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A. M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii. TO THE END OF DEUT. or and a ram on each altar, he left Balak to stand by of not daring to transcend the divine commands ; but the sacrifices, while himself withdrew to consult the being willing to gratify the king, and in compliance to Lord; and upon his return, acquainted the king, “ How his covetous temper, to gair. some reward to himself, impossible it was for him to do the thing that he might be offered to advertise him of what the Israelites would expect from him, namely, the cursing of a people who were do to his people in subsequent ages; but still, against so signally under the protection of heaven; and so mag- his own inclination, he bestowed blessings on Israel, nifying their prosperity and increase, he concludes with and prophesied, “ That a star b should come forth from a wish, that his fate might be theirs, both in life and Jacob, and a rod from Israel ;' that it should smite death."
the chiefs of Moab, and destroy the children of Seth ; Balak, at these words, expressed no small surprise ; that Edom should fall under its power; and that the best still not discouraged, he hoped that the change of Amalekites and Kenites should be extirpated : in fine, the place might possibly produce some better luck; and that the western nations, the Greeks and Romans, therefore taking Balaam to the top of Mount Pisgah, he should vanquish the Assyrians, destroy the Hebrews, and tried whether he might not be permitted to curse them perish themselves. from thence. But all in vain. The same number of After these predictions, as if vexed at his own disapaltars were erected, the bullocks and rams were offered, pointment in missing the reward he expected, and with and the prophet withdrew to consult God, as before ; a purpose to revenge himself on the Israelites, as the but still he returned with no better news : for the purport occasion of it, he instructed the Moabites and Midianites of his declaration was, “That God was fixed and immut- in a wicked c device ; which was to send their daughters able, in his favour to the Israelites; that he would not suffer any bloody designs, or any frauds or enchant- the Israelites’ army, or of the blessings which God hath in store ments to prevail against them, but would finally make for them; but since God has decreed to make them great and
happy, I have been forced to speak, as you have heard, instead them victorious wherever they came.”
of what I had otherwise designed to say.”—Jewish Antiquities, This was so great a mortification to Balak, that to b. 4. c. 6. silence Balaam, he forbade him either to curse or bless ; b Num. xxiv, 17. There shall come a star out of Jacob.' but he soon changed his mind, and desired hiin to make This prophecy may possibly in some sense relate to David, but a further trial at another place. Accordingly another phor of a sceptre was common and popular, to denote & ruler,
without doubt it belongs principally to Christ. Here the metaplace was made choice of. Fresh altars were raised, like David: but the star, though, like the other, it signified in and fresh sacrifices offered ; but all to no purpose : prophetic writings a temporal prince or ruler, yet had a secret Balaam perceiving that God was resolved to continue and hidden meaning likewise. A star in the Egyptian hieroblessing Israel, without retiring, as aforetimes, under pre-ing the Israelites for their idolatry on their first coming out of
glyphics denoted God. Thus God in the prophet Amos, reprovtence of consulting God, at the first cast of his eye upon Egypt, says, “ have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the tents of the Israelites, brake out into ejaculations of the wilderness forty years, 0 house of Israel ? but ye have borne praise ; and then, in proper and significant metaphors, the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, the star foretold their extent, fertility, and strength, and that star of your God is a noble figurative expression to signify the
your god which ye made to yourselves, Amos v. 25, 26. The * those that blessed them, should be blessed, and those image of your god; for a star being employed in the hieroglythat cursed them, should be cursed.'
phics to signify God, it is used here with great elegance to signify By this time Balak, enraged to hear Balaam, whom he the material image of 8 god: the words, the star of your god, had sent for to curse the children of Israel, thus three being only a repetition of the preceding, Chiun, your image ; and
not, as some critics suppose, the same with your god star. Hence times successively bless them, could no longer contain we conclude that the metaphor here used by Balaam of a star hiinself, but smiting his hands together, he bade him was of that abstruse, mysterious kind, and so to be understood, haste and be gone, since, by his foolish adherence to and consequently that it related only to Christ, the eternal Son God's suggestions, he had both abused him, and de- Newton, however, is of opinion, that the literal meaning of the
(Warburton's Divine Legation, b. iv. sec. 4.)-Bishop frauded himself. « Balaam had recourse to his old excuse, prophecy respects the person and actions of David.—Dissertations
on the Prophecies, vol. 1. p. 139.—ED. rate Baal, while Balaam was making his addresses to the Lord, c Though Moses makes no mention of this contrivance, where Eugh with such superstitious ceremonies, as it is likely, were he describes the interview between Balaam and Balak; yet in sed by the worshippers of Baal. Or why may not we suppose, the 31st chapter of Numbers, ver. 16, he lays the whole blame lat Balaam, telling Balak, that he could effect nothing without upon Balaam: and Josephus accordingly informs us, that after he Le Lord, the God of Israel, persuaded him to join with him at had gone as far as the river Euphrates, he bethought himself of Lat time in his worship, that they might more powerfully pre- this project, and having sent for Balak, and the princes of Midian, tail with him to withdraw his presence from the Israelites ? For he thus addressed himself to them. “To the end that king Bathere is no reason to imagine, that Balaam would go to inquire lak,” says he, “and you the princes of Midian, may know the of the Lord, immediately after he had sacrificed to other gods. great desire I have to please you, though, in some sort against - Patrick's Commentary.
the will of God; I have thought of an expedient, that may perhaps a Josephus brings in Balaam making his apology for himself, be for your service. Never flatter yourselves that the Hebrews in order to pacify Balak's rage, for his having blessed the Israel- are to be destroyed by wars, pestilence, famine, or any other of Ites, instead of cursing them. “ And does king Balak think, these common calamities; for they are so secure under God's that where prophets are upon the subject of fatalities, or things to special providence, that they are never totally to be extinguished tome, they are left to their own liberty, what to say, and what by any of these depopulating judgments: but if any small and hot, or to make their own speeches ? We are only the passive temporary advantage against them will give you any satisfaction, lestraments of the oracle
. The words are put in our mouths; hearken to my advice. Send into their camp a procession of the and we neither think nor know what we say. I remember well
, loveliest virgins you can pick up; and to improve nature, dress saya be, that I was invited hither with great earnestness, both by them up with all the ornaments of art, and give them their lessons pourself and by the Midianites; and that it was at your request how to behave themselves upon all occasions of courtship and I came, and with a desire to do all that in me lay, for your ser- amour. If the young men shall make love, and proceed to any rice. But what am I able to do against the will and power of importunities, let them threaten immediately to be gone, unless Good? I had not the least thought of speaking one good word of they will actually renounce their country's laws, and the honour A, M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii, TO THE END OF DEUT. into the camp of the Israelites, in order to draw them judicature consisting of the heads of all the families, first into lewdness, and then into idolatry, the sure me- and to try and hang all that had been guilty of this thod to deprive them of the assistance of that God who whoredom and idolatry, without respect to friendship or protected them. This artifice succeeded ; (for the very kindred; which was accordingly done, and about 1000 next account we have of the Israelites is, that they lay more were in this manner put to death. encamped at Shittim, where many of them a were deluded By this time, the greatest part of the people being by these strange women, not only to commit whoredom come a little to themselves, were bewailing their folly with them, but to assist at their sacrifices, and worship and wickedness, at the door of the tabernacle ; when their gods, even Baal-peor,) which was a crime so detes- they were surprised with e an instance of the most unpatable to God, that he punished it with a plague, which, in ralleled boldness in one of the chiefs of the tribe of a short time, carried off about 24,000 of the offenders. Simeon, named Zimri, who, in the sight of Moses, and This, however, was not the only punishment which God the whole congregation, had brought a young Midianitish exacted; for he commanded Moses d to erect a court of princess, whose name was Cozbi, into the camp, and
was leading her into his tent. Their impudence, how. of that God who prescribed them, and finally engage themselves ever did not go unpunished ; for Phinehas, the son of to worship after the manner of the Midianites and Moabites. Eleazar the high priest, fired with a just indignation and This, says he, will provoke God, and draw vengeance upon their holy zeal, followed them into the tent, with a javelin in heads." -Jewish Antiquities, ibid.
his hand, where, in the very act of whoredom, he thrust a The Jewish doctors tell us, that on a great festival, which the Moabites made in honour of their god Baal-peor, some Israelites, who happened to be there, casting their eyes upon their fore, that our translators should take the passage in this sense, young women, were smitten with their beauty, and courted their when the Samaritan copy, the Jerusalem Targum, most of the enjoyment; but that the women would not yield to their motion, ancient translations, and several later commentators of great pote, upon any other condition than that they would worship their gods. have made the word otham, that is, them, not to refer to the Whereupon pulling a little image of Peor out of their bosom, they heads of the people, but to such as had joined themselves to Baalpresented it to the Israelites to kiss, and then desired them to peor: and so the meaning of the command will be, that the heads eat of the sacrifices, which had been offered to him. But Jose- of the people should divide themselves into several courts of judg. phus, tells the story otherwise, namely, that the women, upon ment, and examine who had committed idolatry, and, after carsome pretence or other, came into the Israelitish camp, and when viction, cause them to be hanged, that is, hanged after they were they had enamoured the young Hebrews, according to their in- stoned: for among the Hebrews none were hanged alive, but in structions, they made a pretence as though they must be gone; the cases of idolatry or blasphemy, were first stoned, and then but upon passionate entreaties, accompanied with vows and oaths hanged up against the sun, that is, publicly and openly, that all on the other side, the subtle enchantresses consented to stay with the people might see, and fear to sin.- Patrick's Commentary, them, and grant every thing that they desired, upon condition e When the Israelites, at the instigation of the straoge womer that they would embrace their religion.- Patrick's Commentary, they had received into the camp, were fallen from lust into iloba and Josephus, ibid.
atry, Moses, according to Josephus, perceiving that the infection 6 The Jewish doctors are generally of opinion, that this Baal began to spread, called the people together, and, in a general peor was the same with Priapus, the idol of Turpitude; and that discourse, reminded them how unworthy a thing it was, and how the worship of him consisted in such obscene practices, or postures great a scandal to the memory of their ancestors, for them to at least, as were not fit to be named. Others have asserted that value the gratifying of their lusts and appetites above the reverthis god was the same with Saturn, a deity adored in Arabia ; nor ence they owed to their God, and their religion; how incongruan is it unlikely, that the adventure related of Saturn, and his cas- a thing, for men that had been virtuous and modest in the desert, tration by his own son, may have introduced the obscenities that to lead such profligate lives in a good country, and squander away are practised in the worship of this idol. But others, with great that in luxury which they had honestly acquired in the time of assurance maintain, that Peor was the same with Adonis, whose their distress; and thereupon he admonished them to repezit is feasts were celebrated in the manner of funerals, but the people time, and to show themselves brave men, not in the violation of who observed them at that time, committed a thousand dissolute | the laws, but in the mastery of their unruly affections. This he actions, particularly when they were told that Adonis, whom they spoke without naming any one: but Zimri, who took himself to had mourned for as dead, was returned to life again. However be pointed at, rose up, and made the following speech:-"Ya this be, it is very probable that as Peor was the name of a moun- are at liberty, Moses," says he, "to use your own laws: they have tain in the country of Moab, the temple of Baal stood upon it, been a long time in exercise, and custom is all that can be said fær and thence he was called Baal-peor.–Calmet's Commentaries and their strength or credit. Were it not for this, you would, to your Dissertations; Patrick's Commentary; and Selden De Diis cost, have found long since, that the Hebrews are not to be inSyriis.
posed upon; and I myself am one of the number, that never will c St Paul, in his observation upon the judgments which befell truckle to your tyrannical oppression. For what is your business the Israelites in the wilderness, tells us expressly, that the num- all this while, but under a bare pretext, and talk of laws and ber of those who were cut off in this plague was no more than God, to bar us not only from the exercise, but the very desire ol 23,000, (1 Cor. x. 8.) Whereas Moses makes them no less than liberty ? What are we the better for coming out of Egypt
, if it 24,000. But this difference is easily reconciled, if we do but be only in exchange for a more grievous bondage under Muzes? consider, that in the 24,000, which Moses computes, the thou. You are to make here what laws you please, and we are to abide sand who were convicted of idolatry, and thereupon were slain the penalties of them, when at the same time, it is you only that with the sword, in the day of the plague,' (Num. xxv. 5, 18,) deserve to be punished for abolishing such customs as are autho are comprehended ; whereas the apostle speaks of none but those rized by the common consent of nations, and setting up your own that died of the pestilence.- Patrick's Commentary.
will and fancy against general practice and reason. For my own d According to our translation, the command which God gave part, what I have done, I take to be well done, and shall make rø Moses, runs thus,—Take all the heads of the people, and hang difficulty to confess and justify it. I have, as you say, married them up before the Lord, against the sun, that the fierce anger of strange woman. I speak this with the liberty of an honest mat the Lord may be turned away from Israel,' (Num. xxv, 4.) But and I care not who knows it. I never meant to make a secret unless we can suppose that the heads of each tribe were guilty of of it, and you need look no farther for an informer. I do a this lewdness and idolatry, the sentence here denounced would knowledge too, that I have changed my way of worship, and have been highly unjust: and what others allege, that they were reckon it very reasonable for a man to examine all things
, tas guilty of a shameful neglect in not opposing the growing mischief, would find out the truth, without being tied up, as if it were in and punishing the offenders; this might be very probably out of despotic government, to the opinion and humour of one singa their power, siuce even Moses himself, very frequently found man."-Jewish Antiquities, b. 4 c. 6. them too headstrong for him. It was somewhat strange, there- f Upon this fact the Jews found what they call the judgmert
A. M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALÉS, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii, TO THE END OF DEUT. them both through the body, and by this action, not only Phinehas, who took with him the ark, and what was obtained an high commendation from God, but an estab- reposited therein, together with the sacred trumpets, to lishment likewise of a the Aaronical priesthood in him, blow in the time of action, in order to animate the and his posterity, for ever after.
The Jewish army was but small in comparison As soon as this disorder was quieted, and the offenders with the vast numbers they marched against ; but God, pmished, Moses began to bethink himself of revenging who put them upon the expedition, blessed them with the indignity which the Moabites and Midianites had put such success, that they slew five kings, and, among upon Israel; and to this purpose commanded a detach- them, the wicked prophet Balaam; put every one to the ment of 12,000 choice men, that is, o 1000 out of every sword, except women and children; and returned to tribe to go against them; among whom was the gallant Moses with a very considerable booty ; one fiftieth part
of which he ordered to be given to the priests, another d zeal, which authorized such as were full of this holy fervour, fiftieth to the Levites, and the rest to be divided among to panish any violent offenders, those, to wit, who blasphemed the soldiery. God, or profaned the temple, &c., in the presence of ten
The remembrance, however, of what damage the men of Israel, without any formal process. But this example Midianitish women had done, by alluring the Israelites Phinehas countenances no such practice; nor action, done upon an extraordinary occasion, by a person in a to idolatry, made him think it unsafe to spare their public authority, moved thereunto by a strong divine impulse, lives; and therefore, he ordered all those that had ever tad (what is a circumstance that some people add) in a common known man, as well as all the d male children to be wealth not perfectly settled, be made a precedent for private men, under a different situation, to invade the office of a magistrate, and with an enthusiastic rage, to persecute even those that and had lately performed a singular piece of service, which had are most innocent; as we plainly find it happened among the gained him great reputation, and from hence some have imagined Jews, when, in the latter times of their government, they put that he was the fitter person to be sent with an army' to avenge this precedent in execution; of which St Stephen whom they the Lord of Midian;' as it is certain, that in after ages, the Macilumanly stoned, and St Paul whom they vowed to assassinate, cabees, who were of the family of the priests, were appointed without any form of justice, are notorious instances.- Patrick's chief commanders. But then it must be considered, that these and Le Clerc's Commentaries.
Maccabees were the supreme governors of the people, and as a This, however, is to be understood with a certain limitation; such, had a right to the military command; that in the war with because it is manifest, that after some successions in the line of the Amorites, Moses had sent the forces under Joshua's conPhinehas, the priesthood came, for a while, into the family of Eli, duct; and that Phinehas, in short, had another province appointed who was descended from Ithamar, the youngest son of Aaron. him, which was to take care of the holy instruments: but what The reason of this interruption is not mentioned in Scripture; these instruments were, is another question. Several interprelut some great sin, it is reasonable to suppose, provoked God to ters are of opinion, that they were the Urim and Thummim ** aside the line of Eleazar for some years, till Eli's sons like- which Phinehas might take along with him, in order to consult wise became so wicked, that the priesthood was taken from them, God, in case of any difficulty that might arise in the manageand restored, in the days of Solomon, to the posterity of Phine- ment of the war; and to countenance this, they suppose that bes, with whom it continued as long as the priesthood lasted. Eleazar was superannuated, and his son substituted in his room. And this is enough to verify the promise of an everlasting priest- But it may be justly doubted whether Phinehas, being the only hood, since the words everlasting, perpetual, and the like, in a son of the high priest, and not yet capable of that office, could be general and iodefinite sense, denote no more than a long duration. substituted to perform this great charge, which belonged to the But there is another way of solving this difficulty: God had, high priest alone: nor do we find any warrant for consulting the Before this time, limited the priesthood to Aaron and his de- Lord by Urim and Thummim, but only before the tabernacle. scendants, and to them it was to be an everlasting priesthood It seems, therefore, much more likely, that by the holy instruthroughout their generations,' (Exod. xl. 15.); upon this account ments, Moses means the ark of the covenant, and what was inil might properly enough be called, as limited to that family, cluded in it, which, in the following ages, was wont to be carried the everlasting priesthood.' So that God does not here promise into the field, when the people went to fight against their enePhinehas, and his seed after him, an everlasting grant of the mies. Nay, Joshua himself, not long after this, ordered the ark priesthood, as some commentators take it; nor a grant of an to be carried with priests blowing trumpets before it, when he Everlasting priesthood, as our English version renders it, but surrounded Jericho, (Josh. vi. 4, &c.); and therefore, since the Father a grant of the everlasting priesthood, that is, of the holy instruments are here joined with the trumpets, it looks very priesthood limited to Aaron and his descendants by that appella- probable that they should signify the ark. Nor can we apprehend fir.— Selden de Success. Pontif. b. 1. c. 2. Shuckford's Con- that Moses ran any risk in venturing the ark upon this occasion, kection, vol. 3. b. 12.
because God had assured his people, that they should obtain a 6 The Scripture gives us no account of the order of battle be complete victory over the Midianites. It must be confessed, howtween these two armies; but, in all probability, they were dis- ever, that the ark is never thus expressed in any other part of
ed according to the method of the ancient people of Asia; Scripture; and therefore, perhaps they give as true a sense of the kad therefore we may range the Israelites upon one line, formed words as any, who make the holy instruments and trumpets to be of twelve corps, consisting of a thousand meu each, at the head one and the same thing, and the latter no more than an explica& which was the ark of the covenant,' surrounded by the priests tion of the former ; which trumpets the priests were commanded Ind Lerites, whose business it was to sound the charge, as well to take with them, that they might sound a charge when the
defend the ark. The Midianites, we may suppose, were, in engagement began, according to their direction, (Num. x. 8, 9,) like manner, ranged in a phalanx, upon one line, and as the and as the practice was in future ages; (2 Chron. xiii. 12.) traelites were doubtless much inferior in number to their ene- d Moses ordered the male children to be slain, that thereby he ales, they made much larger intervals between the corps of a might extirpate the whole nation, as far as lay in his power, and rusand men each, in order to penetrate the enemy's line in prevent their avenging the death of their parents
, in case they liflereot places. This was the constant practice of the Jews were suffered to live to man's estate. For it is no hard matter Whenever they were inferior in number to their enemies.-Cal to conceive how dangerous such a number of slaves, conscious met's Dictionary, under the word Midianites.
that they were born free, and had lost their liberty with the mas& Whether this Phinehas was sent to command the troops sacre of their parents, might have proved to a commonwealth, which were appointed by God to take vengeance on the Midian- every where surrounded with enemies. Why he was so severe s, or whether he went along with the army only to perform against the women, we need not wonder, if we do but consider, och sacred offices as should be required by the general, who, that either by prostituting themselves or their daughters, they tith more probability perhaps, is thought to be Joshua, are had been the chief instruments of drawing the Israelites into aestions arising from the silence of Scripture concerning the idolatry." Though no illustrious fame is got by taking revenge hief commander. Phinehas, indeed, was a man of great courage, on a woman, and such a victory is attended with no praise, yet A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647, EXOD. xxxiv. 28.-NUM. xviii. crime ; but this being thought too severe, Solon's insti- | The holy place was twenty cubits long, and ten wide, tution was, that every petty larceny should be punished where stood the table of shewbread, the golden candlewith double restitution, and sometimes imprisonment, stick, and the altar of incense. The holy of holies, which but every greater robbery, to the value of fifty drachms, was likewise called the sanctuary, was ten cabits long, with death. The prohibition of false witness was, 'rati- and ten broad, contained the ark of the covenant, and fied by the Athenian laws, which not only punished the was separated from the holy place by a veil, or hanging, offenders with fines, confiscation of goods and banish- made of rich embroidered linen, which hung upon four ment, but degraded them likewise from all dignity, as pillars of shittim or cedar wood, that were covered with persons extremely ignominious, and who, according to plates of gold, but had their bases made of brass ; and at the law of the twelve tables, deserved to be thrown from the entrance of the tabernacle, instead of a door, there the Tarpeian rock, The prohibition of covetousness of was a veil of the same work, sustained by the like pilall kinds, which is the tenth and last commandment, no-lars, which separated it from the outward court. where occurs in the edicts of any ancient legislator; for, The boards or planks whereof the body of the tabernaas a pious bishop well observes, “ all the laws that cle was composed, were in all forty-eight, each a cubit were ever made by any governors upon earth, respected and a half wide, and ten cubits high. Twenty of them only the words and actions, or the outward carriage and went to make up one side of the tabernacle, and twenty behaviour of their subjects. None ever offered to give the other, and at the west end of it were the other eight, laws to the minds or hearts of men, what they should think, which were all let into one another by two tenous above or love, or desire, or the like ; and it would have been and below, and compacted together by bars running from ridiculous and absurd to have done it, because they could one end to the other ; but the east end of it was open, never have known whether such laws were observed or no;" and only covered with a rich curtain. so proper is the question, which their great lawgiver puts The roof of the tabernacle was a square frame of planks, to the Jews, * " What nation is there so great that hath resting upon their basis ; and over these were coverings statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which or curtains of different kinds. Of these the first, on the I set before you this day?! So just the commendation inside, was made of fine linen, curiously embroidered in which the royal Psalmist gives of it: “ The law of the various colours of crimson and scarlet, and purple and Lord is an undefiled law, converting the soul : the testi- hyacinth ; the next was made of goats' hair neatly woven mony of the Lord is sure, and giveth wisdom unto the together; and the last of sheep and badgers' skins, simple. Moreover by them is thy servant taught, and in (some dyed red, and others of azure blue,) which were keeping of them there is great reward.'
to preserve the rich curtains from wet, and to protect the tabernacle itself from the injuries of the weather.
Round about the tabernacle was a large oblong court,
an hundred cubits long, aud fifty broad, encompassed CHAP. III.-Of the Jewish Tabernacle, &c. with pillars overlaid with silver, and whose capitals were
of the same metal, but their bases were of brass. Ten From the very first beginning of time, God had always of these pillars stood towards the west, six to the cash soine place appropriated to the solemn duties of religi- twenty to the north, and twenty to the south, at fir ous worship. Even during the small space of his con- cubits distance from each other; and over these hung tinuance in paradise, Adam had where to present himself curtains made of twined linen thread, in the manner o before the Lord; and after his expulsion from thence, net-work, which surrounded the tabernacle on all sides his sons in like manner, had? whither to bring their except at the entrance of the court, which was twent oblations and sacrifices. The patriarchs, both before cubits wide, and sustained with four colunins, overlas and after the flood, used ® altars, and mountains, and with plates of silver. These columns had their capital
groves, for the self-same purpose. Here they had and bases of brass ; were placed at proportionable die their proseuche, or places for prayer, which were certain tances, and covered with a curtain made of riche plats of ground, encompassed with a wall, or some other materials. enclosure, and open above. But since the first place In this court, and opposite to the entrance of u of this kind, that made any considerable figure, was the tabernacle, stood the altar of burnt-offerings in the ope tabernacle which God ordered Moses to erect in the wil- air, that the fire, which was kept perpetually upon it, a derness, as an habitation for his majestic presence to the smoke arising from the victims that were burnt ther reside in, it may not be improper, in this place, to give might not spoil the inside of the tabernacle. It was fi some account of it, and the other holy things appertain cubits long, as much in width, and three cubits big! ing to it.
was placed upon a basis of stone work, and covered be The tabernacle was a tent covered with curtains and within and without with brass plates. At the four et skins, but much larger than other tents. It was in the ners of this altar there was something like four bon form of an oblong square, thirty cubits in length, and ten covered with the same metal, and as the altar itself w in height and breadth, and was properly divided into two hollow, and open both at top and bottom, from the parts, namely, the holy place, and the holy of holies. horns there hung a grate made of brass, fastened w
four rings and four chains, whereon the wood and 1
sacrifice were burnt; and as the ashes fell through, u Bibliotheca Biblica on Deut. Dissertation 3.
were received below in a pan. At a very small dista! A. Gell, b, 12, c, I.
* Deut. iv. 8. and Ps. xix. 7, &c. from this altar there stood on the south side, a brai • Hooker's Eccles. Polity, b. 5. 6 Gen, jij, 8. Gen. iv. 3. vessel, which, on account of its extraordinary size,
* Bishop Beveridge upon
& Gen. viii, 4. Gen. xxii. I. 10 Gen. xxi, 33. called the brazen sea, in which the priests were used
A. M. 2514. A. C. 1490; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3764. A. C. 1647. EXOD. xxxiv. 28.-NUM, xviii. wash their feet, whenever they were to offer sacrifice, or The ephod was a kind of girdle, made of gold thread, to go into the tabernacle,
and other threads of divers colours, which being brought In that part of the tabernacle which was called the from behind the neck, and over the two shoulders, holy place, there was on the north side, a table made of was put cross upon the stomach; then carried round the Shittim or cedar wood, covered with gold, two cubits waist, and brought back again about the body, did gird long, one in breadth, and one and a half in length. the tunic like a sash, and so fell down before, and hung About the edge of it was an ornament, or border made as low as the feet. Upon that part of the ephod, which of pld, together with a crown of gold in the middle, came upon the high priest's shoulders,' were two large and at each end was placed the offering of the shew- precious stones, whereon were engraven the names of bread, namely, six loaves in a pile to represent the the twelve tribes of Israel, on each stone six ; and where twelvetribes. The bread was changed every Sabbath-day, the ephod crossed the high priest's breast, there was a and not allowed to be eaten by any one but the priests. square ornament, called the pectoral, or rational,
Over against this table, on the south side, stood the wherein were twelve precious stones set, with the names candlestick, which was made of pure gold, upon a basis of the twelve tribes engraven on them, on each stone of the saine metal, and had seven branches on each side, one. The mitre was of fine flax: it covered the head ; sed one in the middle. These branches were at equal | and on the forehead was a plate of gold, whereon were distances, adorned with six flowers like lilies, with as engraved these words, Holiness TO THE LORD, which many knobs like apples, and little bowls like half almond was tied behind the head with two ribbons fastened to shells, placed alternately; and upon each of these its ends. branches there was a golden lamp, which was lighted These were the chief of the solemn ornaments which every evening, and extinguished every morning. belonged to the high priest. The other priests had only
Betwixt the table and the candlestick, was placed the a simple tunic, a linen mitre, and a girdle ; but they all altar of incense, which was but one cubit in length and of them wore linen or cotton breeches, which covered breadth, and two cubits high ; but was covered with plates their legs and thighs, and reached up to their waist. The of gold, and had a crown of gold over it. Every morn- Levites had no peculiar habit in the ceremonies of reliing and evening, the priest in waiting for that week, gion; but about the sixty-second year of Christ, they offered incense of a particular composition upon this obtained of king Agrippa leave to wear a linen tunic, altar, and to this end carried a smoking censer, filled as well as the priests. with fire, which he took from the altar of burnt-offerings The high priest was at the head of all religious affairs, into the tabernacle, and so placing it upon this other and the ordinary judge of all the difficulties which altar, retired.
related to them. He only had the privilege of entering The persons appointed to officiate about holy things into the sanctuary once a year, which was on the day of were of three kinds, the high priest, priests, and Levites: solemn expiation, to make atonement for the sins of the and, what is very remarkable, in the first of this order, whole people. The ordinary priests attended the service is the singularity of his vestments, which were the breast of the tabernacle; they kept up a perpetual fire upon plate, the ephod, the robe, the close coat, the mitre, and the altar of burnt-offerings ; lighted and extinguished the girdle. The ephod, the robe, and the close coat the lamps of the golden candlestick; made the loaves were all of linen, and covered the whole body from the of shewbread ; offered them on the golden altar in the Berk to the heel. Over these was a purple or blue sanctuary; changed them every Sabbath-day; and every timic, which reached not so low, but was curiously day, at night and morning, carried in a smoking censer krought all over, and at the bottom of it had pomegra- of incense, and placed it upon the golden table, which, mates, and bells, intermixed at equal distances. The upon this account, was likewise called the altar of poinegranates were made of blue, purple, and crimson incense. kool, and the bells of gold.
But the chief business of the priests was to offer sacrifices, of which there were four kinds. 1. The burnt
offering, which was totally consumed by fire upon the . What the number of bells worn by the high priest was, the
that the feet and entrails had been washed. Scriptore is silent, and authors are not so well agreed;
but the acred historian has let us into the use and intent of them in 2. The peace-offering, whereof the inward fat, or tallow, beze words : • And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his made up with the liver and kidneys, was only burnt upon vend shall be heard when he goeth into the holy place before the the altar : the breast and right shoulder was the perquicord, and when he cometh out, that he die not.' The kings of Sereia are said to have the hem of their robes adorned, like the site of the priests, who were obliged to eat them in the lewish high priest, with pomegranates and gold bells. The holy place ; and the remainder belonged to the person dies who are about his person, and whose business it is to please who offered the sacrifice. 3. The sacrifice for sin, comod divert him, have little gold bells fastened to their legs, their mitted either wilfully or ignorantly: and in this the reck, and elbows, and when they dance, the sound of these make priest took some of the blood of the victim, dipped his very agreeable harmony. The Arabian princesses wear large ollow gold rings, which are filled with little flints, and make a bund like little bells when they walk; and besides these, they he was going into the sanctuary; for as in the king of Persia's ave abundance of little flat bobs fastened to the ends of their hair; court, no one was suffered to enter the apartments, without girwhich make a noise as often as they stir, and give notice that the ing notice thereof by the sound of something; so the high priest, mistress of the house is going by, that so the servants of the out of respect to the divine presence, residing in the holy of amily may behave themselves respectfully, and strangers retire, holies, did, by the sound of little bells, fastened to the bottom of v avoid seeing the person that is passing. It was therefore in his robe, desire, as it were permission to enter, that the sound a probability,
with a design of giving notice, that the high priest of the bells might be heard, and he not punished with death, for ras passing by, that he too wore little bells on the hem of his an unmannerly intrusion. - Calmet's Dictionary under the word ube ; or rather it was, as it were, a kind of public notice, that | Bell.