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A. M. 1997. A. C. 2007; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3318. A. C. 2093. GEN. CH. X. AND CH. xi. VER. 10. TO THE END. the Jewish nation. Fit therefore it was, in this regard, | manner, when he comes to the life of Isaac, Jacob's was that he should record exact genealogies, and that all the next line wherein his history was to run, and thereother sacred historians should successively do the same : fore he contents himself with giving us a catalogue of nor can we sufficiently admire the divine wisdom, in some of Esau's race, but such of them only as were in settling such a method, in the beginning of the world, by after-ages + the dukes of Edom, according to their Moses, and carrying it on by the prophets, as might be habitations in the land of their possession,' as he expresof general use, as long as the world should last. For, ses it. Unless, therefore, we would desire it in an as the expectation of the Messiah put the Jews upon author, that he should be luxuriant and run wild, we keeping an exact account of all their genealogies ; so, cannet, with any colour of reason, blame the divine when Christ came into the world, it was evident, beyond historian for stopping short upon proper occasions; for dispute, that he was of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe had he pursued all the families descended from Noah of Judah, and of the lineage of David, according to the into their several plantations, and there given us the promises, which had, from time to time, been recorded history of all their various adventures, the world, we of him.

may almost say, would not have contained the books It is well worth our observation, however, that, in the which he must have written. catalogue which Moses gives us of the descendants of What grounds there may be for the supposition I Noah, he makes mention of no more than sixteen sons cannot tell; but to me there seems to be no reason why of the three brothers, or principal founders of so many we should be obliged to maintain, that all the parts of original nations; nor of any more than seven of these the habitable world were peopled at once, immediately sixteen, of whom it is recorded that they had any after the confusion of languages. The historian, indeed, children; and even of these seven, there is one (we may speaking of the persons he had just enumerated, gives observe) whose children are not numbered. But it is us to know, that 5 " by these were the nations divided after not to be imagined, that in two or three hundred years, the flood;' but how long after the flood he does not inti. upon a moderate calculation, or even but in one hundred mate: so that there is no occasion to understand the words, years, at the lowest account, Noah should have had no as though he meant, that, either by these only, or by more than sixteen grandsons, and that, of these too, the these immediately, or by these all at once, was the earth majority should go childless to the grave; it is much replenished; but only, that among others (unmentioned more likely, or rather self-evident that the nine grand- because not so well known to the Jews) there were so sons, of whom we find nothing in Scripture, were many persons of figure descended from the sons of nevertheless fathers of nations, as well as any of the Noah, who, some at one time, and some at another, rest, and not only of original nations called after their became heads of nations, and had, by their descendants, names, but of lesser and subordinate tribes, called after countries called after their names ; so that by them the their sons' names; and (what makes the amount to seem nations were divided, that is, people were broken into much less) there is reason to suppose, that how many different nations on the earth, not all at once, or immesoever the grandchildren of Noah were, we have, in this diately upon the confusion, but at several times, as their tenth chapter of Genesis, the names of those only who families increased and separated after the flood. were patriarchs of great nations, and only of such For, considering that the number of mankind was then nations as were in the days of Moses known to the He- comparatively small, and the distance of countries, from brews. For, if we read it attentively, we shall perceive, the place of their dispersion, immensely wide ; it is more ? that the design of the holy penman, is not to present reasonable to think that these several plantations were us with an exact enumeration of all Noah's descendants, made at different times and by a gradual progression. (which would have been infinite) no, nor to determine Moses indeed informs us, that the earth was portioned who were the leading men above all the rest ; but only out among the children of Noah after their tongues : supto give us a catalogue, or general account of the names posing, then, that the number of languages was, accordof some certain persons, descended of each of Noah's ing to the number of the heads of nations, sixteen, these children, who became famous in their generations; and sixteen companies issued out of Babel at separate tines, so pass them by, as having not space enough in his and by separate routes, and so took possession of the history to pursue them more minutely. For we may next adjacent country whereunto they were to go. observe, that the constant practice of our author (as it is Here they had not settled long before the daily increase indeed of all other good authors) is to cut things short of the people made the bounds of their habitation too that do not properly relate to his purpose ; and when narrow; whereupon the succeeding generation, under he is hastening to his main point, to mention cursorily the conduct of some other leader, leaving the place in such persons as were remarkable (though not the subject possession of such as cared not to move, penetrated he is to handle) in the times whereof he treats.

farther into the country, and there settling again, and Thus, in the entrance of his history, his business was again becoming too numerous, sent forth fresh colonies to attend to the ling of Seth, and therefore, when he into the places they found unoccupied ; till, by this way comes to mention the opposite family of Cain, he only of progression on each side, from the centre to every reckons up eight of them, and these the rather because point of the circumference, the whole world came in time they were the real inventors of some particular arts, to be inhabited in the manner that we now find it. If which the Egyptians vainly laid claim to. And, in like then the several parts of the globe were, by the sons of

Bibliotheca Biblica, vol. 1., Occasional Annotations, 17. 2 Shuckford's Connection, b. 3.

• Gen, xxxvi. 43.

5 Gen. x. 32. • Gen. iv.

6 Shuchford's Connection, vol. 1. b. 3.


A. M. 1997. A. C. 2007; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5318. A. C. 2093. GEN. CH. X. AND CH. xi. VER. 10. TO THE END. Noah, gradually and at sundry times peopled, there the flood, in which Peleg died, there might rise a suffiwanted not all at once so many; and if several of the cient number (C as appears by the table under the page) sons of Noah, who had their share in peopling the globe, to spread colonies over the face of the whole earth. are not taken notice of by Moses, there might possibly And, if to these the several collateral descents of Noah's be many more to plant and replenish the earth, than we posterity were taken in ; if the children which Noah himare aware of. Let us then see what their number, upon self might possibly have in the 350 years he lived after a moderate computation, might at this time be supposed the flood ; which Shem and his two brothers might have to be.

in the last 160; which Salah and his contemporaries To this purpose we are to remember, that we are not might have in the last 160; and which Heber and his to make our computation according to the present contemporaries might have in the last 191 years of their standard of human life, which, a since the time of the lives, which are not reckoned in the account, together lood, is vastly abbreviated ; that the strength of constitu- with the many more grandsons of Noah and their progeny, tion, necessary to the procreation of children, which, by which in all probability (as we observed before) are not a continued course of temperance and simplicity of diet, so much as mentioned in it; it is not to be imagined then prevailed, is now, by an induction of all manner of how much these additions will swell the number of manriot and excess, sadly impaired; and that the divine kind to a prodigious amount above the ordinary calculabenediction which, in a particular manner, was then tion. poured out upon the children of Noah, could not but But allowing the number at this time to be not near prove effectual to the more than ordinary multiplication so large as even the common computation makes it; yet of mankind; so that length of days, assisted by the we are to remember that, at the first planting of any blessing of God, and attended with a confirmed state of country, an handful of men as it were took up a large bealth, could not but make a manifestly great difference tract of ground. ? At their first division they were between their case and ours.

scattered into smaller bodies, and seated themselves at Various are the ways which have been attempted by a considerable distance from one another, the better to learned men, to show the probable increase of mankind prevent the increase of the beasts of the field upon them.' in that period of time : but, for our present purpose, it These small companies had each of them one governor, will be sufficient to suppose that the first three couples, who, in Edom, seems to be called a duke, and in that is, Noah's three sons and their wives, in twenty years' Canaan, * a king, whereof there were no less in that tince after the flood, might have thirty pair, and, by a small country than one and thirty at one time : but of gradual increase of ten pair for each couple in forty what power or military force these several princes were, years' time, till the three hundred and fortieth year after we may learn from this one passage in Abraham's life,

namely, that when Chedorlaomer, in conjunction with Bishop Cumberland's Origines Gentium, Tract. 4, and three other kings, had defeated the kings of Sodom and Millar's Church History, ch. 1. part 2.

Gomorrah, with three kings more that came to their a In the Mosaic history we find by what degrees the long assistance, plundered their country, and taken away Lot lives which preceded the flood were after it shortened. The and his family, who at this time sojourned in these krst three generations recorded in Scripture after the deluge, parts; Abraham, with no more than 318 of his own Arphaxad, Salah, and Heber, lived above 130 years ; yet not so

domestics, pursues the conquerors, engages them, beats kang as their ancestor Shem, who, being born 100 years before the food, lived above 500 after it. The three next generations, them, and, together with his nephew Lot, and all his Peleg, Reu, and Serug, lived not much above 230 years; and substance, recovers the spoil of the country which these trom their time, only Terah lived about 200. All the others confederate kings were carrying away. A plain proof after him were below that number. Moses came not to be above this, one would think, that this multitude of kings which 1%); and, in his days, he complains, that the age of man was skaartened to about seventy or eighty years ; and near this stan

were now in the world were titular, rather than real; and card it has continued ever since. - Millar's Church History, p. 35. that they had none of them any great number of subjects

Petavius (de Doct. Temp. b. ix. c. 14.) supposes that the under their command. For though Canaan was certainly lesterity of Noah might beget children at seventeen; and that end of Noah's sons might have eight children in eight years after

a very fruitful land, and may therefore be presumed to the Rond ; and that every one of these eight might beget eight be better stored with inhabitants than any of its neighDore: by this means in one family (as in that of Japheth, 238 bouring provinces; yet we find that when Abraham and years after the flood) he makes a diagram, consisting of almost Lot first came into it, though they had flocks and herds, an innumerable company of men. Terrperarius, (as the learned and tents, that the land was not able to bear them, that l'sher in his Chron. Sacra, ch. 5. tells us,) supposes that all the justerity of Noah, when they attained twenty years of age, had they might dwell together;' yet, as soon as they were f very year twins; and hereupon he undertakes to make it appear, that in 102 years after the flood, there would be in all 1,534,400; but, without this supposition of twins, there would, in that time,

* Bedford's Scripture Chronology, b. i. c. 5. ke 388,605 males, besides females. Others suppose, that each

* Gen, xxxvi, to the end, Jos. xii. 9 to the end. of the sons of Noah had ten sons, and, by that proportion, in a few

6 Gen. xiv.

. Gen, xiii, 5, 6.
generations, the amount will rise to many thousands within a
century. And others again insist on the parallel between the


30 multiplication of the children of Israel in Egypt, and thereupon 1716


300 compute, that, if from seventy-two men, in the space of 215 years,


3,000 there were procreated 600,000, how many will be born of three 1796


30,000 mnen in the space of 100 years? But what method soever we 1836


300,000 take to come to a probable conjecture, we still have cause to 1876


3,000,000 believe, that there was a more than ordinary multiplication in the 1916


30,000,000 esterity of Noah after the flood.- Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ,



300,000,000 1996



c Yrs of the World,

Yrs after the Flood.

Pairs of Men and Women.

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the spirit

his sons.

A. M. 1997. A. C. 2007; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3318. A. C. 2093. GEN. CH. X. AND CH. xi. VER. 10. TO THE END. separated, they found no difficulty to settle in any part and as the Scripture expresses it, stirred

up thereof, with the rest of its inhabitants.

of Pul, and the spirit of Tiglathpilneser, king of Assyria, How great soever the growth of the Assyrian monarchy And in like manner we may observe, that, whatever became at last, yet we have too little certainty of the noise has been made in the world with the astronomical time when it began, ever to question, upon that account, observations of the Chaldeans, which Aristotle is said to the truth of the population of the world by the sons of have sent into Greece, and which Alexander is thought Noah. Ninus, whom profane history generally accounts to have taken at Babylon, the whole is a mere fiction and the first founder of it, is placed,' by one of our greatest romance. There is nothing extant (as a very good judge chronologers, in the 2737th year of the world, according of ancient and modern learning tells us) in the Chaldaic to the Hebrew computation; so that, living in the time astrology of older date than the era of Nabonassar, which of the Judges, he is supposed to have been contemporary begins but 747 years before Christ. By this era the Chalwith Deborah, but 2 others think this is a date much too deans computed their astronomical observations, the first early. Nimrod, we must allow, founded a kingdom at of which falls about the 27th year of Nabonassar, and all Babylon, and perhaps extended it into Assyria, but this that we have of them are only seven eclipses of the kingdom was but of small extent, if compared with the moon, and even these but very coarsely set down, and empires which arose afterwards; and yet, had it been the oldest not above 700 years before Christ. And, to ever so much greater, it could not have been of any make short of the matter, the same author informs us long continuance, because the custom in those early farther, that the Greeks were the first practical astronodays was for the father to divide his territories among mers who endeavoured in earnest to make themselves

After the days of Nimrod, we hear no more masters of the sciences; that Thales was the first who in the Sacred Records of the Assyrian empire till about could predict an eclipse in Greece, not 600 years, and the year 3234, when we find Pul invading the territories that Hipparchus made the first catalogue of the fixed stars of Israel, and making Menahem tributary to him. It is not above 650 years before Christ. a granted indeed, that the four kings who, in the days of What the history of the Chaldeans and Egyptians, and Abraham invaded the southern coast of Canaan, came their boasted antiquity is, we have had occasion to take from the countries where Nimrod had reigned, and per- notice? elsewhere, and need only here to add, that, haps were some of his posterity who had shared his bating that strange aftectation wherein they both agree, conquests ; but of what small significance such kings as of being thought so many thousand years older than they these were, we are just now come froni relating. Sesac have any authentic testimonies to produce, there is a and Memnon, two kings of Egypt, were great conque- manifest analogy between Scripture history and what rors, and reigned over Chaldea, Assyria, and Persia; Berosus has told us of the one, and Manetho of the and yet in all their histories there is not one word of other. Referring therefore to what has been already any opposition they received from the Assyrian monarchy said of them, we have only to observe, that the genealothen standing : and though Nineveh in the time of sy which the Chinese-another people pretending to Joash king of Israel, was become a large city, yet it high antiquity—give us of the family of their first had not yet acquired that strength, as not to be afraid man, Puoncuus, seems to carry a near resemblance (according to the preaching of. Jonah) of being invaded to Moses' patriarchal genealogies; Thienhoang, their by its neighbours, and destroyed within forty days. second king's civilizing the world, answers very well to Not long before this, it had freed itself indeed from the Seth's settling the principles and reforming the lives of dominion of Egypt, and had got a king of its own, but men; and Fohi's fourth successor, whom they accuse of what is very remarkable, its king was not as yet destroying their ancient religion and introducing idolacalled the king of Assyria, but only 4 the king of try, is plainly copied from the history of Nimrod, who Nineveh ; nor was his proclamation for a fast published was probably the first establisher of idol worship. So in several nations, no nor in all Assyria, but only in that from these, and some other particulars in their hisNineveh, and perhaps the villages adjacent; whereas, tory, we may be allowed to conclude that the ancient when once they had established their dominion at home, Chinese (as all other nations did) agreed in the main secured all Assyria properly so called, and began now with Moses in their antiquities; and that the true reason to make war upon their neighbouring nations, their kings of their chronological difference is, that the reigns of the were no longer called the kings of Nineveh, but began Chinese kings (in the very same manner as the Egyptiau to assume the title of the kings of Assyria. These, and dynasties) were not successive,' but of several contenseveral more instances which the author I have just now porary princes, who at one and the same time had discited has produced, are sufficient arguments to prove ferent and distinct dominions. that the Assyrians were not the great people some have

5 1 Chron, v. 26. 6 Wotton's Reflections, ch. xxiii. imagined in the early times of the world, and that if they

? See Apparatus, p. 43, and the History, p. 61. made any figure in Nimrod’s days, it was all extinguish- 8 Bibliotheca Biblica, in the Introduction, p. 77. ed in the reigns of his successor, and never revived

9 M. de Loubere's History of Siam. until God, for the punishment of the wickedness of his

a The most ancient astronomical observations known to us are own people, was pleased to raise them from obscurity, had made considerable progress in astronomy at a very early

Chinese, next to them are the Chaldeans or Hindoos, both of whom period; to them succeed the Egyptians, who in placing their

pyramids exactly facing the four cardinal points of the compass; "Usher's Annot. Vet. Test. A. M. 2737.

and, by the zodiacs discovered in Egypt, are proved to have 2 Stillingfeet's Origines Sacræ, b. iii. c. 4. and Sir Isaac New. made considerable progress in the science; and, after the Egyptou's Chronology.

tians, came the Greeks, who certainly made greater progress in Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology, ch. 3.

Jonah iji. the science than any of their predecessors.- Ev.

A. N. 1997. A. C. 2007; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, d. M. 3318. A. C. 2093. GEN. CH. X. AND CH. xi. VER. 10. TO THE END. The want of certain records of ancient times, and, ancient tradition, they were driven to the necessity of a consequently, the gross ignorance which some nations perpetual vicissitude, either of general or particular laboured under as to their original, has thrown several deluges ; by which, when things were come to their crisis into a wild notion and conceit that they were self-origi- and perfection, they were made to begin again, and all nated, came never from any other place, and had never preceding memoirs were supposed to be lost in these any primordial founder or progenitor. But now, what- inundations. But this is all a groundless conjecture, a ever hypothesis they are minded to take; whether they mere begging of the question, and a kind of prophesying suppose a beginning or no beginning of human generation; backwards of such alterations and revolutions as it is whether they suppose men to have sprung out of the sea or morally impossible for them to know any thing of. out of the land ; to have been produced from eggs cast Since, therefore, an eternal succession of generations into the matrix of the earth, or out of certain little pustulæ is loaded with a multitude of insuperable difficulties, or fungosities on its surface; to have been begotten by the and no valid arguments are to be found for making the cuina mundi in the sun, or by an anima terræ, pervad- world older than our saered books do make it ; since the ing the body of this terraqueous globe ; to have been presumed grandeur of the Assyrian and other monarchies, sent forth into the world silently and without noise, or to too soon after the flood to be peopled by Noah's chilhave opened the womb of their common mother with loud dren, is a gross mistake, and the computations of the claps of thunder: and, whether they suppose the succession Chaldeans and other nations, from their observations of of generations of mankind a parte ante, to have been the celestial bodies, groundless and extravagant; since infinite, indefinite, or finite, and the geniture, or origi- all the pretensions of the several aborigines are found to nation of mankind, to have been either the same with the be ridiculous, and the more plausible inventions of sucgeniture of the great world, or later, or heterogeneous, cessive revolutions entirely imaginary; since neither the of quite foreign to it: take they which of these hypo- self-originists, nor the revolutionists, even upon their theses they will, I say, and when they once come to own principles, can account for what is most easily reason upon it, they will soon find themselves hampered accounted for by the writings of Moses; and (what is a and entangled with absurdities and impossibilities almost farther consideration) since a there are many customs and rumerable.

usages, both civil and religious, which have prevailed in All nations to whom the philosophers, in search after all parts of the world, and ean owe their original to knowledge, resorted, had memorials, we find, left among nothing else but a general institution ; which institution them of the first origin of things; but the universal tra- could never have been, had not all mankind been of the dition of the first ages was far better preserved among same blood originally, and instructed in the same comthe eastern than western nations, and these memorials mon notices before they were divided in the earth :kept with greater care by the Phænicians and Egyptians, since the matter stands thus, I say, we have all the reathan by the Greeks and Romans. Among the Greeks, son in the world to believe, that this whole narration of bowever, when they first undertook to philosophize, the Moses concerning the origination of mankind, their beginning of the world, with the gradual progression of its destruction by the flood, their renovation by the sons of indabitants, was no matter of dispute ; but that being Noah, their speedy multiplication to a great number, taken for granted, the inquiry was, out of what material their dispersion upon the confusion of languages, and principles the cosmical system was formed ; and Aris- their settling themselves in different parts of the world totle, arrogating to himself the opinion of the world's according to their allotments, is true in fact; because it Hernity as a nostrum, declared that all mankind before is rational and consistent with every event, consonant bim asserted the world's creation.

to the notions we have of God's attributes, and not From this wild notion of Aristotle, in opposition to an repugnant to any system of either ancient or modern universal tradition and the consent of all ages, the poets geography that we know of. took occasion to turn the histories of the oldest times Time, indeed, and the uncertain state of languages; the into fables ; and the historians, in requital and courtesy different pronunciation of the same word, according to the to them, converted the fables which the poets had dialect of different nations ; the alterations of names in invented into histories, or rather popular narratives ; and several places, and substitution of others of the like immost of the famous nations of the earth, that they might portance in the vernacular tongue; the disguising of annot be thought more modern than any of their neigh- cient stories in fables, and frequently mistaking the idiom bours

, took occasion too of forging certain antiquities, of oriental languages ; the inundation of barbarism in foolish genealogies, extravagant calculations, and the many countries, and the conquests and revolutions genefabulous actions and exploits of gods and heroes, that rally introductive of new names, which have happened they might thus add to their nobility, by an imaginary anticipation of time, beyond the possible limits that could ing time by a cycle of seven days; 3. The sacredness of the

a Such are, I. The numbering by decades ; 2. The computbe made known by any pretence of certainty.

seventh number, and observation of a seventh day as holy; 4. The wiser sort of men, however, saw into this, and The use of sacrifices, propitiatory and eucharistical; 5. The from the ordinary increase and propagation of mankind, consecration of temples and altars : 6. The institution of sanclive invention and growth of arts and sciences, and the tuaries and their privileges ; 7. Separation of tenths and firstadvancements carried on in civil discipline and govern- the Deity discalceated or barefooted ; 9. Abstinence of husbands ment, could discern the folly and superstition of all such from their wives before sacrifice; 10. The order of priesthood, Poraantic pretensions : but then, having lost the true and the maintenance of it; 11. Most of the expiations and pol

lutions mentioned by Moses, in use among all famous nations;

12. An universal tradition of two protoplasts, deluges, and reBibliotbeca Biblica, vol. 1. Occasional Annotations, c. 17. newing mankind afterwards.- Bibliotheca Biblica, vol. 1. p. 296.


A. M. 1997. A. C. 2007: OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3318. A. C. 2093 GEN. CH. X. AND CH. xi. VER. 10. TO THE END. almost in all; these, and several other causes, create some | yet® why might not there formerly have been such a perplexity in determining the places recorded by Moses, bridge (as we may call it) between the south-east part of and ascertaining the founder of each particular nation : China and the most southern continent of this new world, but still, notwithstanding these disadvantages, we may, though now broken off (as some suppose England to in some measure, trace the footsteps of the sons of Noah, have been from France) by the violent concussions of issuing out from Babel into the different quarters of the the sea; as indeed the vast number of islands which lie world, and, in several countries, perceive the original between the continent of China and New Guinea (which names of their founders preserved in that of their own. are the most contiguous to each other) would induce one

For though the analogy of names be not, at all times, to think, that once they were all one continued tract of a certain way of coming to the knowledge of things; yet, land, though, by the irruption of the sea, they are now in this case, I think it can hardly be denied, but that the crumbled into so many little islands ? Assyrians descended from Assur ; the Canaanites, from The difference, however, between the inhabitants of Canaan ; the Sidonians, from Sidon; the Lydians, from South and North America is so remarkably great, that Lud; the Medes, from Madai; the Thracians, from there is reason to imagine they received colonies at first Tiras; the Elamites, from Elam; the lonians, from from different countries; and therefore some are of Javan ; with several others produced by 'Grotius, ? Mon- opinion, that as the children of Shem, being now well tanus, 3 Junius, * Pererius, and, more especially, 'by versed in navigation, might, from the coasts of China, Bochart, that most splendid star of France, (as one take possession of the southern parts; so might the chilcalls him upon this occasion,) who, with wonderful dren of Japheth, either from Tartary pass over the straits learning and industry, has cleared all this part of sacred of Anien, or out of Europe, first pass into Norway, thence history, and given a full and satisfactory account of the into Iceland, thence into Greenland, and so into the northseveral places where the posterity of Noah seated them- ern parts of America. And this they think the more proselves after the deluge.

bable, because of the great variety of languages which How the large continent of America came to be are observed among the natives of this great continent; a peopled (since no mention of it is made in the writings good indication, as one would imagine, of their coming of Moses, and so vast a sea separates it from every other thither at different times and from different places.“ part of the known world,) is a question that has exercised 8 Patrick's Commentary. See the New General Atlas. the wit of every age since its first discovery. It is

a The discoveries of Captain Cook and other celebrated naviworthy our observation, however, that though all the gators, whilst they have detected the mistakes that prevailed in great quarters of the world are, for the most part, separ- the days of our author respecting a southern continent and imated from each other by some vast extensive ocean; ʼyet

mense oceans in the north, have rendered it much less difficult

now than it was then to trace the population of America from there is always some place or other, where some isthmus Asia and Europe. It appears from Cook's and King's Voyage, or small neck of land is found to conjoin them, or some vol. 3. p. 272, " that the continents of Asia and North America are narrow sea is made to distinguish and divide them. Asia usually joined together by ice during the winter. In Behring's and Africa, for instance, are joined together, by an isthmus Straits

, at a place about 66° N. the two coasts are only thirteen which lies between the Mediterranean sea and the Ara- the distance of which from either shore is short of twenty miles


leagues asunder, and about midway between them lie two islands, bian gulf. Upon the coasts of Spain and Mauritania, At this place the natives of Asia could find no difficulty in passEurope and Africa are divided by no larger a sea than ing over to the opposite coast, which is in sight of their own. the Fretum Herculis, or straits of Gibraltar ; and above admit of a doubt.

That in a course of years such an event would happen cannot the Palus Mæotis, Europe has nothing to part it from Asia well, among the Tschutski were capable of performing a much

• 'The canoes which we saw,' says Mr Dambut the small river Tanais. America, as it is divided longer voyage ; and however rude they may have been at some into north and south, is joined together by a neck of distant period, we can scarcely suppose them incapable of a land, which, from sea to sea, is not above eighteen passage of six or seven leagues. People might even have been leagues over : what separates North America from the travelled across on sledges or on foot, for we have reason to northern parts of Asia is only the straits of Anien; or believe that the straits are entirely frozen over in the winter; so South America, from the most southern parts of Asia, that during that season the continents, with respect to the comis only the straits of Magellan. And therefore, since munication between them, may be considered as one.”

North America might likewise have been peopled from Providence, in the formation of the earth, has so ordered Europe. The Lutheran and Moravian missionaries, who first the matter, that the principal continents are, at some settled in Greenland, have informed us that the north-west coast places or other, either joined together by some little of that country is separated from America by a very narrow isthmus, or generally separated by some narrow sea ; ducts, it is highly probable that they are united ; that the inhas

strait: “that at the bottom of the bay into which this strait conand (what is further to be observed) since most of the bitants of the two countries have some intercourse with one capital islands in our part of the hemisphere, such as another; that the Esquimaux of America perfectly resemble the Sumatra in Asia, Madagascar in Africa, and England in Greenlanders in their aspect, dress, and mode of living, that Europe, are generally at no great distance from the con- the Greenlandish language, reported that these were understoon tinent ; we have some reason to presume that there may by the Esquimaux ; that, at length, a Moravian missionary, Well possibly be a certain neck of land (though not as yet acquainted with the language of Greenland, having visited the discovered) which may join some part of Asia, or per- country of the Esquimaux, found, to his astonishment, that they haps some part of Europe, to the main continent of spoke the same language with the Greenlanders, that they were America. Or, if we may not be allowed that supposition, received and entertained by them as a friend and a brother."

in every respect the same people; and he was accordingly

There can therefore be no doubt, but that either that part of See Annot. b. i. de Verit. ? Phaleg.

America, which is occupied hy the Esquimaux, was first peopled * Phaleg.


from Greenland, or Greenland from North America. The great Heidegger's Hist. Patriarcharum, vol, i. Essay 22. historian, however, from whose works these extracts are immedi

3 Gen. x.



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