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A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M, 3764. A. C. 1617. EXOD. xxxiv, 28-NUM. xviii. on the inferior priests, with relation to the incense which mand, and therefore it was just and requisite in God, they were to offer every day before God in the holy especially in the beginning of the priesthood, and when place. We bave indeed no mention made of such a law; one alteration of a divine precept might, in process of but the history we are commenting upon gives us a time, be productive of many more, to inflict an exemstrong presuniption, that the use of this fire only was plary punishment, that others might' hear, and fear,
and permitted ; and therefore the words in the text, ' which not commit the like abomination.' he conimanded them not,' is thought to imply an express And for this reason, namely, the injection of terror prohibition of any other.
into others, Moses is commanded to make no lamentaThe crime then of Nadab and Abihu consisted in their tion or funeral pomp for thenı ; which among the Jews, kindling the incense, which their office of priests obliged who, of all other nations, were so very sumptuous in them to offer every morning and evening, with fire differ- their obsequies of their deceased friends, was accounted ent from that which was continually on the altar of burnt- a sore judgment. In the case of Jehoiakiin the king of offerings; and consequently different froin what God Judah, the commination of God is thought very terrible. ordered them to use. a Other offences indeed have been" They shall not lament for him, saying, Ah! my brother, laid to their charge. Some pretend, that they endea- or ah! sister : they shall not lament for him, saying, ah! voured to intrude into the most holy place, which was lord, or ah! his glory. He shall be buried with the not permitted them to enter ; because immediately after burial of an ass, drawn, and cast forth beyond the gates the recital of the manner of their death, Moses, in of Jerusalem.' Temporal judgments, however, are not another place relates, that God conimanded him to speak always sure indications of the final condemnation of the anto Aaron, ? « That he should not come, at all times, persons on whom they fall; and therefore Aaron had no into the holy place, within the veil, before the mercy occasion utterly to despond : on the contrary, he might seat, that he died not; but others insinuate, that they presume that the justice of God being satisfied with the were guilty of intemperance, at the entertainment made present punishment of his sons, might be appeased with at their installation, because after the account of their relation to their eternal state; and that though their fatal end, Moses, by God's order, gives this injunction - flesh was destroyed, yet their spirits might be saved to Aaron, and the remainder of his sous : 3. Do not in the day of the Lord.' He knew too, how much hindrink wine, nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with self had offended in the matter of the golden calf, and thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, might justly think, that God had called his sin to rememlest ye die. It shall be a statute for ever through your brance in the destruction of his two sons. He acknowgenerations, that ye may put difference between holy ledged, therefore, the righteousness of God, in all that and unholy, between unclean and clean.' But these he had brought upon him, and in the phrase of Scripture, are vo more than bare surmises, that have no proper was dumb, and opened not his mouth, because it was foundation in the foregoing texts ; nor is there any
the Lord's doing.' uccasion to hunt out for passages to augment these
What the occasion of the difference between Moses offenders' crime.
and his brother Aaron, and sister Miriam was, is not so Nadab and Abihu had not only been admitted, in com- very evident. The history indeed tells us, that 8 they non with the rest of their brethren, to the honour of the spake against Moses, because of the Ethiopian or rather priesthood, which among the Jews was a dignity of no
whom he had married.' The generality small esteem ; but had particular motives which the of interpreters suppose this wounan to be Zipporah, others had not, to the observance of all God's com- the daughter of Jethro, whom he married in Midian; for niandments, as having had the privilege of seeing the those who imagine her to have been another, can hardly symbols of the divine presence, on the formidable get over this difficulty,—Why Moses should set so bad mount from whence his laws were promulged, with an example as to marry, at two several times, a foreigner, out being consumed. The higher therefore their station rather than one of the daughters of his people. The was, and the more distinguishing the favours they had first time, indeed, that he did so, was when he lived in received, the inore provoking was their affront, in a state of exile, but was nevertheless kindly received in attempting to adulterate an ordinance of God's institu- a family of the best distinction in the place, which might tion. Common fire, they thought, might serve the be inducement enough for his matching himself with one purpose of burning incense, as well as that which was of the daughters, since no express precept against held more sacred : at least, in the gaiety, or rather matches of this kind was then in force. But now that naughtiness of their hearts, they were minded to make he was set at the head of a people, who were to be · the experiment, even in opposition to the divine com- separated froin the rest of mankind, and was conducting
them into a country, with whose inhabitants they were to
have no niatrimonial intercourse, for fear of introducing "Lev. x. 1.
Lev, xvi. 2. Lev. x. 9, 10. idolatry, it would have been highly indecent and unpo. The author of the Connexion so often cited, supposes another kind of innovation to have been the occasion of their untimely pular, an affront upon his own countrywomen, as well death. God as yet, says he, had given no law for the offering as a dangerous inlet to impiety, for him to have married of incense in censers; all that he had been commanded about it, into an idolatrous nation; nor would his brother and was that Aaron should burn it upon the altar of incense' every sister have been the only persons to clamour against morning and every evening; but these men took upou them to begin, and introduce a service into religion, which was not him, but the whole congregation would have risen up in appointed, and which if it had been suffered, would have opened a door to great irregularities; and therefore God, by an exemplary judgment upon the first offenders, put an ellectual stop to it. - · Le Clerc's Commentary. * Jer. xxii. 18, 19. Shuckford, vol. iii. b. 11.
61 Cor. v. 5. iP's, xxxix. 9. 8 Num. xii, 1.
A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647. EXOD. xxxiv, 28--NUM. xviii. arms, upon so notorious a provocation. Since, therefore, Moses indeed inserts a passage to show that the occawe hear of no such commotion, we may reasonably con- sion of this family quarrel was not from him; that he clude, that this Cushite, or Arabian woman, was the was a man of a meek and peaceable disposition ; and same Zipporah, whom he had married some forty years therefore not addicted to strife and contention, especially before. But then why they should quarrel with him with those of his own kindred ; and why might he not upon her account, at this time, and no sooner, is the insert this, when it was no more than what was due to difficulty.
his character, and perhaps at that time necessary for his Now, to resolve this, we must observe, that when own vindication ? St Paul, to clear himself from some Jethro, his father-in-law, was in the camp, it was by his aspersions which the malice of his enemies had cast upon advice that Moses instituted judges to determine lesser him, enters upon his own commendation, though it be causes; and that he found his son Hobab so very ser- with some reluctancy, and to give it a better gloss, tries viceable to him in the capacity of a camp-master-general, all the powers of eloquence in working it up. 3• Wherethat a he earnestly entreated him to continue with him, insoever any is bold,' says he, ' I speak foolishly, I am and received him, no doubt, into great confidence. It is bold also. Are they Hebrews ? So am I. Are they to be observed farther, that in the foregoing chapter, we Israelites ? So am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? have an account of the creation of the office of the seventy So am I. Are they ministers of Christ? I speak elders to assist in the administration, and that these elders as a fool, I am more: In labours more abundant, in were nominated by Moses, without ever consulting Aaron stripes above measure : In prisons more frequent : In or Miriam. As therefore this story of their quarrelling deaths often.-In perils of waters, in perils of robbers, with him is immediately subjoined, it seems very likely, in perils by my own countrymen, in perils by the that taking themselves to be neglected, in so great an heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, alteration made in the government without their advice, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren : In they were very angry; but not daring to charge Moses weariness and painfulness, in watchings often ; in hunger directly, they fell foul upon his wife, giving her oppro- and thirst, in fastings often; in cold and nakedness; brious names, and complaining to the people, very pro- besides those things that are without, that which cometh bably, that she and her brother had too much power upon me daily, the care of all the churches.' These are and influence over Moses.
the words of our apostle, setting off the faithful discharge Josephus, in his Jewish history, makes no mention of of his ministry ; and yet no one ever suspected the genuthis family difference, as thinking that it might reflect ineness of this his epistle to the Corinthians upon that discredit upon his nation; but Moses was an author of account : as little reason have we, therefore, to call in more veracity than to conceal any action which was question the authenticity of this book of Moses, because proper for mankind to know, even though it tended to we find a passage or two that speaks favourably of him. the lasting disgrace of his own family. For he does That all historians, both ancient and modern, when not affect to aggrandize the thing, or to make his family they come to speak of the part and concern they had in appear more considerable, when he introduces God as such and such actions, are commonly accustomed to arbitrating the difference between them; but purely to speak in the third person ; and that the most modest man acquaint us, that as the Israelites lived then under a upon earth may sometimes see occasion to magnify his theocracy, God himself being their immediate King, office, or vindicate himself, without deserving the impuundertook to decide the controversies depending upon tation of vanity or arrogance, cannot be denied. Now, such of his chief ministers as were not accountable to considering what share it was that Moses himself bore in any other judge ; nor was the divine Majesty any more the facts which he relates, and that the narrations, laws, debased in condescending to make this decision, than and admonitions which he recorded, were not designed any earthly prince would be, by interposing his authority for that age only, but directed to all succeeding to determine a controversy between two of his great and generations of the world; and withal considering, that powerful subjects.
the seditious and turbulent behaviour of his brother
and sister at that time obliged him to justify and clear · Exod. xviii. 21, 22.
himself; there was no imaginable way more proper
for him to express himself in, than that which he made a Moses' words to Hobab are these : Leave us not, I pray use of, even had it been a matter of his own study thee, forasmuch as thou knowest how we are to encamp in the and contrivance : but then, if we suppose that he wrote wilderness, and thou mayest be to us instead of eyes,' (Num. x. 31.) But if the being which resided in the miraculous cloud by divine inspiration, the commendation that is given of was their guide, what need was there for Hobab's stay? Now his natural lenity and good nature, must be looked upon the design of the cloud was to direct the people when to decamp rather as the Holy Ghost's testimony concerning Moses, and where to encamp again: but for the securing of their camp than Moses' testimony concerning himself
. against all hostile force, they were left to human means: and therefore Hobab, having lived long a borderer upon the wilder- Though Moses was certainly a good-natured man, ness, was well acquainted with every part of it, and the better and therefore could not live long at variance with his able to advise them, both whence to provide themselves with brother Aaron, yet we can hardly suppose, that his love such things as they wanted, and how to secure themselves against and affection for him would ever prevail with him to enter any neighbouring powers that should attempt to assault them; and for these reasons Moses was so pressing for his staying into any fraudulent measures, in order to raise him to with him; though the Septuagint understand the passage as if he the pontificate. The rod which gave Aaron the preferdesired him to continue to be what he had hitherto been in the ence, was not, as we noted before, Moses' wonderwilderness, namely, a good adviser, like his father Jethro, and withal assured him, that he would look upon him as an elder.Patrick's Commentary.
* 2 Cor. xi. 21, &c.
A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647. EXOD. xxxiv. 28-NUM. xviii. working rod, but, in all probability, one of the same tree diation of Moses' face, when he came down from the from whence the princes of the other tribes cut theirs. mount, introduced the custom among the heathens, of All these rods, with the names of the several tribes adorning the images of their gods and heroes with a engraved upon them, were delivered to Moses in the face beamy glory about their heads : that the veneration paid of the whole congregation, and by him were instantly to his wonder-working rod, established an' usage which carried into the tabernacle: and that he did not palm upon prevails almost every where, * for the great ministers of the people, when his back was turned, and put an almond state to carry in their hands wands, as ensigns of their twig into the place of Aaron's rod, is evident from what office, whenever they appear at court; and that the budis related of it, namely, that it had leaves, buds, blos- ding of his brother Aaron's rod, in all probability, gave soms, and ripe fruit upon it, all at one time, which no rise to the fable of Hercules' club, when left in the tree of any kind ever was known to have before. ground, striking root downward, and so reviving and
Some of the vulgar, and less curious, might perhaps, repullulating. But I choose rather, in this place, to at a cursory review, have been imposed upon by a sham remark the great affinity between the divine and human appearance of these things painted on Aaron's rod; but laws, so far as they relate to what we call the decalogue, Moses knew very well, that he had the heads of each insomuch, that whatever the ancient heathen lawgivers tribe to deal with ; men of sagacity and observation, and have enacted about these matters, seems little more than who were too nearly concerned in the experiment to let a transcript from the ten commandments, which Moses any pretence to a miracle go unexamined ; and therefore delivered to the Jews. we may very well imagine that when he brought forth all Thus the unity of God, and the folly of making any the rods the next morning, they surveyed every one very image of him, which constitute the two first commandcarefully, and made diligent search into the alteration ments, was an institution of Numa, which he took from which had passed upon that which belonged to Aaron ; Pythagoras, who maintained, that there was only one and had they found any deception in it, would have supreme Being, and that, as he is perfectly spiritual, and exposed the two brothers to contempt and ridicule, or the object of the mind only, no visible representation rather have deposed them from all rule and power for can be made of him. The reverence of God's holy name, the future, as a couple of vile and impious impostors. which is the subject of the third, was recognised by the But instead of that, we find that this miracle silenced all heathens in all their solemn contracts, promises, and cavils for ever after against Aaron and his family; con- asseverations ; and for this reason Plato, in his book firmed the authority of Moses ; and made the people, de Legibus, acquaints us, that “it is? an excellent when he told them, that by God's appointment, he had lesson, to be very cautious and tender, in so much as laid up Aaron's rod to be a witness against them, that if mentioning the very name of God.” The setting apart they murmured any more, they should most certainly be one day in seven, and the observation of it for religious destroyed, break out into this doleful complaint : \'Be- purposes, was a practice so general in the pagan world, hold we die, we perish, we all perish, and shall be con- that, according to Philo, this seventh day was truly called sumed with dying :' for they began now to believe God's Ereton Tavòngos, or the universal festival, and by the threatenings, and to fear, that at one time or other they Athenians, according to the laws then in force, was should experience some heavy and severe punishment, observed with the utmost strictness, and such as admitted as by this new sign he had convinced them that they had of no servile work. The honour and respect due to justly deserved it.
parents was secured by that excellent law made by Solon, Thus I have endeavoured to answer most of the which declares, 8 « that if any one strike his parents, or material objections which have industriously been raised do not maintain them, and provide them a dwelling, against the sacred history of this period; and were it any and all things necessary, let him be utterly disregarded, farther confirmation of its truth and authority, I might and banished from all civil society.” The prohibition of add, that the whole matter of Korah, how he rebelled murder is confirmed by the laws of Athens, which make against Moses, and made a defection among the people, its punishment capital, when wilfully committed ; banishfor which he suffered the very judgment that the Scrip-ment, when by chance medley; and for every main tuire relates, was doubtless of standing tradition in the designedly given, imposes both a confiscation of goods, east, which the Mahometans have borrowed, and given and a proscription from the city where the injured person us at second hand : that the consumption of Aaron's dwells. The prohibition of adultery was sufficiently
by the fire which came from the Lord,' enforced by Solon, when he left the guilty persons, when raised the report, a that, in ancient times, men did not deprehended in the fact, to the mercy of the injured kindle fire upon their altars, but called it down from husband, who, if he suffered them to escape with their Leaven by prayer, and that the fame was produced by lives, had license to handle the man very roughly," the deity to whom the sacrifice was offered: that the irra- and to divorce the woman, who for her crime was ex
cluded from all places of public concourse, and reduced Num. xvii, 12, 13,
below the condition of a slave. The prohibition of theft Calmet's Dictionary under the word Korah.
was supported by a law of Draco's, which made felons * Lev, ix. 24.
of what denomination soever lose their lives for their a Servius in Æneid, b. 12. v. 200, and Patrick's Commentary in locum. From the fire of the altar, which, in the Mosaic language, was called the fire of the Lord,' as it came down * Huet. Quæst. Alnet.
5 Huet. ibid. from heaven, and was perpetually kept burning, it is obvious, at 6 Clem. Alex. Strom. b. 5; and Bibliotheca Biblica on Exod. first sight, that the Greeks derived, in the way of etymology, xx. 4.
? De Leg. b. 2. their isría, and the Romans their vestal fire, so famous in all Bibliotheca Biblica on Deut. Dissertation 3. history - Bibliotheca Biblica on Num. Annot. 2.
9 Archbishop Potter's Greek Antiquities.
A. M. 2514, A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647. EXOD. xxxiv. 28.-NUM. xviii. crime ;
but this being thought too severe, Solon's insti- | The holy place was twenty cubits long, and ten wide, tution was, that every petty larceny should be punished where stood the table of shewbread, the golden candlewith double restitution, and sometimes imprisonment, stick, and the altar of incense. The holy of holies, which but every greater robbery, to the value of fifty drachms, was likewise called the sanctuary, was ten cubits long, with death. The prohibition of false witness was, 'rati- and ten broad, contained the ark of the covenant, and fied by the Athenian laws, which not only punished the was separated from the holy place by a veil, or hanging, oftenders with fines, confiscation of goods and banish- made of rich embroidered linen, which hung upon four ment, but degraded them likewise from all dignity, as pillars of shittim or cedar wood, that were covered with persons extremely ignominious, and who, according to plates of gold, but had their bases made of brass ; and at the law of the twelve tables, deserved to be thrown from the entrance of the tabernacle, instead of a door, there the Tarpeian rock. The prohibition of covetousness of was a veil of the same work, sustained by the like pilall kinds, which is the tenth and last commandment, no- lars, which separated it from the outward court. where occurs in the edicts of any ancient legislator; for, The boards or planks whereof the body of the tabernaas : a pious bishop well observes, “ all the laws that cle was composed, were in all forty-eight, each a cubit were ever made by any governors upon earth, respected and a half wide, and ten cubits high. Twenty of them only the words and actions, or the outward carriage and went to make up one side of the tabernacle, and twenty behaviour of their subjects. None ever offered to give the other, and at the west end of it were the other eight, laws to the minds or hearts of men, what they should think, which were all let into one another by two tenons above or love, or desire, or the like ; and it would have been and below, and compacted together by bars running from ridiculous and absurd to have done it, because they could one end to the other ; but the east end of it was open, never have known whether such laws were observed or no;" and only covered with a rich curtain. so proper is the question, which their great lawgiver puts The roof of the tabernacle was a square frame of planks, to the Jews, * • What nation is there so great that hath resting upon their basis ; and over these were coverings statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which or curtains of different kinds. Of these the first, on the 1 set before you this day?' So just the commendation inside, was made of fine linen, curiously embroidered in which the royal Psalmist gives of it: ' The law of the various colours of crimson and scarlet, and purple and Lord is an undefiled law, converting the soul : the testi- hyacinth ; the next was made of goats' bair neatly woven mony of the Lord is sure, and giveth wisdom unto the together; and the last of sheep and badgers' skins, simple. Moreover by them is thy servant taught, and in (some dyed red, and others of azure blue,) which were keeping of them there is great reward.'
to preserve the rich curtains from wet, and to protect the tabernacle itself from the injuries of the weather. Round about the tabernacle was a large oblong court
, an hundred cubits long, aud fifty broad, encompassed CHAP. III.-Of the Jewish Tabernacle, &c. with pillars overlaid with silver, and whose capitals were
of the same metal, but their bases were of brass. Ten From the very first beginning of time, God had always of these pillars stood towards the west, six to the east, some place appropriated to the solemn duties of religi- twenty to the north, and twenty to the south, at five ous worship. » Even during the small space of his con- cubits distance from each other; and over these hung tinuance in paradise, Adam had where to present himself curtains made of twined linen thread, in the manner of before the Lord; and after his expulsion from thence, net-work, which surrounded the tabernacle on all sides, his sons in like manner, had' whither to bring their except at the entrance of the court, which was twenty oblations and sacrifices, The patriarchs, both before cubits wide, and sustained with four columns, overlaid and after the flood, used ® altars, and mountains, and with plates of silver. These columns had their capitals 10 groves, for the self-same purpose. Here they had and bases of brass ; were placed at proportionable distheir proseuche, or places for prayer, which were certain tances, and covered with a curtain made of richer plats of ground, encompassed with a wall, or some other materials. enclosure, and open above. But since the first place In this court, and opposite to the entrance of the of this kind, that made any considerable figure, was the tabernacle, stood the altar of burnt-offerings in the opel tabernacle which God ordered Moses to erect in the wil- air, that the fire, which was kept perpetually upon it, and derness, as an habitation for his majestic presence to the smoke arising from the victims that were burnt there, reside in, it may not be improper, in this place, to give might not spoil the inside of the tabernacle. It was five some account of it, and the other holy things appertain-cubits long, as much in width, and three cubits bigb; ing to it.
was placed upon a basis of stone work, and covered both The tabernacle was a tent covered with curtains and within and without with brass plates. At the four corskins, but much larger than other tents. It was in the ners of this altar there was something like four horns, form of an oblong square, thirty cubits in length, and ten covered with the same metal, and as the altar itself wald in height and breadth, and was properly divided into two hollow, and open both at top and bottom, from these parts, namely, the holy place, and the holy of holies. horns there hung a grate made of brass, fastened with
four rings and four chains, whereon the wood and the
sacrifice were burnt; and as the ashes fell through, they Bibliotheca Biblica on Deut. Dissertation 3.
were received below in a pan. At a very small distance A, Gell, b. 12. c. 1.
* Bishop Beveridge upon the Catechism.
* Deut. iv. 8. and Ps. xix. 1, &c. from this altar there stood on the south side, a brazen > Hooker's Eccles. Polity, h. 5. 6 Gen, iii. 8. * Gen. iv. 3. vessel, which, on account of its extraordinary size, was
8 Gen. xiii. 4. 'Gen, xxii. 1. 10 Gen. xxi, 33. called the brazen sea, in which the priests were used to
A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647. EXOD. xxxiv. 28.-NUM. xvii. wash their feet, whenever they were to offer sacrifice, or The ephod was a kind of girdle, made of gold thread, to go into the tabernacle.
and other threads of divers colours, which being brought In that part of the tabernacle which was called the from behind the neck, and over the two shoulders, holy place, there was on the north side, a table made of was put cross upon the stomach ; then carried round the Shittim or cedar wood, covered with gold, two cubits waist, and brought back again about the body, did gird long, one in breadth, and one and a half in length. the tunic like a sash, and so fell down before, and hung About the edge of it was an ornament, or border made as low as the feet. Upon that part of the ephod, which of gold, together with a crown of gold in the middle, came upon the high priest's shoulders, were two large and at each end was placed the offering of the shew- precious stones, whereon were engraven the names of bread, namely, six loaves in a pile to represent the the twelve tribes of Israel, on each stone six ; and where twelve tribes. The bread was changed every Sabbath-day, the ephod crossed the high priest's breast, there was a and not allowed to be eaten by any one but the priests. square ornament, called the pectoral, or rational,
Over against this table, on the south side, stood the wherein were twelve precious stones set, with the names candlestick, which was made of pure gold, upon a basis of the twelve tribes engraven on them, on each stone of the same metal, and bad seven branches on each side, one. The mitre was of fine flax : it covered the head ; and one in the middle. These branches were at equal and on the forehead was a plate of gold, whereon were distances, adorned with six flowers like lilies, with as engraved these words, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, which many knobs like apples, and little bowls like half almond was tied behind the head with two ribbons fastened to shells, placed alternately; and upon each of these its ends. branches there was a golden lamp, which was lighted These were the chief of the solemn ornaments which every evening, and extinguished every morning. belonged to the high priest. The other priests had only
Betwixt the table and the candlestick, was placed the a simple tunic, a linen mitre, and a girdle ; but they all altar of incense, which was but one cubit in length and of them wore linen or cotton breeches, which covered breadth, and two cubits high ; but was covered with plates their legs and thighs, and reached up to their waist. The of gold, and had a crown of gold over it. Every morn-Levites had no peculiar habit in the ceremonies of reliing and evening, the priest in waiting for that week, gion; but about the sixty-second year of Christ, they offered incense of a particular composition upon this obtained of king Agrippa leave to wear a linen tunic, altar, and to this end carried a smoking censer, filled as well as the priests. with fire, which he took from the altar of burnt-offerings The high priest was at the head of all religious affairs, into the tabernacle, and so placing it upon this other and the ordinary judge of all the difficulties which altar, retired.
related to them. He only had the privilege of entering The persons appointed to officiate about holy things into the sanctuary once a year, which was on the day of were of three kinds, the high priest, priests, and Levites: solemn expiation, to make atonement for the sins of the and, what is very remarkable, in the first of this order, whole people. The ordinary priests attended the service is the singularity of his vestments, which were the breast-of the tabernacle; they kept up a perpetual fire upon plate, the ephod, the robe, the close coat, the mitre, and the altar of burnt-offerings ; lighted and extinguished the girdle.
The ephod, the robe, and the close coat the lamps of the golden candlestick; made the loaves were all of linen, and covered the whole body from the of shewbread ; offered them on the golden altar in the neck to the heel. Over these was a purple or blue sanctuary; changed them every Sabbath-day; and every tunic, which reached not so low, but was curiously day, at night and morning, carried in a smoking censer wrought all over, and at the bottom of it had pomegra- of incense, and placed it upon the golden table, which, nates, and bells, intermixed at equal distances. The upon this account, was likewise called the altar of pomegranates were made of blue, purple, and crimson incense. wool, and a the bells of gold.
But the chief business of the priests was to offer sacrifices, of which there were four kinds. 1. The burnt
offering, which was totally consumed by fire upon the a What the number of bells worn by the high priest was, the Scripture is silent, and authors are not so well agreed; but the altar, after that the feet and entrails had been washed. sacred historian has let us into the use and intent of them in 2. The peace-offering, whereof the inward fat, or tallow, these words : ' And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his made up with the liver and kidneys, was only burnt upon sonnd shall be heard when he goeth into the holy place before the the altar: the breast and right shoulder was the perquiLord, and when he cometh out, that he die not. The kings of site of the priests, who were obliged to eat them in the
Jewish high priest, with pomegranates and gold bells. The holy place; and the remainder belonged to the person ladies who are about his person, and whose business it is to please who offered the sacrifice. 3. The sacrifice for sin, comand divert him, have little gold bells fastened to their legs, their mitted either wilfully or ignorantly: and in this the neck, and elbows, and when they dance, the sound of these make priest took some of the blood of the victim, dipped his a very agreeable harmony. The Arabian princesses wear large hollow gold rings, which are filled with little flints, and make a sound like little bells when they walk; and besides these, they he was going into the sanctuary; for as in the king of Persia's have abundance of little flat bobs fastened to the ends of their hair; court, no one was suffered to enter the apartments, without givwhich make a noise as often as they stir, and give notice that the ing notice thereof by the sound of something; so the high priest, mistress of the house is going by, that so the servants of the out of respect to the divine presence, residing in the holy of family may behave themselves respectfully, and strangers retire, holies, did, by the sound of little bells, fastened to the bottom of to avoid seeing the person that is passing. It was therefore in his robe, desire, as it were permission to enter, that the sound all probability, with a design of giving notice, that the high priest of the bells might be heard, and he not punished with death, for vras passing by, that he too wore little bells on the hem of his an unmannerly intrusion.-- Calmet's Dictionary under the word robe; or rather it was, as it were, a kind of public notice, that Bell.