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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO IIALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. in the country of Eden, 'which was watered by four ger, wherein was one tree of a pernicious quality, though rivers; by the Tigris, in Scripture called Hiddekel, on all the rest were good in their kind, and extremely saluone side, and by Euphrates on the other, which, joining tary, the Lord God conducted our first parents, who, their streams together in a place where (not long after at this time, were naked, and yet not ashamed, because the flood) the famous city of Babylon was situate, pass their innocence was their protection. They had no through a large country, and then dividing again, form sinful inclinations in their bodies, no evil concupiscence the two rivers, which the sacred historian calls Pison, in their minds, to make them blush; and withal, the and Gihon, and so water part of the garden of paradise, temperature of the climate was such, as needed no clothwherein were all kinds of trees, herbs, and flowers, ing to defend them from the weather, God having given which could any way delight the sight, the taste, or the them (as we may imagine) a survey of their new habitasmell.
tion, shown them the various beauties of the place, the Among other trees, however, there were two of very work wherein they were to employ themselves by day, remarkable names and properties planted in the midst,' and d the bower wherein they were to repose themselves or most eminent part of the garden, to be always within by night, granted them to eat of the fruit of every tree the view and observation of our first parents, the tree in the garden, except that one, 'the tree of knowledge of life,' so called, ? because it had a virtue in it, not of good and evil,' which (how lovely soever it might only to repair the animal spirits, as other nourishment appear to the eye) he strictly charged them not so does, but likewise to preserve and a maintain them in the much as to touch, upon the penalty of incurring his dissame equal temper and state wherein they were created, pleasure, forfeiting their right and title to eternal life, without pain, diseases, or decay ; and the tree of know- and entailing upon themselves, and their posterity, ledge of good and evil,' so called, ' not because it had mortality, diseases, and death. a virtue to confer any such knowledge, but 6 because With this small restraint which the divine wisdom the devil, in his temptation of the woman, pretended thought proper to lay upon Adam, as a token of his that it had; pretended, that * as God knew all things, subjection, and a test of his obedience, God left him to and was himself subject to no one's control, so the the enjoyment of this paradise, where every thing was eating of this tree would confer on them the same degree of knowledge, and put them in the same state of inde- 3. in Ecclesiastes ii. 5. where he says, 'he made himself gar
dens,' or paradises. In all which senses the word may very pendency: and from this unfortunate deception (whereof fitly be applied to the place where our first parents were to live; God might speak by way of anticipation) it did not im- since it was not only a pleasant garden and fruitful orchard, but properly derive its name.
a spacious park and forest likewise, whereinto the several beasts Into this paradise of much pleasure, but some dan- of the field were permitted to come.-- Edwards' Survey of Reli
gion, vol. 1, and Calmet's Dictionary on the word “Paradise.'
d The description which Milton gives us of this blissful bower, ' Bible History, by M. Martin.
is extremely fine. * Patrick's Commentary; and see c, iji. ver. 20.
- It was a place,
Chosen by the sov'reign Planter, when he fram'd
All things to man's delightful use : the roof
Of thickest covert, was inwoven shade, Breathing the smell of fields, and groves, attune
Laurel and myrtle, and what higher grew The trembling leaves, while universal Pan
Of firm and fragrant leaf. On either side Knit with the Graces, and the Hours, iu dance
Acanthus and each od'rous bushy shrub, Lead on the eternal Spring.
Fenc'd up the verdant wall. Each beauteous flower, @ Others think, that the tree of life' was so called, in a sym
Iris, all hues, roses, and jessamin, holical sense, as it was a sign and token of that life which man
Reard high their flourish'd heads between, and wrought
Mosaic : under foot the violet, had received from God, and of his continual enjoyment of it,
Crocus, and hyacinth, with rich inlay, without diminution, had he persisted in his obedience, and as Broider'd the ground, more colour'd than with stone this garden, say they, was confessedly a type of heaven, so God Of costliest emblem. Other creatures here, might intend by this tree to represent that immortal life which Beast, bird, insect, or worm, durst enter none; he meant to bestow upon mankind himself, Rev. xxii. 2. accord- Such was their awe of man! ing to which is that famous saying of St. Austin, “In the other e The words in our version are, 'In the day thou eatest trees he had nourishment, in these an oath.'— Patrick's Comment thereof, thou shalt surely die;' which seem to imply, that on the ary.
day that Adam should eat of the tree of knowledge, he should 6 Others think the tree of knowledge' was so called, either die; which eventually proved not so, because he lived many in respect to God, who was minded by this tree to prove our years after; and therefore (as some observe very well) it should first parents, whether they would be good or bad, which was to be rendered, “Thou shalt deserve to die without remission;' for be known by their abstaining from the fruit, or eating it; or in the Scripture frequently expresses by the future not only what respect to them, who, in the event, found by sad experience, the will come to pass, but also what ought to come to pass; to which difference between good and evil, which they knew not before; purpose there is a very apposite text in 1 Kings ii. 37. where but they found the difference to be this, that good is that which Solomon says to Shimei,
-Go not forth hence (namely, from gives the mind pleasure and assurance; but evil that which is Jerusalem) any whither; for in the day thou goest out, and pasalways attended with sorrow and regret.-Poole's Annotations, sest over the brook Kidron, thou shalt surely die,' that is, 'thou and Young's Sermons, vol. 1.
shalt deserve death without remission.' For Solomon reserved c The word 'paradise,' which the Septuagint make use of to himself the power of punishing him when he should think fit; (whether it be of Hebrew, Chaldee, or Persian original) signifies and, in effect, he did not put him to death the same day that he 'a place enclosed for pleasure and delight :' either a park where disobeyed, any more than God did put Adam to death the same beasts do range, or a spot of ground stocked with choice plants, day that he transgressed in eating the forbidden fruit. This which is properly a garden; or curiously set with trees, yielding seems to be a good solution; though some interpreters understand all manner of fruit, which is an orchard. There are three places the prohibition, as if God intended thereby to intimate to Adam in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, wherein this word is the deadly quality of the forbidden fruit, whose poison was so found. 1. Nehemiah ii. 8. where that prophet requests of Ar- very exquisite, that, on the very day he eat thereof, it would taxerxes' letters to Asaph, the keeper of the king's forest, or certainly have destroyed him, had not God's goodness interposed, paradise ; 2. in the Song of Solomon, iv. 13. where he says, that and restrained its violence.—See Essay for a New Translation; ihe plants of the spouse “are an orchard of pornegranates; and and Le Clerc's Commentary.
A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. pleasant to the sight, and accommodated to his liking. Not thinking it convenient however for him, even in his CHAP. II.-Difficulties obviated, and Objections state of innocence, to be idle or unemployed, here he
explained. appointed him to dress and keep the new plantation, which, by reason of its luxuriancy, would in time, he Thar learned men should differ in their opinion about knew, require his care. Here he was to employ his a question, which, it must be confessed, has its difficulmind, as well as exercise his body; to contemplate and ties attending it, is no wonderful thing at all; but that study the works of God; to submit himself wholly to the Moses, who wrote about 850 years after the flood, should divine conduct; to conform all his actions to the divine give us so particular a description of this garden, and will; and to live in a constant dependence upon the that other sacred writers, long after him, should make divine goodness. Here he was to spend his days in the such frequent mention of it, if there was never any such continual exercises of prayer and thanksgiving; and, it place, nay, if there were not then remaining some marks may be, the natural dictates of gratitude would prompt and characters of its situation, is pretty strange and him to offer some of the fruits of the ground, and some
unaccountable. The very nature of his description living creatures, by way of sacrifice to God. Here shows, that Moses had no imaginary paradise in his were thousands of objects to exercise his intellective view, but a portion of this habitable earth, bounded with faculties, to call forth his reason, and employ it; but such countries and rivers as were very well known by that wherein the ultimate perfection of his life was the names he gave them in his time, and (as it appears doubtless to consist, was the imion of his soul with the from other passages in Scripture) for many ages after. supreme good, that infinite and eternal Being, which "Eden is as evidently a real country, as Ararat, where alone can constitute the happiness of man.
the ark rested, or Shinar, where the sons of Noah re10! Adam, beyond all imagination happy: with un-moved after the flood. We find it mentioned as such in interrupted health, and untainted innocence, to delight Scripture, as often as the other two ; and there is the thee ; no perverseness of will, or perturbation of appe
more reason to believe it, because, in the Mosaic tite, to discompose thee; a heart upright, a conscience account, the scene of these three memorable events is clear, and an head unclouded, to entertain thee; a de- all laid in the neighbourhood of one another. lightful earth for thee to enjoy; a glorious universe for
Moses, we must allow, is far from being pompous or thee to contemplate ; an everlasting heaven, a crown of romantic in his manner of writing ; and yet it cannot be never-fading glory for thee to look for and expect ; and, denied, but that he gives a manifest preference to this in the mean time, the author of that universe, the King spot of ground above all others; which why he should of that heaven, and giver of that glory, thy God, thy do, we cannot imagine, unless there was really such a Creator, thy benefactor, to see, to converse with, to place as he describes : nor can we conceive, * what other bless, to glorify, to adore, to obey !
foundation, both the ancient poets and philosophers This was the designed felicity of our first parents.
could have had, for their fortunate islands, their elysian Neither they nor their posterity were to be liable to fields, their garden of Adonis, their garden of the Hessorrow or misery of any kind, but to be possessed of a
perides, their Ortygia and Toprobane, (as described by constant and never failing happiness; and, after innum
Diodorus Siculus,) which are but borrowed sketches erable ages and successions, were, in their courses, to from what our inspired penman tells us of the first terbe taken up into an heavenly paradise. For that the
restrial paradise. terrestrial paradise was to Adam a type of heaven, and
It is not to be questioned then, but that, in the antediluthat the never-ending life of happiness promised to our
vian world, there really was such a place as this garden first parents (if they had continued obedient, and grown of Eden, a place of distinguished beauty, and more up to perfection under that economy wherein they were remarkably pleasant in its situation ; otherwise we canplaced) should not have been continued in this earthly, not perceive, why the expulsion of our first parents but only have commenced here, and been perpetuated
* Universal History, b. 1. c. 1.
* Huetius' Inquiries. in an higher state, that is, after such a trial of their obed-cerning the primordial state of our first parents, has these reience as the divine wisdoin should think convenient, markable words: “ He brought them therefore into paradise, and they should have been translated from earth to heaven, gave them a law, that if they should preserve the grace then is the joint opinion of the best ancient, both Jewish given, and continue obedient, they might enjoy in paradise a and Christian writers.
life without grief, sorrow, or care; besides that they had a pro
mise also of an immortality in the heavens;" On the Incarna"Revelation Eramined, part 1
tion of the Word. And therefore we need less wonder, that we
find it an article inserted in the common offices of the primitive • Bull's State of Man before the Fall.
church; and that in the most ancient liturgy now extant, that of This same learned writer, (namely, Bishop Bull) has com
Clemens, we read these words concerning Adam: "When thou piled a great many authorities from the fathers of the first cen
broughtest him into the paradise of pleasure, thou gavest him turies, all full and significant to the purpose, and to which I free leave to eat of all other trees, and forbadest him to taste of refer the reader, only mentioning one or two of more remarkable furce and antiquity, for his present satisfaction. Justin Martyr, mandment, le might receive immortality as the reward of his
one only, for the hope of better things : that if he kept the comspeaking of the creation of the world, delivers not his own pri obedience." - Apost. Const. b. 8. c. 12. vate opinion only, but the common sense of Christians in his days; "We have been taught,” says he, " that God, being good, for their departure out of paradise, is very beautiful, and affecting,
6 Eve's lamentation upon the order which Michael brought did, in the beginning, make all things out of an uninformed
in Milton. matter for the sake of men, who, if by their works they had rendered themselves worthy of his acceptance, we presume, should
O unexpected shock, worse far than death!
Must I thus leave thee, Paradise, thus leave have been favoured with his friendship, and reigned together
Thee, native soil ? Those happy walks and shades, with him, being made incorruptible, and impassable;" Apol. 2.
Fit haunt of gods! where I had hope to spend Athanasius, among other things worthy our observation, con
Quiet, though sad, the respite of that day
A. M. I. A C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. from that abode should be thought any part of their pun- wrote his book, but more especially, because it is destiishinent; nor can we see, what occasion there was for tute of all the marks in the Mosaical description, which placing a 'faming sword' about the tree of life;' or ought always to be the principal test in this inquiry. for appointing an host of the cherubims to guard the 2. The second place, wherein several learned men entrance against their return. The face of nature, and have sought for the country of Eden, in Armenia, bethe course of rivers, might possibly be altered by the tween the sources of the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Araviolence of the flood; but this is no valid exception to xis, and the Phasis, which they suppose to be the four the case in hand : " because Moses does not describe the rivers specified by Moses. But this supposition is far situation of paradise in antediluvian names. The names from being well founded, because, according to modern of the rivers, and the countries adjacent, Cush, Havilah, discoveries, the Phasis does not rise in the mountains &c., are names of later date than the flood ; nor can we of Armenia (as the ancient geographers have misinsuppose, but that Moses (according to the known geo- formed us,) but at a great distance from them, in mount graphy of the world, when he wrote) intended to give Caucasus : nor does it run from south to north, but dius some hints of the place, near which Eden, in the rectly contrary, from north to south, as some late traformer world, and the garden of paradise, were seated. vellers have discovered. So that, according to this
Now the description which Moses gives us of it, is scheme, we want a whole river, and can no ways account delivered in these words.-2. And the Lord God plant- for that which (according to Moses's description of it) ed a garden eastward in Eden; and a river went out of went out of the country of Eden, to water the garden Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, of paradise.' and became into four heads. The name of the first is 3. The third place, and that wherein the country of Pison ;
that is it which compasseth the whole land of Eden, as mentioned by Moses, seems most likely to be Havilah, where there is gold : and the gold of that land seated, is Chaldea, not far from the banks of the river is good : there is bdellium, and the onyx-stone. And Euphrates. To this purpose, when we find Rabshakeh the name of the second river is Gihon : the same is vaunting out his master's actions, " Have the gods of it that compasseth the whole land of Cush. And the the nations delivered them which my fathers have dename of the third river is Hiddekel ; that is it which goes stroyed, as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the before Assyria :' and the fourth is Euphrates.' So that children of Eden, which were in Telassar ?' As Telasto discover the place of paradise, we must find out the sar, in general, signifies any garrison or fortification; true situation of the land of Eden, whereof it was pro- so here, more particularly it denotes 8 that strong fort bably a part, and then trace the courses of the rivers, which the children of Eden held in an island of the and inquire into the nature of the countries which Moses Euphrates, towards the west of Babylon, as a barrier here specified.
against the incursions of the Assyrians on that side. The word Eden, which in the Hebrew tongue (accord And therefore, in all probability, the country of Eden ing to its primary acceptation) signifies, pleasure' and lay on the west side, or rather on both sides of the
delight;' in a secondary sense, is frequently made the river Euphrates, after its conjunction with the Tigris, a proper name of several places, which are either more little below the place where, in process of time, the remarkably fruitful in their soil, or pleasant in their sit- famous city of Babylon came to be built. uation. Now, of all the places which go under this Thus we have found out a country called Eden, which, denomination, the learned have generally looked upon for its pleasure and fruitfulness, a (as all authors agree,) these three, as the properest countries wherein to in- answers the character which Moses gives of it; and are quire for the terrestrial paradise.
now to consider the description of the four rivers, in 1. "The first is that province which the prophet : Amos order to ascertain the place where the garden we are seems to take notice of, when he divides Syria into three in quest of was very probably situate. parts, viz. Damascus, the plain of Aven, and the house • The first river is Pison, or Phison,' (as the son of of Eden, called Cælo-Syria, or the hollow Syria, be- Sirach calls it,) that which compasseth the land of Hacause the mountains of Libanus and Antilibanus enclose vilah. Now, for the better understanding of this, we it on both sides, and make it look like a valley. But must observe, that " when Moses wrote his history, he (how great soever the names be that seem to patronise was, in all probability, in Arabia Petræa, on the east it) this, by no means, can be the Eden which Moses ineans; not only because it lies not to the east, but to
5 The chief patrons of this scheme are Santon in his Atlas; the north of the place where he is supposed to have Reland in his Treatise on the Site of Paradise; and Calmet, both
in his Dictionary and Commentary on Gen. ii. 8.
See Thavenot, and Sir John Chardin's Travels.
2 Kings xix. 12. and Isa. xxxvii. 12.
See Bedford's Scripture Chronology.
Calvin on Gen. ji. 8. was the first starter of this opinion, and
is, with some little variation, followed by Marinus, Bochart,
Huetius, Bishop of Auranches, and divers others.
0 See Wells's Geography; and Patrick's Commentary.
a Herodotus, who was an eye-witness of it, tells us, that How shall I part, and whether wander down
where Euphrates runs out into Tigris, not far from the place luto a lower world ? —
where Ninus is seated, that region is, of all that he ever saw, Shuchford's Connection, 1. 1. * Gen, ii. 8, &c. the most excellent; so fruitful in bringing forth corn, that it • Amos i. 5. • Its chief abettors are Heidegger in his yieldeth two hundred fold; and so plenteous in grass, that the History of the Patriarch; Le Clerc in Gen, ii. 8.; P. Abram people are forced to drive thoir cattle from pasture, lest they in his Pharas Old Testament; and P. Hardouin in his edition should surfeit themselves by too much plenty.-See Herodotus, of Pliny.
Clio; and Quintus Curtius, 1. 5.
A. M. 1, A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. of which lies Arabia Deserta ; but the sterility of the us,) the ancients were of opinion, that it was no where country will not admit of the situation of the garden of to be found but in the mountains of Arabia. It seems Eden in that place; and therefore we must go on east- reasonable therefore to conclude, (according to all the ward (as our author directs us) until we come to some characters which Moses has given us of it, that that place, through which Euphrates and Tigris are known tract of Arabia which lies upon the Persian gulf, was, to shape their course. Now Euphrates and Tigris, in his days called the land of Havilah,' and that the though they both rise out of the mountains of Armenia, channel which, after Euphrates and Tigris part, runs take almost quite contrary courses. Euphrates runs to westward into the said gulf, was originally called Pison; the west, and passing through Mesopotamia, waters the and this the rather, because d some remains of its ancountry where Babylon once stood ; whereas Tigris cient name continued a long while after this account of takes towards the east, and passing along Assyria, wa-it. ters the country where the once famed city of Nineveh "The second river is Gihon, that which compasseth, stood. After a long progress, they meet a little below or runneth along, the whole land of Cush.' Where Babylon, and running a considerable way together in we may observe, that Moses has not affixed so many one large stream, with Babylonia and Chaldea on the marks on the Gihon, as he does on the Pison, and that west, and the country of Susiana on the east side, they probably for this reason; 3 because, having once found separate again not far from Bassora, and so fall, in two out the Pison, we might easily discover the situation of channels, into the Persian gulf, enclosing the island the Gihon. For Pison being known to be the first river, Teredon, now called Balsara.
in respect to the place where Moses was then writing, Now, taking this along with us, we may observe far- it is but natural to suppose, that Gihon (as the second) ther, that there are two places in Scripture which make should be the river next to it; and, consequently, that mention of the land of Havilah. In the one we are other stream, which, after the Euphrates and Tigris are told, that "the Israelites dwelt from Havilah unto parted, holds its course eastward, and empties itself in Sbur, that is before Egypt;' and in the other, that the Persian gulf. For all travellers agree, that the ** Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah until thou country lying upon the eastern stream, which other nagoest to Shur, that is before Egypt;' where, by the ex- tions call Susiana, is by the inhabitants to this day, pression, 'from Havilah unto Shur,' is probably meant called Chuzestan, which carries in it plain footsteps the whole extent of that part of Arabia which lies of the original word Cush, or (as some write it) Chus. between Egypt to the west, and a certain stream or Though therefore no remains of this river Gihon are river which empties itself into the Persian gulf, on the to be met with in the country itself; yet, since it lies east. That Havilah is the same with this part of Arabia, exactly the second in order, according to the method is farther evinced from its abounding with very good that Moses has taken in mentioning the four rivers ; and, gold. For all authors, both sacred and profane, highly since the province it runs along and washes was forcommend the gold of Arabia ; tell us, that it is there merly called the land of Cush,' and has at this time a dug in great plenty ; is of so lively a colour, as to come near to the brightness of tire; and of so fine a kind, so
? Wells's Historical Geography, vol. 1. pure and unmixed, as to need no refinement. Bdellium who is very curious in remarking the countries of precious stones, (which by some interpreters is taken for pearl, and by B. last.
assures us, that those of the greatest value came out of Arabia. others for an aromatic gum) is, in both these senses, ap- d It is a great while since both this river and the river Gihon plicable to this country: for the a bdellium, or gum of have lost their names. The Greek and Roman writers call them Arabia, was always held in great esteem ; nor is there still, after their parting, by the names they had before they met, any place in the world which produces finer pearls, or Euphrates and Tigris; but there was some remainder of the in greater quantities, than the sea about Babaren, an mixed with Tigris (as Mr Carver observes.) By Xenophon
name of Pison preserved in the river Pisotigris, which is Pison island situated in the Persian gulf; and as for the onyx. it is called simply Physeus, in which the name of Phison is stone in particular, (if we will believe what Pliny tells plainly enough retained, and went under that name until the
time of Alexander the Great. For Q. Curtius commonly calls
Tigris itself by the name of Phisis, and says it was so called by · Gen. xxv. 18. ' 1 Sam. xv. 7.
the inhabitants thereabout, which, in all probability, was the a Galen comparing the gum of Arabia with that of Syria, gives name of this other river Phison, but, in process of time, lost hy wsme advantage to the former, which he denies to the other; the many alterations which were made in its course, as Pliny On Simp. Medic. b. 6. And Pliny prefers the bdellium of Ara- tells us.- Patrick's Commentary. bia before that of any other nation, except that of Bactriana. e The Seventy translation renders the Hebrew word Cush, - Pliny, b. 12. c. 9.
by the name of Ethiopia, and in this mistake is all along folb Nearchus, one of Alexander's captains, who conducted his lowed by our English version, (whereas by the land of Cush is fleet from the Indies, as far as the Persian gulf, speaks of an always meant some part of Arabia,) which has led Josephus, island there abounding in pearls of great value.-Strabo, B, 16. and several others, intu a notion, that the river Gihon was the
And Pliny, having commended the pearls of the Indian seas, Nile in Egypt; and supposing withal, that the country of Haradds, that such as are fished towards Arabia, in the Persian gulf, ilah was some part of the East Indies, they have run into deserve the greatest praise.—B.6. c. 28.
anuther error, and taken Pison for the Ganges, whereby they e Strabo tells us, that the riches of Arabia, which cunsisted in make the garden of Eden contain the greatest part of Asia, and precious stones and excellent perfumes, (the trade of which some part of Africa likewise, which is a supposition quite in. brought them a great deal of gold and silver, besides the gold of credible.- Patrick, ib.; Bedford's Scripture Chronology; and the comtry itself,) made Augustus send Ælius Gallus thither, Shuckford's Connection. either to make these nations his friends, and so draw to himself f Benjamin of Navarre tells us, that the province of Elam, their riches, or else to subdue them; b. 16. Diodorus Siculus whereof Susa is the metropolis, and which extends itself as far describes at large the advantages of Arabia, and especially its as the Persian gulf, at the east of the mouth of the river Euprecious stones, which are very valuable, both for their variety phrates, or Tigris, (as you please to term it,) is called by that and brightness of colour; b. 2. And (to name no more) Pliny name-Wells, ib.
A. M. 1, A, C, 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. &. name not a little analogous to it; there is no doubt to It seems reasonable then to suppose, that this country be made, but that the said easterly channel, coming of Eden lay on each side of this great channel, partly from the united stream of the Euphrates and Tigris, is in Chaldea, and partly in Susiana : and, what may conthe very Gihon described by Moses.
firm us in this opinion, is, the extraordinary goodness " The third river is Hiddekel, that which goeth to- and fertility of the soil. For, as it is incongruous to wards the east of, or, (as it is better translated) that suppose, that God would make choice of a barren land which gooth along the side of Assyria.' It is allowed wherein to plant the garden of paradise ; so all ancient by all interpreters, as well as the Seventy, that this river historians and geographers inform us, that not only is the same with Tigris, or which, as Pliny says, was called Mesopotamia, Chaldea, a good part of Syria, and other Diglito, in those parts where its course was slow, but neighbouring countries, were the most pleasant and where it began to be rapid, it took the other name, fruitful places in the world; but modern travellers likeAnd, though it may be difficult to show any just ana- wise particularly assure us, that in all the dominions logy between the name of Hiddekel and Tigris ; yet, if which the Grand Seignior has, there is not a finer counwe either observe Moses's method of reckoning up the try, (though, for want of hands, it lies in some places four rivers, or consider the true geography of the coun- uncultivated) than that which lies between Bagdad and try, we shall easily perceive, that the river Hiddekel Bassora, the very tract of ground, which, according to could properly be no other. "For as, in respect to the our computation, was formerly called the land of Eden. place where Moses wrote, Pison lay nearest to him, and In what precise part of the land of Eden the garden so, in a natural order, was named first, and the Gihon, of paradise was planted, the sacred historian seems to lying near to that, was accordingly reckoned second ; intimate, by informing us, that it 2 lay eastward in so, baving passed over that stream, and turning to the Eden :' for he does not mean, that it lay eastward from left, in order to come back again to Arabia Petræa, the place where he was then writing, (that every body (where Moses was,) we meet, in our passage, with Tigris might easily know,) but his design was to point out, as in the third place; and so, proceeding westward through near as possible, the very spot of ground where it was the lower part of Mesopotamia, come to Pherath, or anciently seated. If then the garden of paradise lay in Euphrates, at last. For Tigris, we must remember, the easterly part of the country of Eden, and 3. the river parts Assyria from Mesopotamia, and meeting with which watered it ran through that province (as the Euphrates a little below Babylon, runs along with it in Scripture tells us it did) before it entered into the garone common channel, until they separate again, and den, then must it necessarily follow, that paradise was make the two streams of Pison and Gibon, which, as we situated on the east side of one of the turnings of that said before, empty themselves into the Persian gulf. river, which the conjunction of the Tigris and Euphrates
« The fourth river was a Euphrates ;' but this lay so makes, (now called the river of the Arabs,) and very near the country of Judea, and was so well known to probably at the lowest great turning, which Ptolemy the inhabitants thereof, that there was no occasion for takes notice of, and not far from the place where Aracca Moses particularly to describe it. From the course of (in Scripture called Erec) at present is known to stand. these four rivers, however, which he manifestly makes Thus we have followed the path which the learned the bounds and limits of it, we may perceive, that the and judicious Huetius, bishop of Auranches, has pointed land of Eden must necessarily lie upon the great chan-out to us, and have happily found a place wherein to fix nel which the Tigris and Euphrates make, while they this garden of pleasure. And, though it must be owned, run together, and where they part again, must there ter- that there is no draught of the country which makes the minate: for so the sacred text informs us, namely, that`a rivers exactly answer the description that Moses has river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from given us of them; yet, it is reasonable to suppose, * that thence it was parted, and became into four heads ;' which he wrote according to the then known geography of the words manifestly imply, that in Eden the river was but country; that if the site, or number of rivers about Baone, that is, one single channel ; but“ from thence,' that bylon, have been greatly altered since, this, in all prois, when it was gone out of Eden, it was parted, and became four streams or openings, (for so the Hebrew
? Gen. ii. 8. 3 Gen. ii. 10.
* Shuckford's Connection, word may be translated,) two upwards, and two below. b Upon this occasion, it may not be improper to set down a For, supposing this channel to be our common centre, then that the terrestrial Paradise was situated on the chan
brief exposition of his opinion in his own words. “I assert we may, if we look one way, that is, up towards Babylon, nel formed by the united waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, see the Tigris and Euphrates coming into it; and, if we between the place of their junction and that of their separation look another way, that is, down towards the Persian before falling into the Persian gulf; and as several large windgulf, see the Pison and the Gihon running out of it.
ings are made by this channel, I affirm with greater precision, that Paradise was placed on one of these windings and appar
ently on the southern side of the largest (which hath been mark"Wells's Geography.
ed by Agathodæmon in the geographical tables of Ptolemy) when a Euphrates is of the same signification with the Hebrew the river, after a long deflection to the west, again takes an Pherath, and is probably so called, by reason of the pleasant- eastward course about 32° 39' N. Lat. and 80° 10 E. Lon. very ness, at least the great fruitfulness, of the adjacent country. It near where Aracca or the Erec of Scripture was placed. He must not be dissembled however, that it is one of those corrupt adds still farther that the four heads of this river are the Tigris names which our translations have borrowed from the Septuagint and Euphrates before their junction, and the two channels, version, and which probably the Greeks, as Reland on the Site through which it flows into the sea of which channels, the of Paradise judiciously observed, took from the Persians, who western is Pison; and the country of Havilah which it traverses often set the word ab or au, which signifies water, before the is partly in Arabia Pelix, and partly in Arabia Deserta: the names of rivers, of which word, and Frat, (as it is still called eastern one which I have mentioned is the Gihon, and the by the neighbouring people, the name Euphrates is apparently country called Chus is Susiana."-See Treatise on the Site of compounded.-Universal History, b. 1. c. 1.
Paradise, p. 16.