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A. M. 2276. A. C. 1728; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3548. A. C. 1863. GEN. CH. xxxvii. TO THE END. Thus may the computation be reduced to a very narrow of the sarcasm, when they are told, that this distemper, compass; and though it be extremely difficult to point be it what it will, was not of Job's contraction, but of out the precise time, yet the general opinion is, that he Satan's infliction, not the effect or consequence of his lived in the time of the children of Israel's bondage, vice, but the means appointed for the trial of his virtue. and therefore his birth is placed in the very same year Their opinion, however, seems to be well founded, who wherein Jacob went down into Egypt, and the beginning make this distemper of Job not one simple malady, but of his trial in the year when Joseph died;' though it a complication of many. For since the great enemy of might probably be less liable to exception, if his birth mankind, saving his life, had a full license to try his were set a little lower, much about the time of Jacob's patience to the uttermost, it is not to be questioned but death ; and then Joseph, who survived his father about that he played all his batteries upon him; and accordfour and fifty years, will be dead about sixteen years, ingly we may observe, that besides the blains pustulated at which time Job might justly deserve the extraordinary to afflict his body, the devil not only instigated his wife character which God gave him, and have no man then « to grieve his mind, but disturbed his imagination likealive, in virtue and integrity, able to compare with him. wise to terrify his conscience. For when the holy man
How considerable a figure Job made in the world, complains, * « Thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest both in temporal and spiritual blessings, the vastness of me with visions,' the analogy of the history will not sufhis stock, which was the wealth of that age, consisting fer us to interpret, that God himself did inject these of seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five affrightening dreams, but that the devil, to whose temptahundred yokes of oxen, and five hundred she-asses ; the tions he had submitted him, did raise gloomy thoughts, largeness of his family, consisting of seven sons and and frame horrid and ghastly objects in his imagination, three daughters; and the excellency of the character thereby to urge him to melancholy and despair. which God was pleased to give him, together with the How long this load of various calamity lay upon him, greatness of his sentiments, and the firmness and con- is nowhere mentioned in Scripture ; and therefore since stancy of his mind in all he suffered, are a sufficient it is submitted to conjecture, they who, to magnify the demonstration : and yet we see, that as soon as God sufferings, prolong the duration of them to a year, and, submitted him to the assaults of his spiritual enemy, what as some do, to seven,' seem to be regardless of the a sad catastrophe did befall him. The Sabæans ran tender mercies of the Lord; especially when there are away with his asses ; the Chaldeans plundered him of some circumstances in the story, which certainly do his camels; a fire from heaven consumed his sheep and countenance a much shorter time. The news of the misservants ; a wind overwhelmed all his children ; and fortunes which attended his goods and family, came close while the sense of these losses lay heavy upon his spirits, upon the heels of one another, and we carmot suppose his body was smitten with a sore disease, insomuch a long space before he was afflicted in his body. His that he who but a few hours before, was the greatest man three friends seem to have been his near neighbours; and in the country, in whose presence the young men were they came to visit him, as soon as they heard of the ill afraid to appear, and before whom the aged stood up,' news, which usually flies apace. When they saw his to whom princes paid the most awful reverence, and misery, seven days they sat with him in silence ; after whom nobles, in hunble silence, admired ; divested of this, they entered into a discourse with him, and at the all honour, sits mourning on a bed of ashes, and instead end of this discourse, which could not well last above of royal apparel, has ? " his flesh clothed,' as himself another week, God healed his sores before his friends expresses it, “ with worms and clods of earth,' and is all who being men of eminence in their country, may be overspread with sores and ulcers.
supposed to have business at home, as soon as this According to the symptoms which Job gives us of melancholy occasion was over) were parted from him. himself, bis distemper seems to have been a leprosy, but a leprosy of a more malignant kind, as it always is in * Young's Sermons, vol. 2. Job vii, 14. hot countries, than our climate, blessed be God, is • Bedford's Scripture Chronology, b. 3. c. 4. acquainted with ; and those who would have it to be a
a Some of the Jewish doctors imagine, that Dinah, the daugt
ter of Leah, was this wife of Job's; but this seems to be a mere malady, of a more opprobrious name, lose all the sting fiction. The moroseness and impiety of the woman, as well as
the place of her habitation, do no ways suit with Jacob's daugh
ter; and therefore the more probable opinion is, that his wife · Howell's History of the Bible. Job vii. 5.
was an Arabian by birth, and that though the words which we that he must have lived after Jacob, because such “large com- render 'curse God and die,' may equally bear a quite contrary mendation could not be allowed to any whilst Jacob, God's signification, yet are they not here to be taken in the most favourfavourite servant, was alive,” cannot hold, but must rather be able sense, because they drew from her meek and patient husband applied to prove, that he lived before Jacob, or any of the patri- so severe an imprecation, “Thou speakest as one of the foolish archs of Israel. It may be observed, however, that, according women speaketh. What! shall we receive good at the hand of to scripture idiom, the passage may be construed to signify merely, God, and shall we not receive evil ?' (Job ii. 10.)—Spanheim's that there was none like Job in the land of Uz. Among other History of Job, c. 6. reasons for assigning to Job the high antiquity given him by Dr 6 Eliphaz, the Temanite, was the grandson of Esau, and son Hales, may be mentioned the following: He is silent respecting of Teman, who dwelt in a city of the same name in Idumea, niet the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, which cities lay near far from the confines of Arabia Deserta. Bildad, the Shuhite
, Idumea, where the scene of his sufferings is laid. He lived to was descended from Shuah, the son of Abraham and Keturah. a patriarchal age, surviving his trial 140 years, while he must It is almost impossible to find out who Zophar the Naamathite have been old when that took place. The manners and customs was, though some will have him descended from Esau; but as for described correspond critically with all that is known of that early Elihu, who comes in afterwards, he was the grandson of Buz, the period. But, above all, the astronomical allusions of Job have son of Nahor; lived in the southern parts of Mesopotamia; and enabled astronomers to determine his era (as given above) by upon the supposition of Job's being sprung from Abraham, was calculating the precession of the equinoxes.-ED.
his distant relation. Spanheim's Life of Job, c. 11.
A. M. 2276. A. C. 1728; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3548. A. C. 1863. GEN. CH. XXXyil. TO THE END. Now, since all this may be included in the space of a ed his faith and piety, with a portion of earthly felicity, month, and a month may be thought time enough for double to what he had before, and with the prolongation God to bave made trial of his faithful servant; when of his life, beyond the common extent of those times. once such trial was made, we have reason to believe, that This is a brief analysis of the book of Job: and whohe would withdraw his heavy hand, because his character ever looks into it with a little more attention, will soon in Scripture is, that'he doth not afflict willingly nor perceive, that the author of it, whoever be was, ' has put grieve the children of men.'
in practice all the beauties of his art, to make the four The unaccountable greatness of Job's calamities had persons, whom he brings upon the stage, keep up each led his friends into a misconception of him, and made his proper character, and maintain the opinions which them surmise, that it must be the vindictive hand of God, they were engaged to defend ; will soon perceive, that either for some deep hypocrisy, or some secret enormity, for its loftiness of style, and sublimeness of thoughts, for that fell so heavy upon him; and therefore Eliphaz, in its liveliness and energy of expression, for the variety of three orations, Bildad in as many, and Zophar in two, its characters, the fineness of its descriptions, and the argue from common topics, that such afflictions as his grandeur of its imagery, there is hardly such another could come from no hand but God's; and that it was composition to be found in all the records of antiquity, inconsistent with his infinite justice to afflict without a which has raised the curiosity of all ages to find out the cause, or punish without guilt; and thereupon charging person who might possibly be the author of it. Job with being either a grievous sinner, or a great hypo- Some have imagined, that as it has been no uncomcrite, they endeavoured by all means to extort a confes- mon thing in all ages, for persons of distinction to write cion from him. But Job, conscious of his sincerity to their own memoirs, Job himself, or some of his friends God, and innocence to man, confidently maintains his at least, who bore a part in the series of this history, integrity; and in speeches returned to every one of theirs, might set about the inditing it, if not for any other rearefutes their wicked suggestions, and reproves their son, at least in compliance to his request. 4 Oh that injustice and want of charity ; but always observes a my words were now written, that they were printed in a submissive style and reverence when he comes to speak book!' But though some family records may possibly of God, of whose secret end, in permitting this trial to be kept of events so remarkable as those that occur in come upon him, being ignorant, he often begs a release Job's life, yet the poetical turn which is given to the from life, lest the continuance of his afflictions should latter part of the book more especially, seems to savour drive him into impatience.
of a more modern composition than suits with the era During these arguments between Job and his friends, wherein we suppose Job to have lived. there was present a young man, named Elihu, who hav- Others therefore suppose, that the story of Job was at ing heard the debates on both sides, and disliking both first a plain narrative, written in the Arabian tongue, but their censoriousness, and Job's justification of himself
, that Solomon, or some other poetical genius like him, undertakes to convince them both, by arguments drawn gave it a dramatic cast; and in order to make the subject from God's unlimited sovereignty and unsearchable wis- more moving, introduced a set of persons speaking dom, that it was not inconsistent with his justice to lay alternately, and always in character. But though this his afflictions upon the best and most righteous of the
was certainly the mode of writing then in vogue, yet how sons of men ; and that therefore, when any such thing there came so much of the Arabian and Syrian dialect to came upon them, their duty was to bear it without mur- creep into a book that was composed at a time when the muring, and to acknowledge the divine goodness in every Hebrew tongue was in its very height of perfection, we dispensation.
cannot conceive ; nor can we be persuaded, but that, in When every one had spoken what he thought proper,
Universal History, b. 1. c. 7. * Job xix, 23. and there was now a general silence in the company, the Lord himself took up the matter, and out of a whirlwind perfectly cured, and restored to health again.—Calmet' s Dic.
tionary under the word Job. directed his speech to Job ; wherein with the highest St Jerome, in his preface to the book of Job, informs us, that amplifications, describing his omnipotence in the forma- the verse, in which it is chiefly composed, is heroic. From the tion and disposition of the works of the creation, he so
beginning of the book, to the third chapter, he says, it is prose; effectually convinced him of his inability to understand &c., (chap. iii. 3.) unto these words, “Wherefore I abhor my
but from Job's words, “Let the day perish wherein I was born, the ways and designs of God, that with the profoundest self, and repent in dust and ashes,' (chap. xlii. 6.) the verses are bumility he breaks out into this confession and acknow- hexameter, consisting of dactyls and spondees, like the Greek ledginent : Behold, ? I am vile, what shall I answer
verses of Homer, and the Latin of Virgil. Marianus Victothee? I will lay my hand upon my mouth. Once have he has examined the book of Job, and finds St Jerome's observa
rius, in his note upon this passage of St Jerome, says, that I spoken, but I will not answer : yea twice, but I will tion to be true. Only we must observe, that the several proceed no farther.' This acknowledgment pleased God sentences directing us to the several speakers, such as these, so well, that he declared himself in favour of Job against Moreover, the Lord answered Job and said,' (chap. xl. 1.) his injurious friends, and hereupon putting an end to his
Elihu also proceeded and said,' (chap. xxxvi. 1.) ' Elihu spake
moreover and said,' (chap. xxxv. 1., &c.) are in prose and not in sufferings, o cured him of all his grievances, and reward- St Jerome makes this farther remark, that the verses in
the book of Job do not always consist of dactyls and spondees, Lam, iii. 33. 2 Job xl. 4, 5.
but that other feet do frequently occur instead of them; that we The eastern people have a tradition, that upon God's pro-often meet in them a word of four syllables, instead of a dactyl posing to make no farther trial of Job, the angel Gabriel de- and spondee; and that the measure of the verses frequently difBeended from heaven, took him by the hand, raised him from the fers in the number of the syllables of the several feet, but allowing place where he was, struck the ground with his foot, and caused two short syllables to be equal to one long, the sums of the meaà fountain of the purest water to spring out of it, where Job hav- sure of the verses are always the same.—Shuckford's Connection, ing washed his body, and drank a cup or two of it, found himself vol. 2. b. 9.
A. M. 2433. A. C. 1571; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3683. A. C. 1728. EXOD. CH. 1.-xiii, reading the whole, we taste an antiquity superior to that sink under our burdens, in their weight far disproporof David or Solomon's time. And yet, this notwith- tionate to those, which a man made of the same flesh and standing, some have endeavoured to bring down the blood as we are, and supported by no other helps than author of the book of Job to the times of the Babylonish are afforded us, without murmuring against God, without captivity, and suppose the book to have been written for lessening his confidence in him, without impeaching his the consolation of the captives in distress. But if we justice, and without desponding of his goodness, both suppose it written for the sake of the Jews, is it not patiently endured, and triumphantly overcame. strange, that in a discourse of such a kind, there should not be one single word of the law of Moses, nor so much as one distant allusion to any rite or ceremony of it, or
SECT. V. to any of the forms of idolatry, for which the Jews suffered in the time of their captivity? The Jews, I say, certainly suffered for their iniquity; but the example of CHAP. I.—The sufferings of the Israelites, and the Job is the example of an innocent man, suffering for no
means of their Deliverance out of Egypt. demerit of his own. Now apply this to the Jews in their captivity, and the book contradicts all the prophets before, and at the time of their captivity, and seems to Not long after the death of Joseph, there happened a be calculated, as it were, to harden the Jews in their revolution in Egypt, and a new king, who had no knowsufferings, and to reproach the providence of God for ledge of the great services which Joseph had done the bringing them upon them. Without troubling ourselves crown, perceiving the vast increase of the Israelites, therefore to examine, whether the conjectures of these, * began to fear, that in case of an invasion, they possibly who carry the date of this book even lower than the might side with the enemy, and depose him ; and therefore captivity, and impute it to Ezra, that ready scribe in he called a council, wherein it was resolved, not only to the law of Moses, as he is styled, have any good foun- impose heavy taxes upon the people, but to confine them dation to support them, we may sit down contented with likewise to the hard labour of bearing burdens, and what is the common, and as far as I can see, as probable digging clay, making bricks, and building strong cities án opinion as any, namely, that * Moses, as soon as God put it in his heart to visit his people, either while he a The original words, sare massim, which we translate taskcontinued in Egypt, or while he lived in exile in Midian, masters, do properly signify tax-gatherers, and the burdens are either translated this book from Arabic, in which some that the resolution in council was, both to lay heavy tributes
afterwards mentioned as distinct things, under another name; so suppose it was originally, or wrote it entirely by a divine upon them to impoverish, and heavy burdens to weaken them. inspiration for the support and consolation of his coun- Philo, in his life of Moses, tells us, that they were made to carry trymen the Jews, groaning under the pressure of the burdens above their strength, and to work night and day, that Egyptian bondage ; that by a proper example, he might they were forced at the same time to be workers and servers represent the design of providence in afflicting them, building; and that if any of them dropped down dead under
both; that they were employed in brick-making, digging, and and at the same time give them assurance of a release their burdens, they were not suffered to be buried. Josephus in and restoration in due time.
his Jewish Antiquities, (b. 2. c. 9.) tells us in like mamer, This is what most of the Jews, and several Christian that they were compelled to learn several laborious trades, to writers have affirmed, and believed, concerning the book rivers into channels, and cast up dykes and banks to prevent
build walls round cities, to dig trenches and ditches, to drain of Job ; but the author from whom I have compiled a inundations. And not only so, but that they were likewise put great part of this dissertation, has by several arguments, upon the erection of fantastical pyramids, which were vast piles hardly surmountable, gone a great way to destroy the of building, raised by the kings of Egypt in testimony of their received opinion, and left nothing to depend on but this, splendour and magnificence, and to be repositories of their bodies - That the writer of this book was a Jew, and assisted voured to bring the Israelites under; by exacting a tribute of
Thus, by three several ways, the Egyptians endeatherein by the Spirit of God; that it has always been them, to lessen their wealth; by laying heavy burdens upan esteemed of canonical authority; is fraught with excel-them, to weaken their bodies; and by preventing, by this means, lent instructions ; and, above all, is singularly adapted
as they imagined, their generating and increasing.
6 The two cities here mentioned, namely, Pithom and Raamto administer comfort in the day of adversity. Not to ses, are said, in our translation, to be treasure-cities, but not quit therefore this subject without an exhortation to this places where the king reposited his riches, but rather his grain purpose, 5 Ye have heard of the patience of Job,' says or corn; for such repositories seem to have been much in use the apostle,' and have seen the end of the Lord :' and, Joseph. Considering, however, the name and situation of these
among the Egyptians ever since the introduction of them by therefore, when we find our spirits begin to tlag under two cities, that Pithom, according to Sir John Marsham, was the the sense of any affliction, or bodily pain; when our same with
Pelusium, the most ancient fortified place in Egypt, patience begins to be tired with sufferings, which are called by Ezekiel, (xxx. 15,) the strength of Egypt;' and by greater than we can bear, and our trust in God to be Suidas, long after him, the key of Egypt,' as being the inlet shaken, because he pours down his judgments upon us ; town which lay in the entrance of Egypt from Arabia,
from Syria; and that Raamses, in all probability, was a frontier let us enliven our fainting courage, by setting before us of the neighbouring countries; it seems hardly consistent with such noble patterns as this ; and let us be ashamed to good policy to have granaries, or store cities in any other than
the inland parts of a country; and therefore, as these were
situated in the out parts of Egypt, it is much more likely that Bishop Sherlock's Use and Intent of Prophecy, Dissertation 2. they were fortified places, surrounded with walls, and towers
, and * Warburton's Divine Legation, vol. 3. b. 6; et Sentimens deep ditches, which would cost the Hebrews an infinite deal of de quelques Theol. de Hol. p. 183,&c.
labour in building, than that they were repositories, either for • Ezra vii. 6. Spanheim's Life of Job, c. 13, James v. 11.
corn or treasure.- Patrick's Commentary, and Wells' Geogrepky * Bishop Smalridge's Sermon of Trust in God. of the Old Testament, vol. 2.
A. M. 2433. A. C. 1571; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3683. A, C. 1728. EXOD. CH. 1-xiii. for the king; thereby to impoverish their spirits, as well, but saved male and female alike ; and when the king as wear out and enfeeble their bodies.
sent for them, and reprimanded them for their disobedi. This resolution of council was soon put in execution, ence, they had this answer in readiness :—. That the and task-masters accordingly set over the people, who Hebrew women being of a much stronger constitution should keep them to drudgery, and use them with cruel than the Egyptian, were generally delivered before they ty, and do all they could, in short, to make their lives came. miserable; but such was the goodness of God to them, This was a piece of service not unacceptable to that the more they were oppressed, the a more they multi- God, but to Pharaoh it seemed no more than a mere plied; insomuch that the king, finding that this expedient evasion; and therefore resolving upon a more effectual would not do, sent for two of the most eminent of their method to extirpate the Hebrews, he published an edict, midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah, and gave wherein he commanded all their nuale children to be them strict charge, that whenever they were called to do thrown into the river ; and that they might be more subtheir office to any Hebrew woman, they should privately ject to the inspection of his searchers, e he built them strangle the child, if it was a male, and leave only the houses, and obliged them to live in settled habitations. e females alive. But they abhorring such a cruel and Some years before this edict, Amram, who was of the iampious practice, had no regard to the king's command,
d It is generally supposed that the midwives, upon this occa
sion, told a lie; but there is no reason for such a supposition, a Commentators observe, that in this passage of Scripture, though possibly they might conceal some part of the truth, which where Moses describes the vast increase of the Israelites, he em- is not unlawful, but highly commendable, when it is to preserve plays a great variety of words in expressing it; and because the the innocent; for many of the Hebrew women might be such as words he makes use of are six in all, some of the Hebrew exposi- are here described, though not every one of them. The answer of tors have thence concluded, that the women brought forth six the midwives therefore is so far from being a speaking lie to save children at a birth, Aristotle, indeed, in his history of animals, their lives, that it is a bold confession of their faith and piety, to (6.7.c. 4.) tells us that the country of Egypt, where the Hebrew the hazard of them, namely, that they saw so plain an evidence wonnen bred so plentifully, was so strangely prolific, that some of the wonderful hand of God, in that extraordinary vigour in the of their women, at four times, brought twenty children. But travail of the women, that do what Pharaoh would, they durst without having recourse to such prodigious births as happened not, would not, strive against it, because they would not strive but seldom, we need but suppose, that the Israelites, both men against God.'-Lightfoot's Sermon on 2 Sam. xix. 29. and women, were very fruitful; that they began soon, and con- e The making the midwives houses,' is, by most interpreters, timed long in begetting; and then there will be no impossibility ascribed to God, and the thing is supposed to have been done in for 70 males, in the compass of 215 years, to have multiplied to a metaphorical sense, that is, God gave them a númerous offthe number specified, even at the rate of one child every year. spring or family, and a very lasting succession or posterity. For For according to Simler's computation, 70 persons, if they beget there are five things, say they, which go to complete the greata child every year, will, in 30 years' time, have above 2000 ness or eminence of a family, as such, its largeness, its wealth, children; of which, admit that one third part only did come to its honours, its power, and its duration. And therefore, since procreate, in 30 years more, they will amount to 9000. The the midwives hazarded their own lives to save those of the Hethird of them wili, in 30 years more, be multiplied to 55,000; brew children, and to preserve the Israelites a numerous progeny and, according to this calculation, in 210 years, the whole and posterity, the God of Israel, in return, not only made their amount will be at least 2,760,000. So that, if there was any own lives long and prosperous, but gave them very numerous thing miraculous or extraordinary in all this, it was, that they families, and an enduring posterity, in whom they might be said should be able to multiply at that rate, notwithstanding their hard to live after death, even from generation to generation. But all labour and cruel bondage.- Patrick's Commentary, and Uni- this is a very forced construction, and what the original words versal History, b. 1. c. 7.
will by no means bear. We should therefore rather think, these 6 Josephus tells us, that there was a certain scribe, as they houses were built, not for the midwives but for the Israelites, called him, a man of great credit for his predictions, who told the and that it was not God, but Pharaoh, who built them. The king, that there was a Hebrew child to be born about that time, case seems to be this:-Pharaoh had charged the midwives to who would be a scourge to the Egyptians, and advance the glory kill the male children that were born of the Hebrew women; of his own nation, and if he lived to grow up, would be a man the midwives feared God, and omitted to do what the king had eminent for virtue and courage, and make his name famous to commanded them, pretending in excuse for their omission, that posterity; and that by the counsel and instigation of this scribe the Hebrew women were generally delivered before they could it was, that Pharaoh' gave the midwives orders to put all the get to them. Pharaoh hereupon resolving to prevent their inHebrew male children to death.—Jewish Antiquities, b. 2. c. 9.crease, gave charge to his people to have all the male children of
< For this distinction in his barbarity the king might have the Hebrews thrown into the river; but his command could not several reasons. As, 1. To have destroyed the females with the be strictly executed, whilst the Israelites lived up and down the males had been an unnecessary provocation and cruelty, because fields in tents, which was their ancient and customary way of there was no fear of the women's joining to the king's enemies, living; for they would shift here and there, and lodge the women and fighting against him.' 2. The daughters of Israel exceeded in childbed out of the way, to save their children. Pharaoh very much their own women in beauty, and all advantages of therefore built them houses, and obliged them to a more settled person; and therefore their project might be to have them habitation, that the people whom he had set over them might preserved for the gratification of their lust. Philo tells us, that know where to find every family, and to take an account of all they were preserved to be married to the slaves of the Egyptian the children that should be born. So that this was a very cunning lords and gentry, that the children descended from them might contrivance of Pharaoh, in order to have his charge more strictly be slaves even by birth. But suppose they were married to and effectually executed than it could otherwise have been done; freemen, they could have no children but such as would be and was a particular too remarkable not to be inserted in Moses' half Egyptians, and in time be wholly ingrafted into that account of this affair. The only seeming difficulty is, to reconnation. But, 3. Admitting they married not at all, yet as the cile the words in the text to what has been here advanced; but female sex, among the Hebrews, made a very considerable figure this will be none at all, if the words be rightly translated, and in Egypt for their sense and knowledge, the care of their families, the verses rightly distinguished in this manner:—Exod. i. 20. and application to business, and for their skill and dexterity in And God dwelt with the midwives, and the people multiplied, many accomplishments that were much to be valued for the use and waxed very mighty, and this happened' (or was so, or came and ornament of life, such as the distaff and the loom, dyeing, to pass,) because the midwives feared God.' Ver. 21, 22. peinting, embroidering, &c., such women as these would make And Pharaoh built them' (that is, the Israelites,) houses, and excellent servants and domestics for the Egyptian ladies, who charged all his people, saying, Every son that is boro, ye shall had no relish of spending their time any other way than in idle- cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive'.ness and pleasure. - Bibliotheca Biblica in locum.
Shuckford's Connection, vol. 2. b. 7.
A. M. 2433. A. C. 1571; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3683. A. C. 1728. EXOD. CH. 1. house of Levi, had married a woman named a Jochebed, inquire for a nurse, offered her service to go and fetch of the same tribe, and by her had a daughter, whose one out of the neighbourhood ; which when she was orneme was Miriam, and four years after that, a son whom dered to do, she hastened to her mother, who came with they called Aaron ; and in the time of this cruel perse-all speed, and took the child from the princess, who procution, his wife was again delivered of a fine Jovely boy, mised to see her well paid for her care in nursing it. whom she was very desirous to preserve. For three When the child was of an age fit to be weaned, his months therefore she 0 kept him concealed; but fearing mother carried him to court, to show him to the princess; at length a discovery, she resolved to commit him to the who d soon grew so fond of him, that she adopted hin providence of God: and accordingly having made a for her own, and in remembrance of his being taken out little basket or boat of rushes, she plastered it within of the river, gave him the e Egyptian name of Moses. and without with bitumen or pitch, to make it keep out But his father and mother, f who brought him up in his the water. Into this she put the poor infant; and leaving it among the flags, by the bank of the river, she breasts
, and would not suck: whereupon Miriam told the princess,
after another, the child turned its head scornfully from their placed his sister at a proper distance to observe the that if the nurse and child were of different nations, her milk event.
would never agree with it, but that if an Hebrew woman was As Providence ordered it, Pharaoh's daughter at- fetched, he would probably take the breast from her; and that
, tended with her maids of honour, in a short time after, her own and the child's mother, whom he fell a sucking very
upon this, she was bid to go for one, and immediately brought came to the river to bathe herself; and spying the basket greedily, to the admiration of all the by-standers.-B. 2. c. 9. at some distance, she ordered one of the company to d And well might the princess be fond of the child, who, go and fetch it out; which when she had uncovered, the according to Josephus, had charms enough to engage any one's surprising beauty of the infant, weeping and making its derstanding much above those of his years, and did every thing little moan, so moved her heart with compassion, that with such a grace, as gave the world to understand what they she immediately declared her intention to have it might in time expect from him. After three years of age, he brought up, notwithstanding she perceived it was cer- was such a miracle of a child for beauty and comeliness of stature
, tainly one of those children whoin her father, in his edict, admiration wherever
they saw him, and his carriage and behavi
that people would stop and stand gazing on him with delight and had ordered to be drowned.
our was so very obliging, that he won upon the most morose and By this time Miriam, the child's sister, had conveyed unsociable sort of men. Thermuthis herself,” continues our herself into the company; and c hearing the princess author, being as much delighted as any, wanting issue of her
own, and having resolved to adopt him for her son, brought him
one day to her father, and in merriment told him, that she came a Jochebed was not only of the same tribe, but own aunt like to present him with a successor, in case he wanted one. The wise to Amram. For the Septuagint, Vulgate, and, after them, king received him with an afectionate tenderness, and to gratify many learned expositors, both papists and protestants, have his daughter, took off his crown and placed it upon the child's thought that she was no more than his uncle Kohath's daughter, head; but so far was he from being pleased with it, that he threw and consequently his cousin-german, because the marriage of an it upon the ground, and trampled upon it with his feet. This aumt was afterwards forbidden in the Levitical law; yet the plain action was looked upon as an ill omen to the king and his gore matter of fact is repugnant to all this. In Exod. vi. 18. it is ernment, insomuch that the scribe we mentioned before, being said expressly, that Kohath, the father of Amram, was the son then in the company, cried out to have the child killed : For of Levi. In Num. xxxvi. 59, it is said, that Jochebed was this is the child,' says lie to the king, which I foretold your Levi's daughter, and born in Egypt; and here again, in Exod. majesty would be the destruction of Egypt, and he hath not vi. 20, it is said, that Amram took him Jochebed, his father's confirmed the prophecy, by the affront he hath put upon your sister, to wife: and therefore, without subverting the natural government, in treading the crown under his feet. In short this sense of these texts, we cannot but conclude, that the nephew is he by whose death alone you may promise yourself to be secure. married his aunt. For the prohibitions made upon the degrees For take him but out of the way, the Hebrews shall have nothing of consanguinity, do not flow from the law of nature, but only more to hope for, and the Egyptians nothing more to fear.' This oblige by virtue of the command of God; and therefore, before speech gave some uneasiness to Thermuthis; and therefore she the command took place, relations of a nearer affinity were immediately took the child away, without any opposition from the allowed to be joined together. Nor can the supposed difference king, whose heart God had disposed not to take any notice of of their age be any argument to the contrary, since "Levi might what the scribe had said.”—B. 2. ibid. have her when he was an hundred years old, and she, conse- e Both Philo, Josephus, and Clemens Alexandrinus, will have quently, be very little, if any at all, older than her nephew.- the word Moses to be derived from the Egyptian mo, which, sce Saurin's Dissertation, 43.
cording to them, signifies water, and ises or yses, which means 6 Josephus tells us this story :- That Amram finding his wife preserved, as much as to say, saved from the waters, or prewith child, and being solicitous about the king's edict, prayed served from drowning. It is very likely indeed that the eamestly to God to put an end to that dreadful persecution; and princess should give the child a name from no other language that God appeared to him, and told him, that he would in due than her own; but then it is to be considered, that the Hebrew time free his people from it; and that the son who shortly would word mushah, from whence the name naturally flows, and to be born unto him, should prove the happy instrument of their which the princess herself owns she alludes, might have the same glorious deliverance, and etemize his own name thereby :-. That signification in her tongue as it has in the Hebrew, where it althis made him conceal him as long as he could; but fearing a ways signifies a drawing out of the water, (2 Sam. xxii. 17; discovery, he resolved to trust him to the care of providence, Ps. xviii
, 16; and Isa. xliii. 2.) It cannot be doubted but that arguing in this manner,—That if the child could be concealed, Moses had another name given him by his own parents at the as it was very difficult to do it, and hazardous to attempt it, they time of his circumcision ; but what that name was, we have no must be in danger every moment; but as to the power and certainty, nor can we tell from what authority it is that Clemens veracity of God, he did not doubt of it, but was assured, that informs us that it was Joachim.- Patrick's Commentary. whatever he had promised he would certainly make good; and f Besides the education which his own parents gave him, with this trust and persuasion, he was resolved to expose him.- Philo acquaints us, that from his Egyptian masters, he was taught Jewish Antiquities, b. 2. c. 9.
arithmetic, geometry, physic, music, and hieroglyphics, otherwise c The princess is called by Josephus Thermuthis; by Arta-called enigmatical philosophy; that from the Chaldeans he learned phanes, as he is cited by Eusebius, (Præp. b. 9 c. 4.) Mercis; astronomy; from the Assyrians their character or manner of ard in the Alexandrian Chronicle, Myrrina. But Josephus adds writing; and from the Grecians all their liberal arts and sciences. farther, that Thermuthis having sent for several wet nurses, one But that was not a time for the Egyptians, who excelled the rest