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place where we were taken. The children of the robbers came out to meet their parents, rejoicing at their success. We saw coming out of Torbad Turcomans of the Hassan tribe, allied to the Serdar of Torbad in the commerce of slaves. They were all on horseback, with their large spears going out after ishapoo-i.e. taking hold of people. In the evening we entered Torbad; the first I met with Jews ; I uttered in Hebrew the shout, 'Hear Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. I was soon surrounded by all of them. Hassan Khan had previously a Hebrew New Testament, which he had robbed of me. They pledged themselves that I shall not escape, and took me to their houses. The next morning I went to look after Hassein, when I was suddenly put in chains, but soon set at liberty with the whole party by order of the Serdar, and the robbers put in prison. When I was examined before the judge how much money they had taken from me, and after I had stated the sum, he said, 'Hassein his servant is a Mussulman, all the rest who were taken are Mussulmans: they all lie, for our condition is bad; but Joseph Wolff, who is a Rafer, tells no lies, he needs not to take an oath.' I am now respected here, and have distributed Bibles and Testaments among Jews and Mussulmans at Torbad. The Jews of Torbad, nineteen families in number, settled partly from Yazd, Meshed, and Casbeen, in the time of Nadir Shah. I go with them to the synagogue, and pray the Lord's Prayer and the Sermon on the Mount in Hebrew. I lodge and eat with them.
“ Nov. 18.-Several of the Jewish women came to me, and desired me to pray over them, in order that they may have children,
which I did. Another Jew called on me, and desired me to write him something which he may read, in order that he may gain money. I wrote to him, 'Seek ye first the kingdom of heaven and His righteousness, and all other things shall be added unto you.'
“ Kasem Sultan, a Mussulman, called on me, and sighing, he exclaimed, 'Oh, old Benjamin !' I observed by this, that he was of the sect Ali Ullahe; he told me, that several months ago a dervish had arrived from Teheran, who had told him the following words,
An English dervish shall be brought prisoner to Torbad, consult with him.' I
gave to Kasem Sultan an Arabic Bible; his wife was ill, I laid hands on her, and she became well. A dervish from Jajanabad, in India, called on me; he said, 'Thy Ancient One has saved thee.'
“The Jews of Torbad settled here partly from Yazd, partly from Meshed. The Jews of Meshed are Jews of Casbeen, near Teheran, whence they were carried by Nadir Shah to Meshed, who bestowed many privileges on them. The Jews of Meshed are, till now, in a prosperous condition. They carry on commerce to Turkistan, for the Turcomans are very fond of them, and never make prisoners of them; for they say that the Jews are saheb ketab—possessors of the Book of God. The Jews of Sarakhs and Mowr, in Turkistan, are all Jewish merchants of Meshed, and those of Nachi Kelant also, eighty English miles from Meshed. Muhammed Khan, Serdar of Torbad, though a great tyrant, is friendly to the Jews.
“ Nov. 20.- I got back some money by order of the Serdar.
“ Muhammed Khan, son of Ishak Khan, Serdar of Torbad, has been now fifteen years governor of Torbad and its territory. He has about 2000 soldiers. His countenance is that of a tyrant, and his life that of a tyrant: no one knows where he sleeps at night. He sits on a high chair with his sword girt about him; and his attendants stand distant from him. Even when he goes to the bath he does not put aside his sword. His exterior is stout, with very large eyes; but he never looks into one's face. He takes out people's eyes, and cuts off the ears of men.
Sayd Neas of Sarakhs Tire Yatshe called on me. He promised to bring me to Bokhara. He tells me Jews are not taken as slaves, for they have a book, but the Persians are apostates from the book.
“ Nov. 24.–Mullah Abn expounded the words of Tamar in Genesis xxxviii. thus : 'I demand thy signet, i. e. the King Messiah ; thy bracelets, i. e. Judges; thy staff, i. e. officers : and this is the reason that Judah said Tamar is more righteous than I, verse 26.'
“ It is remarkable that in both places of Khorassan where I have been arrested, Birjant and Torbad, have been the only places where I had the privilege of circulating the word of God and to preach the Gospel.
“ Dec. 1.—We left Torbad with a large caravan for Meshed, and arrived at Peigodo Bedar, a caravansera : four farsangs.
“ Dec. 2.-At Rabad Safeed : six farsangs.
“ Dec. 3.–At Sherifabad: six farsangs. We had scarcely arrived half an hour when Turcomans came; killed two men, to
two men and several mules, and ran off : which detained us here for one day.
“ One of the caravan beat me, to force me to make the Mohammedan confession.
“ I gave away at Torbad several Hebrew and Arabic Testaments and Bibles, after the robbers were forced to give back the books and some of the effects.
“ Meshed Khan of Birjant, the brother of Najaf Ali Khan of Birjant, was obliged to fly from his brother and take an asylum at Torbad. He desired me to tell him, from the Bible, whether Abbas Meerza will return him to his former dignity. I confessed my ignorance. His relation desired me to tell a secret to tell him,an act by which he could make himself invisible. They desired me to read to them the Sermon on the Mount.
“ Dec. 4.-A Mussulman woman, Seinal by name, with four children, called on me, complaining that the Turcomans have taken away prisoner her husband, and carried him to Bokhara, where he draws water. She told me, that if I can redeem him she will perform a pilgrimage to Kerbelay,
“ We stopped, on account of the Turcomans who were in the neighbourhood threatening to attack the caravan, three days in the miserable village of Sherifabad.
“ Dec. 7.-We proceeded on our way to Meshed, five farsangs from Sherifabad. When we were about eight English miles distant we observed the golden and splendid minaret of Imaum Resa. All
the Mussulmans stopped and devoutly offered up a prayer. Keshiel the Jew, who was with me, said to me, · Thus we shall soon salute the holy temple at Jerusalem.' We arrived at Meshed safely. I went immediately to H. R. H. Ahmed Ali Meerza, the king's son, and spent with him two hours : he sent me to the house of the excellent Jew Mullah Meshiakh Ajaan, called Mullah Mehde by the Mussulmans. He is the Nassi of the Jews, and well read. I told him I was a Jew who believes in Jesus. He was in possession of the New Testament brought by the Jew Nisan Azariah Cohen, which was given to him by a principal Russian at Wilno. Mullah Meshiakh Ajaan approved the contents. I conversed with him a long time about Jesus Christ. He told me that the Jews of Meshed were all brought there from Casheen seventy years ago. He shewed to me a Persian translation of the Psalms and Pentateuch, made by the Jews, by order of Nadir Shah: he promised to get me a copy of it.
“ The Jews have a poem in Jewish Persian, describing the love of Soleikh, the wife of Potiphar, to Joseph, which is different from Yussuf and Soleikha composed by a Mussulman. The Jews of Meshed are a clean, polite, and fine race of people; about 2000 in number; but not rich, for the richest has not more than 1201. in possession. Their Rabbi, Mullah David, told me that neither he nor any one here has any knowledge of the Talmud. Mullah Meshiakh and seven other Jews pretend to be of the family of Bezaleel (Exodus xxxv. 30).
“The Jews Mullah Pinhas, Mullah Eliahu, Mullah Nissin, Abraham Moshe, and Meshiakh Ajaa, are secretly Soffees, converted to Soffeeism by Mullah Muhamed Ali Ashkeputi, a Mohammedan Soffee. I expounded to them Isaiah liii. 7.
“The Dervishes rest upon the Galyoon: they smoke a species of intoxicating herb called Jars, which they say withdraws the mind from the world and fixes it
God. “ The Jews at Meshed say that Obadiah the prophet was an Edomite, who turned to the Jewish religion.
“When Moses was still a child, Pharaoh one day played with him. Moses took hold of Pharaoh's beard and drew out the jewels with which it was covered. Pharaoh said to Jethro, Balaam, and Job, who were viziers at the time, ' I am afraid that that Jew boy will one day overturn my empire: what is to be done with him?' Balaam advised Pharaoh to kill Moses. Jethro said, “ No, but try whether he has understanding by putting before him gold and fire: if he take hold of the gold, then kill him ; but if he touch the fire, then it is a proof that he will not be clever. Job was silent ; but Jethro's advice was followed. Moses wanted to take hold of the gold, but the angel of the Lord turned his hand toward the fire, which he put to his tongue; on which account Moses had difficulty of speech. 'I am slow of speech and slow of tongue' (Exod. iv. 10). Job, on account of having followed the system of expediency by having not spoken out his mind (as now many religious people do), was punished as described in the Book of Job : Balaam was killed. This story is current among the Jews of Meshed.
“ Levi at Meshed tells me that at Cabul are twelve families of Jews. Mullah Jehudah, Mullah Reuben, and Mullah Baba, are the most distinguished there. The Jews of Cabul came from Yazd, as well as those of Herat.
“ Mullah Benjamin, a Jew of Yazd, turned a Mussulman, and took the name of Haji Amen, for he performed
a pilgrimage to Mecca. He translated the whole Bible into Jewish Persian, with notes to prove to the Jews that Moses and the Prophets had predicted Jesus and the prophets. Twenty Jews of Yazd are at Meshed; a dirty and ignorant people, and disliked by the Jews of Meshed. The Jews of Yazd practise witchcraft.
“Mullah Meshiakh Ajaan, my landlord, listened very attentively when I spoke to him about the death of Jesus Christ : he asked me, "What is to be done to obtain the kingdom of God?' I said, ' Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.' He told me one evening that he was in great distress on account of a certain Jew, with whom he was connected by the bonds of Soffeeism : something had happened to him which he could not reveal.
“ The Jews of Sabzawar emigrated seven hundred years ago, and went to Samarcand and Bokhara. The Jews of Meshed, who are thoroughly acquainted with the Jews and situation of Bokhara, deny the fact that Bokhara and Balkh are the Halah and Habor mentioned in 2 Kings xvii. 6, and the river Oxus the Gozan. The Oxus is called Gihon. Mullah David informs me that the Jews of Bokhara lived originally at Samarcand.
“The settlements for trade of the Jews of Meshed are at Sarakhs; Vandeh Mars; Moimona; Tatshan; Ankhoy; Talkhtoon, in Turkistan; Torbad Hydarca; Nachi Kelaat; and Dargaz, in Khorassan.
“I have preached again the Gospel to several Jews.
“ Israel Ben Benjamin, a nice young Jew, is now serving me. His father, being afraid that I might induce his son to go with me to Bokhara, expressed himself to me in the following affecting manner, pointing to his silver-white beard : ' My son is the support of his father, the light of the eye of his mother who is blind, and the joy of his wife and child.'
“ Dec. 17.—The Jewish Soffees, Mullah Nisim, Mullah Abraham, and Mullah Moshe, called on me: they consider Mirza Abool Kasem, of Sheeraz, as the father of the Soffees of this country. Soffeeism is a licentious, flagitious, and Epicurean mysticism.
“ I met here with the Hebrew translation of the Koran, made in Hebrew by Immanuel Jacob Medort, and written by David Isaac Cohen of Berlin.
“ Dec. 19.–To my greatest astonishment, Mr. Borrowsky, whom I knew at Alexandria, and who is now in the service of Abbas Mirza, entered my room at Meshed. He had understood by my letter to Mr. Shee at Nishapoor, of my misfortunes at Torbad : he therefore set out, most kindly, for Meshed, and assisted me like a brother. He certainly is an extraordinary, enterprising man.
“ Dec. 22.-I was introduced to H. R. H. Abbas Mirza, who is now here with his army. He told me that I should try as a Mullah,
to convince the king of Bokhara that slavery was against humanity. He expressed his wish again that the English philanthropists should send out teachers to Tabreez, to teach the Persians.
“ The Afghauns are called Tourans. Aga Levi related to me that in the time of Nebuchadnezzar the tribes of Benjamin, Simeon, and Joseph were carried to Cantahar: they lost the book' of the Law, and turned Mussulmans: they took the name Touran, and then Afghaun. Every one of the Jews at Meshed confirm that the Afghauns trace their descent from the tribes of Israel, especially from the tribes of Simeon, Benjamin, and Joseph. Kamran Shah, king of Herat, asserts he is of the tribe of Benjamin. The names of the Afghaun tribes are1. Tribe Satu Saye. 6. Tribe Noor Saye. 11. Tribe Ismael Saye. 2. -Papal Saye. 7. Galitsh Saye. 12.
-Khatak Moomand. 3. -Barech Saye. 8.
- Ishak Saye.
13. - Vezeere. 4. -Youssof Saye.
- Baam Saye. 14. -Logbane. 5. - Atshek Saye. 10.
15. -Tereke. “I was introduced to his Royal Highness Abbas Mirza, by Mirza Baba the chief physician. There is not a more gracious, amiable, and mild prince in Europe, than Abbas Mirza is. He expressed a wish that I should establish a school at Tabreez.
He said, are a Mullah : try therefore to convince the Emperor of Bokhara of the injustice of making slaves from nations of the same religion. H. R. H. consoled me about my late misfortune at Torbad, and said that he would assist me in coming safely to Bokhara. He conversed with me about the exertions of Sultan Mahmoud. His chief physician, Mirza Baba, has all the feeling of an honest, upright English gentleman : I feel quite comfortable in his society.”
but I console them that our :בלות or בְזֵרָה least inconvenience as
“ In a letter, dated Dec. 30, Mr. Wolff says, “ I am now ten days' journey distant from Bokhara; but I must go with caution, and wait a good opportunity. The Prince Royal, Abbas Mirza, who is now here, received me very graciously, and desired me to establish a school at Tabreez; and he desired the Jewish Rabbi here to argue with me about religion. The Jews here are now in great trouble, for they are obliged to take a few officers into their houses. Silly fellows they are! for if the officers were not with them the soldiers would break into their houses very soon : but they consider the
: I Lord will soon come, and bring them to Jerusalem. Some of them are reasonable, others very disagreeable. You should have seen me in the synagogue with the talis and tephilim on me, like a rabbi, and reading the Law of Moses. The Jews here know nothing about the Jews of Europe. They asked mewhethertheking of England is subject to the king of Persia; and whether he lives in tents or houses; and whether we eat Pilaw on a Sabbath-day.
“ It is very odd that I am always better off, and more healthy, after a great trouble, than before. I was quite stripped naked by the robbers; and slept in the cold field, on a winter time, without a cover; and now I am stout and fat, and, as Borrowsky says, I am strong enough to eat up a lion.”