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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. bahility, has been occasioned by the cuts and canals, * Philo is of opinion, that this image of God, was only which the monarchs of that great empire were remark- the idea of human nature in the divine understanding, able for making; and that all modern observators find by looking on which he formed man, just as an archigreater variations in the situation of places, and make tect about to build an house, first delineates the scheme greater corrections in all their charts and maps, than in his mind, and then proceeds to erect the fabric. But need to be made in the description of Moses, to bring this opinion, how true soever, does not come up to the it to an agreement even with our latest accounts of the point in hand ; because it makes no distinction between present country, and rivers near Chaldea. But I es- man and other creatures, (for they were likewise made pouse this opinion, without any formal opposition to the according to the ideal image in the divine intellect} sentiments of other learned men, who doubtless, in this though it may be manifestly the intent of the Scripture case, are left to their own choice; since the situation of account to give him a particular preference, paradise, as the learned Bishop concludes,) whether it * Origen, among ancient Christian authors, will have be in one part of the world, or in another, can never be it to be the Son of God, who is called the express esteemed as an article of our Christian faith.

image of the Father :' but there is no such restriction in the words of Moses. They are delivered ’ in the plural number; and therefore cannot, without violence, be ap

plied to one single person in the Godhead; and, among CHAP. III.-Of the Image of God in Man. the moderns, some have placed it in holiness alone;

whilst others have thought it more properly seated in WHOEVER looks into the history of the creation, as it is dominion. But these are only single lines, and far from recorded by Moses, will soon perceive, that there was coming to the whole portraiture. something so peculiar in the formation of man, as to The divine similitude, in short, is a complex thing, deserve a divine consultation, and that this peculiarity and made up of many ingredients; and therefore (to chiefly consists in that a divine image and similitude give our thoughts a track in so spacious a field) we may wherein it pleased God to make him. This pre-emin- distinguish it into natural and supernatural; and accordevee the holy penman has taken care, 'in two several ingly, shall, 1. consider the supernatural gifts and ornaplaces, to remind us of, in order to imprint upon us a ments; and then, 2. those natural perfections and deeper sense of the dignity of human nature; and there accomplishments wherein this image of God, impressed fore it may be no improper subject for our meditation on our first parents, may be said to consist. in this place, to consider a little, wherein this divine 8 An eloquent father of the church has set this whole image or likeness did consist ; how far it is now impaired matter before us in a very apt similitude, comparing in us; and in what measure it may be recovered again. this animal and living effigies of the King of kings,

What the image of God impressed upon man in the with the image of an emperor, so expressed by the hand state of his integrity was, it is as difficult a matter for of an artificer, either in sculpture or painting, as to 125, who date our ignorance from our first being, and represent the very dress and ensigns of royal majesty, were all along bred up with the same infirmities about such as the purple robe, the sceptre, and the diadem, us wherein we were born, to form any adequate percep- &c. But as the emperor's image does represent, not tion of, as it is for a peasant bred up in the obscurities only his countenance and the figure of his body, but of a cottage, to fancy in his mind the unseen splendours even his dress likewise, his ornaments and royal of a court; and therefore we have the less reason to ensigns ; so man does then properly represent in himself wonder, that we find such a variety of opinions concern- the image and similitude of God, when to the accoming it.

plishments of nature (which cannot totally be extin*Some of the Jewish doctors were fond enough to im- guished) the ornaments of grace and virtue are likewise agine, that Adam at first had his head surrounded with added; when “man’s nature (as he expresses it) is not a visible radiant glory which accompanied him wher-clothed in purple nor vaunts its dignity by a sceptre or ever he went, and struck awe and reverence into the diadem, (for the archetype consists not in such things other parts of the animal creation; and that his person as these,) but instead of purple, is clothed with virtue, was so completely perfect and handsome, that even God, which of all others, is the most royal vestment; instead before he formed him, assumed a human body of the of a sceptre, is supported by a blessed immortality; and, most perfect beauty, and so, in a literal sense, made instead of a diadem, is adorned with a crown of rightehim after his own image and resemblance. But there ousness. reeds no pains to refute this groundless fancy.

That our first parents, besides the seeds of natural

virtue and religion sown in their minds, and besides the 'Gen, i. 26, 27. *South's Sermons, vol. I,

natural innocence and rectitude wherein they were • Calmet's Dictionary on the word Adam.

created, were endued with certain gifts and powers The words in the text are, in our image, after our likeness, supernatural, infused into them by the Spirit of God, is which seem to be much of the same import; only a learned Jewish interpreter has observed, that the last words, after our like manifest, not only from the authority of Christian ress, give us to understand, that man was not created properly writers, but from the testimony of Philo the Jew likeand perfectly in the image of God, but only in a kind of resem- wise, who is very full of sublime notions concerning the blance of him; for he does not say, in our likeness, as he does, tre our image; but, after our likeness; where the caph of simili- * On the World's Formation. Eude (as they call it) abates something of the sense of what fol- See Edwards' Survey of Religion, vol. 1. lows, and makes it signify only an approach to the divine like

6 Heb. i. 3.

Gen. i. 36. Let us make mar. sees, in understanding, freedom of choice, spirituality, immor- Gregory Nyssen. on Man's Formation, c. 4. tality, &c.- Patrick's Commentary.

See Bull's State of Man before the Fall.

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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 2. FROM VER. 8. divine image, and, in one place more especially, expresses wife brought unto him, but he told exactly her original, himself to this purpose. « The Creator made our soul," and gave her a name accordingly, though he lay in the says he, “ while enclosed in a body able of itself to see profoundest sleep and insensibility all the while that God and know its Maker ; but, considering how vastly advan- was performing the wonderful operation of taking her tageous such knowledge would be to man, (for this is out of his side ; this can be imputed to nothing, but the utmost bound of its felicity,) he inspired into him either an immediate inspiration or some prophetic vision from above something of his own divinity, which, being (as we said before) that was sent unto him while he slept. invisible, impressed upon the invisible soul its owr: * From the conformity of parts which he beheld in that character ; that so even this earthly region might not be goodly creature, and her near similitude to himself, he without some creature made after the image of God:” might have conjectured indeed, that God had now proand this a he asserts to be the recondite sense of Moses's vided him with a meet help, which before he wanted; but words in the history of man's creation.

it is scarce imaginable, how he could so punctually deAnd indeed we need go no farther than this history of scribe her rise and manner of formation, and so surely Moses, to prove the very point we are now upon. For, prophesy, that the general event to his posterity would whereas it acquaints us, that the first man, in his state be, for the sake of her sex “to leave father and mother, of integrity, was able to sustain the approaches of the and cleave to their wives,' otherwise than by divine illudivine presence, and converse with his Maker in the mination ; " which enabled him (as one excellently exsame language, it is reasonable to suppose, that it was presses it) to view essences in themselves, and read forms a particular vouchsafement to him, to confirm his mind, without the comment of their respective properties ; which and enlighten his understanding in this manner; because enabled him to see consequences yet dormant in their no creature is fit to converse with God without divine principles, and effects yet unborn, and in the wornb of illumination, nor is any creature able to bear his ma- their causes ; which enabled, in short, to pierce almost jestic appearance, that is not fortified and prepared for into future contingencies, and improved his conjectures it by a divine power.

and sentiments even to a prophecy, and the certainties Whereas it tells us, that ?. God brought every living of a prediction.” creature unto Adam, to see what he would call them, These seem to be some of the supernaturai gifts, and and whatever, he called them, that was the name thereof;' what we may call the chief lines, wherein the image of it can hardly be supposed (considering the circumstances God was so conspicuous upon Adain's soul; and there of the thing) but that this was the effect of something was this supernatural in his body likewise, that whereas more than human sagacity. That, in an infinite variety it was made of the dust of the earth,' and its composiof creatures, never before seen by Adam, he should be tion consequently corruptible, either by a power contiable on a sudden, without labour or premeditation, to nually proceeding from God, whereof? the tree of life' give names to each of them, so adapt and fitted to their was the divine sign and sacrament, or by the inherent respective natures, as that God himself should approve virtue of the tree itself, perpetually repairing the decays the nomenclature, is a thing so astonishing, that we may of nature, it was to enjoy the privilege of immortality, venture to say, 6 no single man, among all the philoso- Not such an immortality as the glorified bodies of saints phers since the fall, no Plato, no Aristotle, among the shall hereafter possess (for they shall be made wholly ancients, no Des Cartes, no Gassendus, no Newton, impassable, and set free from the reach of any outward among the moderns; nay, no academy or royal society impressions and elemental disorders which may impair whatever durst have once attempted it.

their vigour, or endanger their dissolution,) but an imWhereas it informs us, that Adam no sooner saw his mortality by donation, and the privilege of an especial

providence, which engaged itself to sway and overrule Lib. Quod det potiori insid. soleat, p. 171. * Gen. ii. 19. the natural tendency which was in man's body to cor

a The great Moses," says he, “makes not the species of ruption; and, notwithstanding the contrarieties and disthe rational soul to be like to any of the creatures, but pronoun- sensions of a terrestrial constitution, to continue him in ceth it to be the image of the invisible God, as judging it then life as long as he should continue himself in his obedience. to become the true and genuine coin of God, when it is formed and impressed by the divine seal, the character whereof is the

2. Another chief part of the divine image and similieternal word. For God," saith he, “ breathed into his face the tude in our first parents, was an universal rectitude in all breath of life ; so that he who receives the inspiration must of the faculties belonging to the soul. Now the two great necessity represent the image of him that gives it, and for this faculties, or rather essential acts of the soul, are the unreason it is said that man was made after the image of God."Philo on the family of Noah.

derstanding and will; which, though (for the clearer 6 The knowledge of Adam is highly extolled by the Jewish conception of them) we may separate, are in their operadoctors. Some of them have maintained, that he composed two tion so blended and united together, that we cannot probooks, one concerning the creation, and another about the nature perly think them distinct faculties. It is the same indiof God. They generally believe, that he composed the xci. vidual mind which sees and perceives, as well as chooses psalm; but some of them go farther, and tell us, that Adam's knowledge was not only equal to that of Solomon and Moses, or rejects the several objects that are presented to it. but exceeded even that of angels ; and, for the proof of this, they When it does the former, we call it the understanding, produce this story—That the angels having spoke contemptu- and when the latter, the will: so that they are both ra. ously of man, God made this answer,--- That the creature dically and inseparably the same, and differ only in the whom they despised was their superior in knowledge; and, to convince them of this, that he brought all the animals to them, mamer of our conceiving them. Nay, the clearest and and bid them name them, which they being not able to do, he proposed the thing to Adam, and he did it immediately: with

3 Gen. ii, 23. * Bull's Sermons and Discourses. many more fancies of the same ridiculous nature.–Saurin's s South's Sermons, vol. 1. Hopkin's Doctrine of the Two Dissertutions,

Covenants. Gen. ii. 9. $ Edward's Survey of Religion, vol. 1.


A. M. 1, A, C. 4001; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH, 2. FROM VER. 8. only distinct apprehension we are able to form of them, was fixed upon him, who is only to be feared, God, but (even when we come to consider them separately) is in such a filial mamer, as to become an awe without only this, that the understanding is chiefly conversant amazement, and a dread without distraction. ahout intelligible, the will about eligible objects ; so that It must be acknowledged indeed, that the Scriptures the one has truth, and the other goodness in its view and do not expressly attribute all these perfections to Adam pursuit. There are, besides these, belonging to the soul in his first estate ; but, since the opposite weaknesses of man, certain passions and affections, which (accord- now infest the nature of man fallen, we must conclude ing to the common notion and manner of speaking) have (if we will be true to the rule of contraries) that these, chiefly their residence in the sensitive appetite ; and, and such like excellencies, were the endowments of man however, in this lapsed condition of our nature, they may innocent. And if so, then is there another perfection suany times mutiny and rebel, yet, when kept in due arising from this harmony, and due composure of the femper and subordination, are excellent handmaids to faculties, which we may call the crown and consummathe soul. Though the Stoics look upon them all as tion of all, and that is a good conscience. For, as in sinful defects, and deviations from right reason; yet it the body, when the vital and principal parts do their is sufficient for us, that our blessed Saviour (who took office, and all the smaller vessels act orderly, there arises upon him all our natural, but none of our sinful infirmi- a sweet enjoyment upon the whole, which we call health ; ties) was known to bave them, and that our first proge- so in the soul, when the supreme faculties of the undernitor, in the state of his greatest perfection, was not standing and will move regularly, and the inferior pasdevoid of them. Let us then see how far we may sup-sions and affections listen to their dictates, and follow pose that the image of God might be impressed upon their injunctions, there arises a serenity and complacency each of these.

upon the whole soul, infinitely beyond all the pleasures * His soul itself was a rational substance, immaterial, of sensuality, and which, like a spicy field, refreshes it and inmortal; and therefore a proper representation of upon every reflection, and fills it with a joyful confidence that Supreme Spirit whose wisdom was infinite, and es- towards God. sence eternal.

These are some of the natural lines (as we may dis* His understanding was, as it were, the upper region tinguish them) which the finger of God portrayed upon of his soul, lofty and serene ; seated above all sordid the soul of man: and (so far as the spiritual being may affections, and free from the vapours and disturbances of be resembled by the corporeal) * the contrivance of man's inferior passions. Its perceptions were quick and lively; bodily parts was with such proportion and exactness, as its reasonings true, and its determinations just. A de- most conduced to its comeliness and service. His staluded fancy was not then capable of imposing upon it, lure was erect and raised, becoming him who was to be Dor a fawning appetite of deluding it to pronounce a the lord of this globe, and the observer of the heavens. false and dishonest sentence. In its direction of the in- A divine beauty and majesty was shed upon it, such as ferior faculties, it conveyed its suggestions with clear could neither be eclipsed by sickness, nor extinguished ness, and enjoined them with power; and though its by death ; ' for Adam knew no disease, so long as he command over them was but suasive, yet it had the same refrained from the forbidden tree. Nature was his phyforce and efficacy as if it had been despotical.

sician, and innocence and abstinence would have kept His will was then very ductile and pliant to the mo- him healthful to immortality. And from this perfection tions of right reason. It pursued the directions that of man's body, especially that port and majesty which were given it, and attended upon the understanding, as a appeared in his looks and aspect, there arose, in some farourite does upon his prince, while the service is both measure, another lineament of the divine image, viz. privilege, and preferment: and, while it obeyed the un- that dominion and sovereignty wherewith God invested derstanding, it commanded the other faculties that were him over all other creatures. For there is even still rebeneath ; gave laws to the affections, and restrained the maining in man a certain terrific character, (as 'one calls passions from licentious sallies.

it,) which, assisted by that instinct of dread that he hath His passions were then indeed all subordinate to his equally implanted in their natures, commands their homage will and intellect, and acted within the compass of their and obeisance ; insomuch, that it must be hunger or comproper objects. His love was centred upon God, and pulsion, or some violent exasperation or other, that famed up to heaven in direct fervours of devotion. His makes them at any time rebel against their Maker's vicehatred (if hatred may be supposed in a state of inno- gerent here below. cence) was fixed only upon that which his posterity only This is the best copy of the divine image that we can love, sin. His joy was then the result of a real good, draw: only it may not be amiss to add, 8 that the holisuitably applied, and filled his soul (as God does the ness of man was a resemblance of the divine purity, and wriverse) silently and without noise. His sorrow (if any his happiness a representation of the divine felicity. And supposed disaster could have occasioned sorrow) must now, to look over it again, and recount the several lines have moved according to the severe allowances of pru- of it. What was supernatural in it, was a mind fortified depro; been as silent as thought, and all confined within to bear the divine presence, qualified for the divine conthe closet of the breast. His hope was fed with the ex- verse, fully illuminated by the divine Spirit ; and a body pectation of a better paradise, and a nearer admission that contrary to the natural principles of its composito the divine presence; and (to name no more) his fear, tion) was indulged the privilege of immortality. What which was then a guard, and not a torment to the mind,

* Bate's Harmony of the Divine Attributes. South's SerSouth's Sermons, vol. I. • Edward's Survey.

mons, vol. 1,

o Gen, i. 26, Cornelius Agrippa, on Occult * South's Sermons, vol. 1.

Philosophy. Bate's Harmony.

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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. was natural to it, was an universal harmony in all its of bliss ; that, u in his state of exile, having lost all hopes, faculties; an understanding fraught with all manner of and despairing of reconciliation with the Almighty, he knowledge; a will submitted to the divine pleasure ; af- abandoned himself to all kinds of wickedness ; and, upon fections placed upon their proper objects ; passions calm the creation of man, out of pure envy to the happiness and easy; a conscience quiet and serene ; resplendent which God had designed for him, resolved upon a proholiness, perfect felicity, and a body adorned with such ject to draw him into disobedience, and thence into ruin comeliness and majesty, as might justly challenge the and perdition ; but how to put his scheme in execution rule and jurisdiction of this inferior world.

was the question. The woman he perceived, as by If it be demanded, how much of this image is de- nature more ductile and tender, was the properer subject faced, lost, or impaired; the answer is, that whatever for his temptations ; but some form he was to assume, to was supernatural and adventitious to man by the be- enable him to enter into conference with her.

• The nignity of Almighty God, (as it depended upon the con- figure of a man was the fittest upon this occasion ; but dition of his obedience to the divine command,) upon then it would have discovered the imposture, because the breach of that command, was entirely lost : what was Eve knew very well, that her husband was the only one perfective of his nature, such as the excellency of his of that species upon the face of the earth. And therefore knowledge, the subordination of his faculties, the tran- considering, that the serpent, which before the fall was a quillity of his mind, and full dominion over other crea- bright and glorious creature, and (next to man) c endued tures, was sadly impaired : but what was essential to his nature, the immortality of his soul, the faculties of intel

History of the Old and New Testament, by M. Martin, lection and will, and the natural beauty and usefulness therefore Empedocles, in the verses recited by Plutarch, makes of his body, does still remain, notwithstanding the con- mention of the fate of some demons, who, for their rebellion,

were, from the summit of heaven, plunged into the bottom of cussions they sustained in the fall,

the great deep, there to be punished as they deserved. To If it be asked, what we must do in order to repair this which the story of Ate, who once inhabited the air, but being defaced image of God in us ? the only answer we can always hurtful to man, and therefore, hateful to God, was cast have in this case, is, from the sacred oracles of Scripture. should never return again

, seems not a little to allude.- Huetius

down from thence, with a solemn oath and decree, that she We must ? " be renewed in the spirit of our mind, and in the Alnetan Questions, b. 2. put on the new man, which after God is created in right- 6 Our excellent Milton represents Satan within prospect of eousness and true holiness.' We must 3 be followers Eden, and near the place where he was to attempt his desperate of God as dear children ; grow in grace,"4" be renewed in enterprise against God and man, falling into doubts

, and sundry knowledge,' and 5 conformed to the image of his Son." passions

, and then, at last, confirming himself in his wicked

design. We must 6 give all diligence to add to our faith virtue ; But say I could repent, and could obtain, and to virtue, knowledge; and to knowledge, temper

By act of grace, my former state ; how soon

Would height recall high thoughts ! how soon unsay ance; and to temperance, patience; and to patience,

What feign'd submission swore! Ease woald recant godliness ; and to godliness, brotherly kindness ; and to Vows made in pain, as violent and voidbrotherly kindness, charity :' that we may be *. complete

All hope excluded thus, behold, instead

Of us, outcast, exil'd, his new delight, in him, who is the head of all principality and power :'

Mankind, created ; and for him this world, and that 8. as we have borne the image of the earthly,

So farewell Hope! and, with Hope, farewell fear!

Farewell Remorse! all good to me is lost ! we may also bear the image of the heavenly Adam.'

Evil be thou my good! by thee at least
Divided empire with heaven's King I hold;
By thee, and more than half perhaps, will reign :

As man, ere long, and this new world shall know.

c Milton, who is an excellent commentator upon the whole SECT. III.

history of the fall, brings in the devil, after a long search to find

out a beast proper for his purpose, concluding at last to make use CHAP. I.-Of the Fall of Man.

of the serpent.

Him, after long debate (irresolute
Of thought revolv'd) his final sentence chose.
Fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud in whom

To enter, and his dark suggestions hide The sacred historian indeed gives us no account of Satan, From sharpest sight: for in the wily snake the chief of the fallen angels, and grand adversary of

Whatever sleights, none would suspicions mark,

As from his wit, and native subtilty God and man; but, from several other places in Scrip- Proceeding; which in other beast observ'd, ture, we may learn, that he at first was made like other Doubt might beget of diabolic power

Active within, beyond the sense of brute. celestial spirits, perfect in his kind, and happy in his condition, but that, through pride or ambition, as we may tioned in Scripture, as qualities which distinguish it from other

The wisdom and subtilty of the serpent are frequently mensuppose, falling into a crime, (whose circumstances to animals; and several are the instances, wherein it is said to us are unknown,) he thence fell into misery, and, toge- discover its cunning. 1. When it is old, by squeezing itself ther with his accomplices, was banished from the regions between two rocks, it can strip off its old skin, and so grows

young again. 2. As it grows blind, it has a secret to recover

its sight by the juice of fennel. 3. When it is assaulted, its Hale's Origination of Mankind. * Eph. iv. 23, 24. chief care is to secure its head, because its heart lies under its * Eph. v. 1. * Col. iii. 10.

Rom. viii. 29.

throat, and very near its head. And, 4. When it goes to drink 2 Peter i. 5, &c. Col. ii, 10.

' 1 Cor. xv. 49.

at a fountain, it first vomits up all its poison, for fear of poisona That profane, as well as sacred writers, had the same notion ing itself as it is drinking; with some other qualities of the like of the fall of wicked angels, is manifest from a tradition they nature.-Calmet's Dictionary. had (though mixed with fable) of the Titans and Giants invading But a modern author of our own has given us this further heaven, fighting against Jupiter, and attempting to depose him reason for the devil's making use of the serpent in this affair, from his throne, for which reason he threw them down headlong namely,—That as no infinite being can actuate any creature, into hell, where they are tormented with incessant fire; and beyond what the fitness and capacity of its organs will admit;


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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. with the greatest talents of sagacity and understanding, as they were, for so slight a transgression; and that the would be no improper instrument for his purpose, he sole intent of this prohibition was, to continue them in usurped the organs of one of these, and through them, he their present state of dependence and ignorance, and not addressed himself to the woman, the first opportunity admit them to that extent of knowledge, and plenitude when he found her alone.

of happiness, which their eating of this fruit would confer After some previous compliments (as we may ima- upon them : for God himself knew, that d the proper gine) and congratulations of her happy state, the tempter use of this tree was, to illuminate the understanding, and put on an air of great concern, and seemed to interest advance all the other faculties of the soul to such a sub-' himself not a little in her behalf, by wondering why God, limity, that the brightest angels in heaven should not who had lately been so very bountiful to them, should surpass them ; nay that they should approximate the Deity deny them the use of a tree, whose fruit was so tempting itself, in the extent of their intellect, and independence to the eye, so grateful to the palate, and of such sove of their being. In short, he acquainted Eve, that the reign quality to make them wise, and when Eve replied, jealousy of the Creator was the sole motive of his prothat such was the divine prohibition, even under the hibition ; that the fruit had a virtue to impart, e an unipenalty of death itself, c he immediately subjoins, that versal knowledge to the person who tasted it; and that such a penalty was an empty threat, and what would never therefore God, who would adınit of no competitor, had be executed upon them; that God would never destroy reserved this privilege to himself. Above all, he engaged the work of his own hands,' creatures so accomplished her to fix her eyes upon the forbidden fruit; he remarked

to her its pleasantness to the sight, and left her to guess 80, the natural subtilty of the serpent, and perhaps the pliable

at its deliciousness. Eve, in the very midst of the tempDess, and forkiness of its tongue (which we know enables other tation had a freedom of choice ; but the fond conceit of creatures to pronounce articulate sounds,) added to the advan- ' knowing good and evil,' of becoming like God, and of tages of its form, made it the fittest instrument of delusion that changing her felicity (great indeed, but subordinate) for can be imagined.—Revelation Examined. Milton has very curiously described the artful and insinua

an independent state of happiness, and especially the ting carriage of the serpent, upon his first approach to speak to deceitful bait of present sensual pleasure, blinded her

reason by degrees; and as she stood gazing on the tree, He, bolder now, uncalld, before her stood,

filled all her thoughts, and the whole capacity of her But, as in great admiring ; oft he bow'd

soul. The sight of the fruit provoked her desire ; the His turret crest, and sleek enamellid neck, Fawning; and lick'd the ground whereon she trod.

suggestions of the tempter urged it on; her natural Flis gentle damb expressions turn'd at length

curiosity raised her longing ; and the very prohibition The eye of Eve, to mark his play: he, glad Of her attention gain'd, with serpent tongue

itself did something to inflame it ; so that, at all advenOrganic, or impulse of vocal air,

tures, she put forth her hand, and plucked, and eat. His fraudulent temptation thus began.

Earth felt the wound, and nature, from her seat, 6. The first words in his address are, “ Yea, hath God said, ye Sighing, through all her works, gave signs of wo, shall not eat,' &c., which do not look so much like the beginning, That all was lost. as the conclusion of a discourse, as the Jews themselves have observed: and therefore it is not improbable, that the tempter,

She, however, had no such sense of her condition ; but, before he spake these words, represented himself as one of the fancying herself already in the possession of that chimeheavenly court, who was come, or rather sent, to congratulate rical happiness, wherewith the devil had deluded her, the happiness which God had bestowed on them in paradise; an she invited her husband (who not unlikely came upon her happiness so great, that he could not easily believe he had denied while she was eating) to partake with her. ? The most them any of the fruit of the garden.—Patrick's Commentary.

e Burnet, in his Philosophical Archæology, has given us the whole dialogue (as he has framed it at least) between the serpent


? Saurin's Dissertations. and Eve; which, though a little too light and ludicrous for so d It is very well worth our observation, how ambiguous and sulemn an occasion, yet, because the book is not in every one's deceitful the promise, which the tempter makes our first parents, hands, I have thought fit to set down in a translation of his own was: for by opening the eyes,' she understood a further degree words. “Serpent. Hail, fairest! what dost thou under this of wisdom, as the same phrase imports, Acts xxvi. 18.; and sade? Eve. I am gazing at the beauty of this tree. Serpent. Eph. i. 18.; but he meant their perceiving their own misery, It is indeed pleasant to the sight, but to the taste its fruit is and confusion of conscience, as fell out immediately: by being mueb more so, hast thou yet tasted it, my mistress? Eve. like gods,' she understood the happiness of God the Father, Son, Verily not, God hath forbade us the use of that tree. Serpent. and Holy Ghost, as appears by the words of God himself, verse What do I hear? Who is that God? who envies his own crea- 22.; but he meant it of angels, (frequently styled Elohim, that twas the innocent delights of nature, nothing is more sweet, is, gods,) and of such fallen angels as himself, who are called thing more safe than that fruit, why should he forbid it, unless principalities and powers,' Col. ii. 15. And by knowing by some foolish law of his own. Eve. Nay, he forbade it under good and evil,' she understood a kind of divine omniscience, or penalty of death. Serpent. Undoubtedly the matter is not knowing all manner of things, (as the phrase frequently signiunderstood by thee, the tree possesses no deadly property, but fies ;) but he meant it, that thereby she should experience the rather something divine and beyond the usual power of nature. difference between 'good and evil,' between happiness and Eve. I cannot answer thee myself, but I will go to my husband. misery, which she did to her cost. A method this of cunning Serpent. Why shouldst thou interrupt thy husband for an affair and reserve, which he has practised in his oracular responses of so small importance. Eve. Shall I taste the apple? ever since.- Ainsworth's Annotations, how beautiful its hue, how fragrant its smell, can it have a bad e The word good and evil,' when applied to knowledge, fia Four? Serpent. Believe me, it is fond not unworthy of the comprehend every thing that is possible for man to know, for so angek, taste of it, and if the flavour be bad cast it from thee, the woman of Tekoa, in her address to king David, tells him 2 and deem me the most mendacious of liars. Eve. I will at- Sam. xiv. 17. 'as an angel of God is my lord the king, to disteropt, indeed the flavour is most agreeable, thou hast not de- cern good and bad;' and that by the terms “good and bad,' we ceived me, give me another that I may bear it to my husband. are to understand all things, the 20th verse of that chapter Serpent. That's well remembered! take this one, go to thy will inform us, where she continues her compliment, and says, hurstand-Farewell, child of happiness, meanwhile I will glide My lord is wise, according to the wisdom of an angel, to amay, she will manage the rest." B.ji. chap. 7.

know all things that are on the earth.'--Le Clerc's Commentary.


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