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church, which as a bride the Spirit now under him prepares-are expanded into much greater detail, from the sixth to the twentyfifth verses of the second chapter. We have the lordship of Adam, and his generic inclusion of his whole race as the offspring of the great earthly one, made to represent the lordship and generic comprehension of Christ. We have his dust informed by the breath of life into a living being; as our natural man is informed by the Holy Ghost into that spiritual man whom Adam never equalled. We have set forth the various offices, the humiliation, the resurrection, the marriage of the Lamb, the origin of his bride from himself, her education until meet for glory, her share of power -her eternal wedlock (Gen. ii. 24. Eph. v. 31). Finally, we have the Sabbath--that glorious ceasing; the meaning of wnich has a latitude and character consonant to the latitude and character of the works so closed, and the sanctity of which, in all its senses, results, under the recognising authority of God, from this very character of cessation. The Jewish Sabbath and the Gentile, alike, are tokens of God's present rest from creation, and coming rest from redemption. I believe, that as each holds a type, each will hold an antitype also; the Jew, as the representative of the total church; the Gentile, as the thing represented. And as the representative is himself but a type of that which he represents, so I believe that the true Jewish rest will come before and be supplanted by the true rest of the total church. As the Jewish Sabbath, on the last day of the week, precedes immediately the Christian, on the first, so the antitype of the former, commencing with the restoration of God's own people, will comprehend the Millennial period of Sabbatism, through the Jews; unto the world the fulfilment of the Jewish type, but itself a type only, because a fulfilment to representatives only. Then will come the end, at once, of the last antitype day, and of the last antitype work. The representative Millennial Sabbath will give place to the represented rest of God, as the Jewish Sabbatical type has now given place to the Christian day. And the first day of the week of the new heavens and new earth will there stand forth the antitype, at once, of the rest from creation, and of its now Christian token. The seventh day's rest, appointed by God to be after him observed by man, stands the voucher of God's title to a reserved eternity in the Son. In rapid cycle it re-challenges from the universe a stern memento of the saints' expectancy—of the link not to be dissolved between the origin and the end of things. And so they stand identified who prize the type, with them who prize the antitype; by a continued experiment through the former, upon professions regarding the latter, God has, indeed, ceased from certain works, but certainly not from working. There is a work on hand which such cessation no way slackens; yea, rather forwards much.
VOL VI.-NO. II.
That work has yet to take end ; God has yet to cease his doings in the Son. They began with things made: them no present Sabbath may impede. Christ declared, “ My Father worketh until now, and even I too work” (John v. 17). Now the same is true as then; and true it will remain until the man Christ Jesus, for whom the Sabbath was made at the beginning, shall institute the Sabbath indeed.
On the seventh day then of creation, Adam, the earthly one, stood, in himself and Eve, the good work of God, the lord of the creatures, the inhabitant of Eden. But the scene soon changed. And, if Christ, and not Adam, was the end of God, so it behoved to do.
Were the redemption but a remedy, then the fall of Adam marred the beauteous work of an unforeseeing Deity. But if creation be the appointed stepping-stone to redemption, the fall is no longer a marring, but ministers to the purpose of God. The creature could not stand out of God. It behoved to be redeemed through fall. The type beloved to become dim and broken, that the antitype might rise out of it fulfilled and gathered up into glory for ever. It must be important, then, to consider the features of the fall- the life and death thereby contrasted—the two characters of Adam as the type and the converse of Christ-and the much neglected distinction between the punishment and the prevention to which the fall of Adam led.
In the first place, we read, that “God breathed into the nostrils of Adam the breath of life:" the effect of this was, his becoming a living being; a state precisely the same in the original with that of all the animals around him. Hence we conclude, that he had not the Spirit dwelling in him; that he was not a spiritual man; and that, as destitute of spiritual life, he could not stand. The story of his constitution is wholly silent as to any such indwelling; and 1 Cor. xv. sets the question entirely at rest. In that chapter, corruption, dishonour, weakness, and mere animality (vuxixov), the characters of the body of man, even though degenerate, as the fallen body of fallen creature, are contrasted directly with incorruption, glory, power, and spirituality (aveUMatixov), the characters of the resurrection body of the saints. And in immediate illustration of this doctrine, “ The first man Adam (or earthy one) came into being, or became unto a living being. The last Adam (or earthy one) unto a life-giving Spirit.” (1 Cor. xv. 45.) Of these two terms, the former is associated with the corruption and dishonour of death; the latter with the incorruption and glorious resurrection of the saints. Now, it is because Christ has been raised to life, that we shall live also. And as life by Christ is made the contrast of death by Adam, it follows, not only that our death is by Adam, but that the author of our death is contrasted with the Author of our life, by being called a living
being, and no more; - a being infinitely inferior to God manifest in the flesh, and infinitely lower than they who in Christ are heirs of salvation, and who are above those ministering angels whom once they underlay. His state, then, as such, is the cause of our death. But as we should not have died, had Adam not sinned, it follows, that the sin of Adam was the fruit of his being a living being merely, contrasted with a life-giving spirit, and which alone hath power against sin.
As, therefore, the inference would appear to be, that the constitution of Adam originally involved his fall, it becomes proper to compare this inference with the statements of Scripture regarding that event. That a creature can fall without visible temptation, is evident from the state of fallen angels, of whose company Satan, our prime tempter, was himself a member, and whom, as far as we can learn from the Bible, we are bound to regard as self-deluded reprobates from that allegiance to which the remainder by election in the Son adhere. That Adam would not have fallen had he not been tempted by Satan or otherwise, in no way follows, from the fact of his having been tempted; because such temptation may have been not the cause but the occasion merely; and an occasion selected for ulterior and various ends. And that Adam did, in spite of, or free from temptation, live during a period of time in a state of created innocence in Eden, is a statement to be found indeed in many human writings, but nowhere, as I conceive, authorized by the word of God. That word assigns no interval between the perfect constitution of Adam in Eden, and the commencement of the work of Satan, and the fall of man. The assent of Eve, and of Adam through her, to the foul propositions of Satan, was immediate :: and we are informed of no one act, or word, proceeding from our first parents between their complete formation and their fall, which may give evidence of any endurance in a state of innocence. Had such an endurance been established, it might have been required to prove the dependence of their fall, not on exterior ageney, but on original constitution. But, in its absence, we are bound to hold the fall immediate. And, however completely we may admit the undoubted doctrine that the creatures were created good by God, we are constrained to admit, not only that a creature may, consistently with that original goodness, fall untempted, but that the temptation of Adam by Satan was only an occasion immediately applied to a nature, which, though Created good, was, by being without the Spirit, and out of the Son, necessarily incapable of continuing to stand at all.
From this it would appear, that the creation of man in the estate of Adam was virtually a creation of a falling creature. And if the manifested purpose of God in so creating him, was not merely to create a being good at the time, but to create one
permanently good, that purpose was manifestly defeated. But if the purpose of God was to manifest not the stability of the creature, but the stability of the Son; not its independence, but its need; not its power, but its weakness; not its endurance in bliss, but its immediate overthrow; then the constitution of Adam, liable to fall, and free from it only by not continuing to be, was just the very constitution best calculated to exhibit, in striking characters, the purpose of God in regard to the redemption of man. In no way better than that detailed in Genesis could the utter inadequacy of the creature to obtain eternal life through obedience be proved; in no way better the negative assertion of that prerogative to the Son: and, accordingly, while before the creation of man, the elect angels stood in the many, approving indeed of God's paternal purpose in Christ, yet not members of the body, and the reprobate angels fell in the many, rebelling against that purpose; the fall of man, the necessary vestibule of redemption, the fall of that one nature which Christ was destined to invest with peerless majesty, as the connecting link of universal being with the Godhead, came to pass, not in the many, but in the One; just that there might emerge an occasion for God's redemption through One. Fall is the unavoidable issue of every creature not established by Jehovah ; and, therefore, the fall of unestablished humanity in One, instead of in many, so far from being (according to the rebellious reveries of those who submit not to God, and know neither their own incapacity to stand, nor the depths of his wisdom and mercy,) an act of arbitrary oppression, exercised on beings who should have been allowed to peril each himself, was an act of the most profound compassion and mightiest promise. To recommend our fall in Adam on the grounds that Adam was much more favourably situated for the resistance of temptation than any other can be, is a very legitimate thing; but it is obviously what will do little to satisfy the man whose very objection to the Fall arises from confidence in his own inherent powers, and a preference of even discomfiture in trial, to no trial at all. The true aspect of the Fall in one, is our aspect of promise. The true statement is, that as redemption from Fall can only be by one that is, Christ - the mysterious ordination where humanity fell in one, was that which gave fullest assurance that it, at least, would, through a counterpart headship, be redeemed. And nothing, I think, can more powerfully vindicate the Fall, and show the fearful guilt that attaches to them who speak evil of it, than the solemn fact, that to the fallen angels, who have fallen in the many, there is no redemption, no hope, no promise, because no fall in one.
The tree of life stood, as appears from the second chapter, in the midst of the garden of Eden, along with the tree of the.
knowledge of good and evil - a plain demonstration that the true use of the former by him who should have title to it, was associated with the use of the latter. No one at all conversant with the mighty purpose of God, can compare the description given of Eden, of the tree of life, and of the fourfold river, the excellent river, or river of God, with the description of the New Jerusalem, in the xxiid chapter of the Apocalypse, without perceiving that the former, the habitation of the first Adam, before any curse was, is the type of the latter, the destined habitation of the Second Adam, 6 when there shall be no more curse.” (Rev. xxii. 2, 3.) We read nothing of the tree of life during the vast interval between the first Adam of the earth, earthy, and the Second Adam, the Lord from heaven. The former was the type of Him to come, and was therefore placed in a situation typical as well as real. The demonstration intended was that of the monopoly of life by the manifest Godhead. And that demonstration was effected by the exhibition of a typical person, gifted with a typical monopoly, and because but a type, failing to possess life. It was not the purpose of God that Adam, or any creature, should possess life in himself; that was the prerogative of the Heir of all things, by whom all, and for whom all things were made. David was called the man after God's own heart, who should fulfil all the wishes of the Lord. Throughout the whole Psalms he pleads as his argument before God for resurrection unto life, the clearness of his heart and hands; his obedience and service unto God. And were it not for the introduction of confessions and prayers concerning personal sin, men might have conceived, that, because he was a type of Christ, and spake by the Spirit the words which Christ would adopt as his own, therefore he must have been a perfect type of a perfect man.
But David was a sinful man. He inherited no life in himself; and his peculiar well-pleasingness in the sight of God, arose from his being the type of the well-pleasing One.
easing One. That type he was; yet he did not inherit as the antitype. And so with Adam; he was the type, as universal heir; yet he failed to attain the true inheritance: had he done so, he would have possessed ; the true Heir need not have come: and, therefore, while the tree of life is made to appear just and true in the revelation of God to man, first to demonstrate who should not, and who should crave it; and secondly, to exhibit its mighty assertion, we thus obtain an invaluable key to the history of the Fall, and a true explanation of that peculiar sin of Adam which he sinned as the type in aspiring to be, and to exclude the antitype; and therefore, after the similitude of which none of the children of men have sinned (Rom. v. 14).
That the tree of life, thus apparent in Eden, and reserved for