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said, sighing, “When will all the Christians be united ?" I replied, ‘AtChrist's second coming in glory and majesty.' He replied, 'Amen.'
“ Mar. 14.-We stopped at Pasha Koi.
“ Mar. 15.—The feast of Ramazan was at an end, and Bairam began. The Christians in the East get drunk before their great fast begins, and begin their Easter with getting drunk ; but it was edifying to look at it how the Turkish peasants at Basha Koi began their Bairam. Early in the morning they went to the mosque; prayed for two hours; then they invited the old Iman to the feastbreakfast in the house where we lodged. He seated himself at the head of the divan: every one of them kissed his hand. Then the meal was brought, and placed upon the ground; they formed a circle around it; a silence prevailed. After the breakfast was over, the old venerable Iman recited a prayer, which was repeated by the rest.
" In the evening we arrived, twenty-one miles distant, at Aivlat.
“ Mar. 16.-We arrived at Doalar, fifteen miles distant from the former.
“ Mar. 17.-We arrived in the city of Kutayah, in Phrygia, inhabited by 45,000 Turks, 1750 Greeks, 3500 Armenians, 2500 Armenian Catholics. I called on Theodosius, Archbishop of the Greeks at Rutayah, and of Angoroo, or Ancyra, the ancient Galatia. He resides two years at Kutayah and two years at Angoroo. He received me kindly in his house. He is a very good-natured old man; but hears very hard. Poor man! one must speak very loud to him. The dear old man waited on me at table. He bitterly deplores the case that many Armenians turn Catholics.
“At Angoroo, the Galatia of old, are 1500 Greeks, 250 Armenians, and 10,000 Armenian Catholics, or, as the Greeks call them, Papistianler—i.e. Papists. Thus we see that the greatest number of the Galatians are, till the present moment, 'foolish and bewitched' (Gal. iii. 1), and are removed from him that called them into the grace of Christ unto another Gospel.'- In the evening, a Greek papas called on me, who wondered that my hair was not cut like that of the Greek papas. He asked me how I hold my fingers when I am reading Mass. He speaks only in Turkish, and reads the Mass in Greek, which he himself confesses he does not understand. I preached to him, though with difficulty, the Gospel in Turkish. Thus I am now preaching the Gospel in the same country where the Apostle of old strengthened the disciples (Acts xvi. 6; xviii. 23).
“Signor Battis, of Norvola, a friend of Hartley and the excellent Mr. Brewer, is now exiled to Kutayah. He is a Greek scholar. He knew me by report.
Archbishop Theodosius speaks with affection of the Rev. Mr. Leeves. That amiable man, without pretending to belong to the Evangelical club, has done more for the spread of the Gospel'than any one of them.
“ Mar. 18.–Archbishop Theodosius desires Greco-Turkish Testaments, and thus do his priests.
“ Mar. 19.-We set out for Broosa. We arrived at Almatsheck, fifteen miles from Kutayah. We lodged with Amer Muhammed, a kind Turk: my muleteer told him that I pray every morning and evening. I spoke to them of the corruption of the world, and the coming of Jesus.
“ Mar. 20.-We went through a thick forest, where robbers dwell; the road was wretched; but it is remarkable, that whilst the horse of the muleteer fell several times, mine not once fell, though I am a very bad horseman. We arrived in a wretched village, where we could get nothing for money; it is called Dodurga, seventy-two miles from Broosa.—The muleteer explained this evening to the Turks my views about Jesus Christ. A common Turkish soldier, of the new discipline, dressed like a Russian soldier, entered our room : he exhibited his knowledge of European exercitium.
“Mar. 21.-We arrived at Bazarjick, inhabited by Turks; but there is here a Greek from Yanina, who bakes the bread. There is here an exiled Beyk, the brother of the Pasha of Iconium. The country is now full of exiled governors and pashas. The famous Dervish Pasha is exiled to Kar-Yssar. The Sultan's plan is to abolish the pashas. The Greek from Yanina brought, in the evening, to my lodging an Armenian Catholic, and both questioned for two hours about my faith ; and, among other questions, they asked me if I was a Freemason. I preached to them the Gospel of Christ. They asked me whether the English eat eggs on fast days. The Armenian suddenly exclaimed, Now I know you; you brought many Bibles to Jerusalem.'
“ Mar. 22.-We rode twenty-four miles, and arrived at Enigol, inhabited entirely by Turks; but the bakers are Greeks, from Yanina.
“ Mar. 23.-We rode twelve miles—it snowed the whole dayand we arrived at Aksoo, where the Turks are not at all kind. We lodged in a coffee-house. Muhammed Shokre Effendi Ata Bayarle, one of the Sheiks of the mosque of Sophia at Constantinople, associated himself to me, and, as he speaks Arabic, we conversed freely about the Gospel. He deplored the conduct of the Sultan. He invited me to come to the mosque of Sophia. He tried to convert me to the Mussulman faith ; but I made my confession in Jesus Christ.
“ Mar. 24.–We arrived at Broosa. I was kindly received by the French and Italian inhabitants of the place. Signor Soral advanced me eight dollars, to be able to go on to Constantinople. Monsieur Crespin, a French gentleman, was kind enough to give me a room in his house, and a clean shirt to put on. Broosa is the city where Hannibal died; it is in Bithynia (Acts xvi. 7, i Peter i. 1.) There are here 300 Armenian Catholics, 15,000 Armenians, 3,000 Greeks, 40,000 Turks.
“A Sicilian arrived lately here, who gave himself the name of St. Anthony of Padua. To gain his bread, he made the physician, and ended by robbing a Turk and running away.
" Mar. 25.—Left Broosa, and arrived at Bazar-Koi, thirty miles from Broosa.
“Mar. 26.-We arrived at Jalowa, where we took a boat, with some other Turks, and went upon the sea of Marmora to Constantinople. Near Constantinople our boat struck, but it did not break. We arrived in the evening, at seven o'clock, in Constantinople, and slept in a coffee-house. In the morning I gave notice to Mr. Hardy of my arrival, who sent his servant for me; and I breakfasted and dined with him in English style. I met with Mr. Kerr, who knew me by Mr. Hunt of Bath: he is a pious man: we had a good deal of conversation about religion. This morning I called on Mr. Cartwright, who received me very cordially, and on Mr. Buchanan, the Secretary of the Embassy. To-morrow (the 29th March) I shall see his Excellency the Ambassador, if God please. There is a ship for Trebisan, with which I shall set out in a few days for that place. Cartwright gives me letters, and the Ambassador has ordered his dragoman to get me a new travelling firman.
“ So far, dearest Georgy, my account. How is dear little boy? I have received all your letters. I received here those of the sth and 16th February; and one of dear Wilson. Philip (Ramadan) wishes, after all, to go on with me, for he says that I was his father. He gets drunk only sometimes.
You sent to me an enclosure, in German, from Dr. Kluge, in which he curses and abuses me in the most horrid manner for my speaking against the brethren the missionaries. I have read the letter, and burnt it. Poor fellow ! he is cracked. He tells me that I cheat you [addressed to Lady Georgiana], and take away your property; and that he advises me to give up my mission. I told you at Cairo that fellow is full of envy against me; however, I laugh about it. If he should write again, send back the letter in my name, without reading it.”
Tokat, May 16, 1831. “I have written to you to-day two letters; one via Constantinople, the other via Alexandria ; but I sit down again to write you this third letter, for the purpose of giving to you a more exact account of my operations. You will have received, before this letter arrives, my letters from Constantinople and Angoroo : I continue now to write to you the rest about Angoroo, and my journey to Tokat.
May 7.—The Armenian Catholic Bishop at Angoroo sent again for me.
The dear old man wept when I told him I was on the point to set out for Tokat. He made me a present of an Angoroo shawl, which I have sent to Georgiana. Sheeren, an Armenian Catholic priest, who was my fellow pupil in the Propaganda, treated me, against my expectations, with the greatest kindness, introduced me to his relations, and wept that the Propaganda did not make me a bishop. The Archbishop permitted me to take the following copy of the letter written to him by the late Cardinal Cappelari, present Pope of Rome, on the occasion that the Armenian Catholics were exiled from Constantinople to divers parts of the empire, in the year 1828. This letter is written with great prudence; for one
observes clearly by it that they do at Rome every thing to draw the rest of the Armenians to their church. Here is the letter :-“N: 41. mo e Rmo Signore,
* Si é ricevuta la lettera di V. S. scritta da Kentaya in data dei 30 del passato Maggio. Il contenuto di questa lettera mi eccita a far con V. S. tutte quelle dichiarazione che possono servire nelle presente circostanze a sollevar il di lei spirito dalle idee che la turbano. Ella si a però persuaso che la S. Congregazione fa di lei tutta quella stima ch'ella merita, e che fa tutti gli elogj della pazienza della essemplarità, e della zelo dimostrata da lei anche in mezza alle più gran tribolazione. Non è però sola la S. Congregazione a far di V. S. questi elogj, ma le di lei ottime qualità sono cognite anche ai di lei connazionali. Si hanno positivi riscontri sulli veri motivi che tuttora impediscono a V. S. il ritorno in quella capitale. Non deve ella considerase i suoi connazionali come causa di questo male ma deve attribuirlo al diverso punto di vista con cui il Governo Turco riguarda i firmani di esilio rilasciate nominatramente contro persone particolari. Posso poi assicurarla che i suoi connazionali medesimi di Constantinopoli hanno fatto e fanno il possibile perche venga totto l'ostacolo al di lei ritorno. Confidiamo però nella providenza, ed aspettiamo dal Signore il termine totale delle presenti angustie. Per quello che riguardo il Regime Ecclesiastico per la gia seguita consagrazione del nuovo Arcivescovo Metropolitano Primate di Constantinopoli sono in esso trasferito tutte le facoltà e guirisdizione che avea Mons. Coressi relativamente agli Armeni Catoloci che sono nella essensione delle Provincie Ottomane e che da lui dipendevano. Monsignor Nurigiam pero ha scritto allo stesso Mons. Coressi, pregandolo a continuar come prima fino al suo arrivo id Constantinopoli. Esso ha per lei grande stima, ed amicizia, e desidera poterla aver suo. Tanto essa che la S. Congregazione non cessa di averla in vista, per provedere nella meglior maniera possibile al di lei decora, ed in tanto resto pregando il Signore che lungamente la conservi e la prosperi. Roma, dalla Propaganda di 29 Luglio 1831. “ Di V. S. come fratello affmo.
“ (Signed) D. M. CARD. CAPPELARI, Prefo.
C'ASTRACANE, Segretario.". “MONSIGNOR GIORGIO PAPAS,
Vescovo di Filopoli, Smirne, Ancira." “ May 7.-Left Angoroo. We stopped in the Turkish village Hassan Oglu.
May 8.--We arrived at Galatshik, the capital of Galatia anciently; is situated near the Rubicon, called in Turkish Ghizl Armak; inhabited by 2000 Turks and 500 Armenians: the latter have one church and one priest.
May 9.-We crossed the Rubicon, flowing between two mountains. The country around here is beautiful and romantic. The Curds feed the flocks in the fields, and live in tents: the villages are inhabited by Turkomans. In the evening we arrived in the village Kajoo, where the Turkomans are very polite : they were
very much interested in my journey to Bokhara, which country they know by the Dervishes.
“ May 10.–We arrived in the small town Sangarloo, eighteen hours from Galatshik : here are 2000 Turks, 300 Armenians from Persia, and, as they are from Erivan, they are Russian subjects. “We travel now about with Russian passports,' said they with great joy.
May 11.-We arrived at Alatsha, eight hours from Sangorloo, inhabited by 300 Turks and 30 ignorant Armenians. No English traveller ever passed this road.
May 12.-We rode thirteen hours, and arrived at Karashih. It was rainy weather. O Lord Jesus Christ, whilst I am wandering about with broken health in a strange country, and in rainy weather, grant that the dew of thy grace may daily more rain down over my own heart, in order that I may be able to proclaim thy word with power to perishing souls ; that nothing may disturb me in this grand work, until my dying hour! and preserve my Georgiana and
May 13.-We arrived at Seela: here are 6000 Turks, and 1000 Armenians. I lodged in the house of kind Armenians. Seela is twelve hours from Tokat.
May 14.-We arrived at Tokat, sixty-eight hours from Angoroo. I took up my abode in the house of Signor Bogos Bambuktshi, an Armenian Catholic. There are at Tokat 9200 Turks, 5200 Armenians, Armenian Catholics, Greeks, and Jews : the Armenians are the greatest number; Armenian Catholics are only 500; Jews 150. The Armenians have two convents and seven churches. In the convent called Yoakin Anna, S. John Chrysostomos slept in a well when persecuted. The Jews have a synagogue and two colleges. The name of the Great Rabbi is Yishak Arab.
May 15.--As I had a letter for an Armenian merchant, Pedro Aglakan, I took up my abode with him. A great hatred exists here between the Armenians and Armenian Catholics. Pedro Aglakan said to me, 'Many of our countrymen have turned away from us, and have embraced the God of the Druses.'
“ Rabbi Leon Shmerel, from Posen, called on me. know Joseph Wolff?' said he. 'I am Joseph Wolff,' I replied. He really had unfeigned joy; for he had heard of me at Jerusalem, Bagdad, and Bursorah. A long conversation about Jesus my Saviour, whom I love, took place. He brought other Jews to me, to whom I preached. Leon Shmerel knows Lewis, of whom he says that he has talents ; but Nicolayson, whom he saw at Safet, he says, has not the least talents as a missionary. He gave me the following explanation of 1721 177 (Gen. i. 2), which is translated
empty and void :'--11, confusion, chaos--the world existed as a chicken in an egg, 172 in it.' That is, the earth was (170) in that chaos.”
“ Kumuskane (or Gumushkane), May 29, 1831. “As I am, through the mercy of our Lord and Saviour, recovered from my illness, I hasten to write to you from here, as you will be restless and uneasy on account of my letters which I wrote to you from Shebin-Karairjar mentioning to you that I was ill. I can,