indebted to the Socratic Schools. The predominance of practical over intellectual interests which the post-Aristotelian philosophy displays; the moral contentment with which the wise man, withdrawing from everything external, falls back upon the consciousness of his freedom and virtue; the citizenship of the world which can dispense with a country and political interest—all these peculiarities of later times are foreshadowed in the lesser Socratic Schools. The Stoa adopted the moral principles of the Cynics almost in their entirety, only softening them down and expanding them in applica


tion. The same School looks for its logic chiefly to the Megarians besides Aristotle. From the School of Megara too the scepticism of Pyrrho and the Academy branched off, albeit in a somewhat different direction. The teaching of Aristippus reappears in Epicurus, only changed in some details. In short, tendencies, which at an earlier period could only secure a qualified recognition, obtained the upper hand when strengthened, recast, and supplemented by other elements.

Yet even this was not possible until the intellectual strength of Greece had abated, and her political condition had become so far hopeless as to favour the view that indifference to everything external could alone lead to peace of mind. Previously the intellectual sense had been too quick, and the Greek spirit too keen, to allow the hard-won results of the Socratic philosophy to be thus frittered away. That philosophy according to its deeper bearings must needs issue in a science of conceptions such as was set forth by Plato and Aristotle.

Only by separating the various but inwardly connected elements of the Socratic teaching, only by confounding the form in which Socrates clothed his teaching with that teaching itself, and mistaking defects in manner for defects in matter, could philosophy be limited to metaphysics so abstract and a criticism so empty as the Megarian, to morals so unintellectual and absolutely negative as those of the Cynics; or could the doctrine of Aristippus pass for truly Socratic. Whilst therefore these Schools


are not without importance for the progress of Greek philosophy, their intellectual productions cannot be valued very highly. A truer understanding and a more comprehensive treatment of the Socratic philosophy, was the work of Plato.

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Academy, older, 50; connected

with Plato, 51; new, 4
Accusation, the, of Socrates, 193
Æschines, view of Socrates, 76 ;

assigns the reason for the con-
demnation of Socrates, 211; a
disciple of Socrates, 245 ; his
prose preferred by some to that
of Xenophon, 245
Æschylus, illustrating the state of

thought in the fifth century, B.C.,
6 ; on the boundary line between
two periods, 9; difference be-
tween, and Sophocles, 12; con-

trasted with Euripides, 16
Æthiops, a pupil of the elder Ari-

stippus, 342
Agatho, the dainty elegance of,

Alcibiades, of Plato's, 78; allows

that the discourses of Socrates
seem rude, 80; fascinated by
Socrates, 183, 184; his connec-
tion with Socrates, 207, 214,

219, 221
Alexinus, a native of Elis, notorious

for his captiousness, 253; two
arguments of his known, 268;
attacked by Menedemus the Ere-

trian, 282
Anaxagoras, his teaching referred

to by Euripides, 19; proves that

spirit alone can make a world out
of matter, 42; teaching known
to Socrates, 57; extravagant
theories of, 135; his view of God
as the Reason of the world, 176 ;
his atheism charged on Socrates,

Ancient morality, relation of So-

crates to, 226
Anniceris, a Cyrenaic, pupil of

Antipater, 343, 375, 379, 385
Antigone of Sophocles, 13
Antipater, a Cyrenaic, pupil of the

elder Aristippus, 342; Hegesias

and Anniceris his pupils, 343
Antisthenes, theory of, dangerous

to the popular faith, 229; founder
of a Socratic School, the Cynic,
247, 284, 291; a native of Athens,
284 ; rejects every combination
of subject and predicate, 277 ;
holds that the One alone exists,
279; the teacher of Diogenes,
286; his character, 291;
presses himself in favour of cul.
ture, 293; his nominalistic
theory, 297; prefers madness to
pleasure, 305; how led to his
views, 307 ; allows that some
kinds of pleasure are good, 308;
makes virtue consist in know-
ledge, 310, 311; considers mar-
riage unnecessary, 320 ; censures
popular government, 322; doubts


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popular faith, 327; assails my-
steries, 329; makes happiness
the end of philosophy, 346; de-
viates from teaching of Socrates,

374 ; inconsistencies of, 386
Anytus, the accuser of Socrates,

193; his dislike for Socrates,
203; based on some supposed
personal injury, 205, 206, 207 ;
a leading democrat, 211; a vio-
lent opponent of the Sophists,
218; supposed to uphold ancient

morality, 231
Aphrodite, story of, in Euripides,

Apollonius of Cyrene, surnamed

Cronos, 251
Apology, 101; the language of
Socrates in, 79; sifting of men
described in, 125; cautious lan-
guage of, on a future life, 153 ;
moral considerations dwelt on
by Socrates in his, 185 ; proves
that popular opinion about So-
crates agreed with the picture
drawn by Aristophanes, 215;

Xenophon's, 205
Archilaus, teaches that the spirit

returns to the ether, 19; falsely
said to have been a teacher of

Socrates, 57
Archipylus, an Elean philosopher,

Arete, daughter of the elder Ari-

stippus, 341
Arginusæ, state of public feeling

after battle of, 207 ; Socrates
hazarded his life to save the

victors at, 225
Aristides, the time of, 231; sup-

posed relationship of, to So-

crates, 62, n.
Aristippus, connection of histeach-

ing to that of Socrates, 155; doc-
trine of, 392; founder of a Socra-
tic School, the Cyrenaic, 247, 337;
independent in character, 339 ;
his pupils, 341; the Cyrenaic

doctrine his, 344; studied Ethics
exclusively, 346 ; thinks happi.
ness the end of philosophy, 347,
375, 385; considers enjoyment
an end in itself, 347, 376; theory
of highest good, 391 ; develop-
ment of his leading thought,
348 ; considers feeling produced
hy internal motion, 352; con-
duct and views of, 352, 361; a
free-thinker, 367; greatly in-
debted to Socrates, 368; not a
degenerate pupil of Socrates,
370, 375; has many Socratic
traits, 372; dispenses with
property and enjoyment, 373;.
deviates further from Socrates
than Antisthenes, 374; his scanty
remarks on the origin of im-
pressions, 374; his principles
adhered to by Theodorus, 379 ;
and by Hegesias, 380; teaching

reappears in Epicurus, 392
Aristippus the younger, grandson

of the elder Aristippus, 341;:

his pupils, 342
Aristophanes, illustrating the pro-

blem of philosophy, 29;
enemy of innovation, 29, 108,
114, 217, 218; his play of the
• Clouds' supposed to have been
suggested by Anytus, 203, 206
(see Clouds]; considered So-
crates a dangerous teacher, 207;.
opposes himon patrioticgrounds,
209; charges Socrates with So-

phistic display, 221
Aristotelian distinction between

philosophy and convention, 312
Aristotle, his physical discussions,

45; subordinate to metaphysics,
40; expands the conceptional
philosophy of Socrates, 42, 47,
128; adheres to Idealism, 41,
49; his criticism of Plato's
Ideas, 49; his ethical views, 46;
the ripe fruit of Greek philoso-
phy, 50; influenced by imper--


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