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A. M. 2515, A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii. TO THE END OF DEUT. ox and a ram on each altar, he left Balak to stand by of not daring to transcend the divine commands ; but the sacrifices, while himself withdrew to consult the being willing to gratify the king, and in compliance to Lord; and upon his return, acquainted the king, “ How his covetous temper, to gain some reward to himself, impossible it was for him to do the thing that he might he offered to advertise him of what the Israelites would expect from him, namely, the cursing of a people who were do to his people in subsequent ages; but still, against so signally under the protection of heaven; and so mag- his own inclination, he bestowed blessings on Israel, nifying their prosperity and increase, he concludes with and prophesied, " That a star ) should come forth from a wish, that his fate might be theirs, both in life and Jacob, and a rod from Israel ;' that it should smite death."
the chiefs of Moab, and destroy the children of Seth ; Balak, at these words, expressed no small surprise ; that Edom should fall under its power; and that the but still not discouraged, he hoped that the change of Amalekites and Kenites should be extirpated : in fine, the place might possibly produce some better luck; and that the western nations, the Greeks and Romans, therefore taking Balaam to the top of Mount Pisgah, he should vanquish the Assyrians, destroy the Hebrews, and tried whether he might not be perinitted to curse them perish themselves. from thence. But all in vain. The same number of After these predictions, as if vexed at his own disapaltars were erected, the bullocks and rams were offered, pointment in missing the reward he expected, and with and the prophet withdrew to consult God, as before ; a purpose to revenge bimself on the Israelites, as the but still he returned with no better news : for the purport occasion of it, he instructed the Moabites and Midianites of his declaration was, “ That God was fixed and immut- in a wicked c device ; which was to send their daughters able, in his favour to the Israelites; that he would not suffer any bloody designs, or any frauds or enchant- the Israelites' army, or of the blessings which God hath in store ments to prevail against them, but would finally make for them; but since God has decreed to make them great and them victorious wherever they came."
happy, I have been forced to speak, as you have heard, instead
of what I had otherwise designed to say.”—Jewish Antiquities, This was so great a mortification to Balak, that to b. 4. c. 6. silence Balaam, he forbade him either to curse or bless; 6 Num. xxiv. 17. • There shall come a star out of Jacob.' but he soon changed his mind, and desired hiin to make This prophecy may possibly in some sense relate to David, but a further trial at another place. Accordingly another phor of a sceptre was common and popular, to denote & ruler,
without doubt it belongs principally to Christ. Here the metaplace was made choice of. Fresh altars were raised, like David: but the star, though, like the other, it signified in and fresh sacrifices offered; but all to no purpose : prophetic writings a temporal prince or ruler, yet had a secret Balaam perceiving that God was resolved to continue and hidden meaning likewise. A star in the Egyptian hieroblessing Israel, without retiring, as aforetimes, under pre-ing the Israelites for their idolatry on their first coming out of
glyphics denoted God. Thus God in the prophet Amos, reprovtence of consulting God, at the first cast of his eye upon Egypt, says, “ have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the tents of the Israelites, brake out into ejaculations of the wilderness forty years, 0 house of Israel ? but ye have borne praise ; and then, in proper and significant metaphors; of your god which ye made to yourselves, Amos v. 25, 26. The
the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, the star foretold their extent, fertility, and strength, and that star of your God is a noble figurative expression to signify the those that blessed them, should be blessed, and those image of your god; for a star being employed in the hieroglythat cursed them, should be cursed.'
phics to signify God, it is used here with great elegance to signisy By this time Balak, enraged to hear Balaam, whom he the material image of a god: the words, the star of your god, had sent for to curse the children of Israel, thus three being only a repetition of the preceding, Chiun, your image ; and
not, as some critics suppose, the same with your god star. Hence times successively bless them, could no longer contain we conclude that the metaphor here used by Balaam of a star himself, but smiting his hands together, he bade him was of that abstruse, mysterious kind, and so to be understood, haste and be gone, since, by his foolish adherence to and consequently that it related only to Christ, the eternal Son God's suggestions, he had both abused him, and de- Newton, however, is of opinion, that the literal meaning of the
of God." (Warburton's Divine Legation, b. iv. sec. 4.)-Bishop frauded himself. « Balaam had recourse to his old excuse, prophecy respects the person and actions of David.—Dissertations
on the Prophecies, vol. 1. p. 139.—ED. cate Baal, while Balaam was making his addresses to the Lord, c Though Moses makes no mention of this contrivance, where though with such superstitious ceremonies, as it is likely, were he describes the interview between Balaam and Balak; yet in used by the worshippers of Baal. Or why may not we suppose, the 31st chapter of Numbers, ver. 16, he lays the whole blame that Balaam, telling Balak, that he could effect nothing without upon Balaam: and Josephus accordingly informs us, that after he the Lord, the God of Israel, persuaded him to join with him at had gone as far as the river Euphrates, he bethought himself of that time in his worship, that they might more powerfully pre- this project, and having sent for Balak, and the princes of Midjan, vail with him to withdraw his presence from the Israelites ? For he thus addressed himself to them.To the end that king Bathere is no reason to imagine, that Balaam would go to inquire lak,” says he, “and you the princes of Midian, may know the of the Lord, immediately after he had sacrificed to other gods. great desire I have to please you, though, in some sort, against - Patrick's Commentary.
the will of God; I have thought of an expedient, that may perhaps a Josephus brings in Balaam making his apology for himself, be for your service. Never flatter yourselves that the Hebrews in order to pacify Balak's rage, for his having blessed the Israel are to be destroyed by wars, pestilence, famine, or any other of ites, instead of cursing them. " And does king Balak think, these common calamities; for they are so secure under God's that where prophets are upon the subject of fatalities, or things to special providence, that they are never totally to be extinguished come, they are left to their own liberty, what to say, and what by any of these depopulating judgments: but if any small and not, or to make their own speeches ? We are only the passive temporary advantage against them will give you any satisfaction, instruments of the oracle. The words are put in our mouths; hearken to my advice. Send into their camp a procession of the and we neither think nor know what we say. I remember well
, loveliest virgins you can pick up; and to improve nature, dress says he, that I was invited hither with great earnestness, both by them up with all the ornaments of art, and give them their lessons yourself and by the Midianites; and that it was at your request how to behave themselves upon all occasions of courtship and I came, and with a desire to do all that in me lay, for your ser- amour. If the young men shall make love, and proceed to any rice. But what am I able to do against the will and power of importunities, let them threaten immediately to be gone, unless Grod? I had not the least thought of speaking one good word of they will actually renounce their country's laws, and the honour A. M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii. TO THE END OF DEUT. into the camp of the Israelites, in order to draw them judicature consisting of the heads of all the families, first into lewdness, and then into idolatry, the sure me- and to try and bang all that had been guilty of this thod to deprive them of the assistance of that God who whoredom and idolatry, without respect to friendship or protected them. This artifice succeeded ; (for the very kindred; which was accordingly done, and about 1000 next account we have of the Israelites is, that they lay more were in this manner put to death. encamped at Shittim, where many of them a were deluded By this time, the greatest part of the people being by these strange women, not only to commit whoredom come a little to themselves, were bewailing their folly with them, but to assist at their sacrifices, and worship and wickedness, at the door of the tabernacle ; when their gods, even Baal-peor,) which was a crime so detes- they were surprised with e an instance of the most unpatable to God, that he punished it with a plague, which, in ralleled boldness in one of the chiefs of the tribe of a short time, carried offc about 24,000 of the offenders. Simeon, named Zimri, who, in the sight of Moses, and This, however, was not the only punishment which God the whole congregation, had brought a young Midianitish exacted; for he commanded Moses d to erect a court of princess, whose name was Cozbi, into the camp, and
was leading her into his tent. Their impudence, howof that God who prescribed them, and finally engage themselves
ever did not go unpunished ; for Phinehas, the son of to worship after the manner of the Midianites and Moabites. Eleazar the high priest, fired with a just indignation and This, says he, will provoke God, and draw vengeance upon their holy zeal, followed them into the tent, with a javelin in heads."-Jewish Antiquities, ibid.
his hand, where, in the very act of whoredom, I be thrust a The Jewish doctors tell us, that on a great festival, which the Moabites made in honour of their god Baal-peor, some Israelites, who happened to be there, casting their eyes upon their fore, that our translators should take the passage in this sense, young women, were smitten with their beauty, and courted their when the Samaritan copy, the Jerusalem Targum, most of the enjoyment ; but that the women would not yield to their motion, ancient translations, and several later commentators of great bete, upon any other condition than that they would worship their gods. have made the word otham, that is, them, not to refer to the Whereupon pulling a little image of Peor out of their bosom, they heads of the people, but to such as had joined themselves to Baalpresented it to the Israelites to kiss, and then desired them to peor: and so the meaning of the command will be, that the heats eat of the sacrifices, which had been offered to him. But Jose of the people should divide themselves into several courts of judg. phus, tells the story otherwise, namely, that the women, upon ment, and examine who had committed idolatry, and, after care some pretence or other, came into the Israelitish camp, and when viction, cause them to be hanged, that is, hanged after they were they had enamoured the young Hebrews, according to their in- stoned: for among the Hebrews none were hanged alive, but in structions, they made a pretence as though they must be gone; the cases of idolatry or blasphemy, were first stoned, and then but upon passionate entreaties, accompanied with vows and oaths hanged up against the sun, that is, publicly and openly, that all on the other side, the subtle enchantresses consented to stay with the people might see, and fear to sin.- Patrick's Commentary. them, and grant every thing that they desired, upon condition e When the Israelites, at the instigation of the strange womet that they would embrace their celigion. ---Patrick's Commentary, they had received into the camp, were fallen from lust into idela and Josephus, ibid.
atry, Moses, according to Josephus, perceiving that the infection 6 The Jewish doctors are generally of opinion, that this Baal- began to spread, called the people together, and, in a general peor was the same with Priapus, the idol of Turpitude; and that discourse, reminded them how unworthy a thing it was, and her the worship of him consisted in such obscene practices, or postures great a scandal to the memory of their ancestors, for them to at least, as were not fit to be named. Others have asserted that value the gratifying of their lusts and appetites above the reves this god was the same with Saturn, a deity adored in Arabia; nor ence they owed to their God, and their religion; how incongrums is it uplikely, that the adventure related of Saturn, and his cas- a thing, for men that had been virtuous and modest in the desert, tration by his own son, may have introduced the obscenities that to lead such profligate lives in a good country, and squander away, are practised in the worship of this idol. But others, with great that in luxury which they had honestly acquired in the time assurance maintain, that Peor was the same with Adonis, whose their distress; and thereupon he admonished them to repent in feasts were celebrated in the manner of funerals, but the people time, and to show themselves brave men, not in the violation of who observed them at that time, committed a thousand dissolute the laws, but in the mastery of their unruly affections. This le actions, particularly when they were told that Adonis, whom they spoke without naming any one: but Zimri, who took himself to had mourned for as dead, was returned to life again. However be pointed at, rose up, and made the following speech:-"You this be, it is very probable that as Peor was the name of a moun- are at liberty, Moses," says he, “ to use your own laws: they have tain in the country of Moab, the temple of Baal stood upon it, been a long time in exercise, and custom is all that can be said is and thence he was called Baal-peor.-Calmet's Commentaries and their strength or credit. Were it not for this, you would, to your Dissertations; Patrick's Commentary; and Selden De Diis cost, have found long since, that the Hebrews are not to be imSyriis.
posed upon; and I myself am one of the number, that never will c St Paul, in his observation upon the judgments which befell truckle to your tyrannical oppression. For what is your business the Israelites in the wilderness, tells us expressly, that the num- all this while, but under a bare pretext, and talk' of laws and ber of those who were cut off in this plague was no more than God, to bar us not only from the exercise, but the very desired 23,000, (1 Cor. x. 8.) Whereas Moses makes them no less than liberty ? What are we the better for coming out of Egypt, if it 24,000. But this difference is easily reconciled, if we do but be only in exchange for a more grievous bondage under Moses? consider, that in the 24,000, which Moses computes, the thou. You are to make here what laws you please, and we are to abide sand who were convicted of idolatry, and thereupon were slain the penalties of them, when at the same time, it is you only the with the sword, 'in the day of the plague,' (Num. xxv. 5, 18,) deserve to be punished for abolishing such customs as are authen are comprehended ; whereas the apostle speaks of none but those rized by the common consent of nations, and setting up your own that died of the pestilence.-Patrick's Commentary.
will and fancy against general practice and reason. For my own d According to our translation, the command which God gave part, what I have done, I take to be well done, and shall make na Moses, runs thus, — Take all the heads of the people, and hang difficulty to confess and justify it. I have, as you say, married t them up before the Lord, against the sun, that the fierce anger of strange woman. I speak this with the liberty of an honest man; the Lord may be turned away from Israel,' (Num. xxv. 4.) But and I care not who knows it. I never meant to make a secret unless we can suppose that the heads of each tribe were guilty of of it, and you need look no farther for an informer. I do a this lewdness and idolatry, the sentence here denounced would knowledge too, that I have changed my way of worship, epal have been highly unjust: and what others allege, that they were reckon it very reasonable for a man to examine all things, that guilty of a shameful neglect in not opposing the growing mischief, would find out the truth, without being tied up, as if it were in a and punishing the offenders; this might be very probably out of despotic government, to the opinion and humour of one since their power, since even Moses himself, very frequently found man."-Jewish Antiquities, b. 4 c. 6. chem too headstrong for him. It was somewhat strauge, there- f Upon this fact the Jews found what they call the judgment A. M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii, TO THE END OF DEUT. them both through the body, and by this action, not only , Phinehas, who took with him the ark, and what was obtained an high commendation from God, but an estab- reposited therein, together with the sacred trumpets, to lishment likewise of the Aaronical priesthood in him, blow in the time of action, in order to animate the and his posterity, for ever after.
men. The Jewish army was but small in comparison As soon as this disorder was quieted, and the offenders with the vast numbers they marched against ; but God, punished, Moses began to bethink himself of revenging who put them upon the expedition, blessed them with the indignity which the Moabites and Midianites had put such success, that they slew five kings, and, among upon Israel; and to this purpose commanded a detach- them, the wicked prophet Balaam; put every one to the Bent of 12,000 choice men, that is, o 1000 out of every sword, except women and children ; and returned to tribe to go against them; among whom was the gallant Moses with a very considerable booty; one fiftieth part
of which he ordered to be given to the priests, another of real, which authorized such as were full of this holy fervour, fiftieth to the Levites, and the rest to be divided among to panish any violent offenders, those, to wit, who blasphemed the soldiery. God, or profaned the temple, &c., in the presence of ten
The remembrance, however, of what damage the men of Israel, without any formal process. But this example
Phinehas countenances no such practice; nor can this Midianitish women had done, by alluring the Israelites action, done upon an extraordinary occasion, by a person in a to idolatry, made him think it unsafe to spare their public authority, moved thereunto by a strong divine impulse, lives; and therefore, he ordered all those that had ever and (what is a circumstance that some people add) in a common known man, as well as all the d male children to be Wealth not perfectly settled, be made a precedent for private hen, under a different situation, to invade the office of a magistrate, and with an enthusiastic rage, to persecute even those that and had lately performed a singular piece of service, which had are most innocent; as we plainly find it happened among the gained him great reputation, and from hence some have imagined Jews, when, in the latter times of their government, they put that he was the fitter person to be sent with an army' to avenge this precedent in execution; of which St Stephen whom they the Lord of Midian ;' as it is certain, that in after ages, the Macindumanly stoned, and St Paul whom they vowed to assassinate, cabees, who were of the family of the priests, were appointed without any form of justice, are notorious instances.- Patrick's chief commanders. But then it must be considered, that these zod Le Clerc's Commentaries,
Maccabees were the supreme governors of the people, and as a This, however, is to be understood with a certain limitation ; such, had a right to the military command; that in the war with because it is manifest, that after some successions in the line of the Amorites, Moses had sent the forces under Joshua's conPhinehas, the priesthood came, for a while, into the family of Eli, duct; and that Phinehas, in short, had another province appointed who was descended from Ithamar, the youngest son of Aaron. him, which was to take care of the holy instruments: but what The reason of this interruption is not mentioned in Scripture; these instruments were, is another question. Several interprebut some great sin, it is reasonable to suppose, provoked God to ters are of opinion, that they were the Urim and Thummim kt aside the line of Eleazar for some years, till Eli's sons like- which Phinehas might take along with him, in order to consult wise became so wicked, that the priesthood was taken from them, God, in case of any difficulty that might arise in the manageud restored, in the days of Solomon, to the posterity of Phine- ment of the war; and to countenance this, they suppose that bu, with whom it continued as long as the priesthood lasted. Eleazar was superannuated, and his son substituted in his room. And this is enough to verify the promise of an everlasting priest- But it may be justly doubted whether Phinehas, being the only bond, since the words everlasting, perpetual, and the like, in a son of the high priest, and not yet capable of that office, could be general and indefinite sense, denote no more than a long duration. substituted to perform this great charge, which belonged to the But there is another way of solving this difficulty: God had, high priest alone: nor do we find any warrant for consulting the helore this time, limited the priesthood to Aaron and his de Lord by Urim and Thummim, but only before the tabernacle. Betstants, and to them it was to be an everlasting priesthood It seems, therefore, much more likely, that by the holy instrukhroughout their generations,' (Exod. xl. 15.); upon this account ments, Moses means the ark of the covenant, and what was init might properly enough be called, as limited to that family, cluded in it, which, in the following ages, was wont to be carried the everlasting priesthood.' So that God does not here promise into the field, when the people went to fight against their enePhizehas, and his seed after him, an everlasting grant of the mies. Nay, Joshua himself
, not long after this, ordered the ark priestood, as some commentators take it; nor a grant of an to be carried with priests blowing trumpets before it, when he Everlasting priesthood, as our English version renders it, but surrounded Jericho, (Josh. vi. 4, &c.); and therefore, since the ther a grant of the everlasting priesthood, that is, of the holy instruments are here joined with the trumpets, it looks very priesthood limited to Aaron and his descendants by that appella- probable that they should signify the ark. Nor can we apprehend tia-Selden de Success. Pontif: b. 1. c. 2. Shuckford's Con- that Moses ran any risk in venturing the ark upon this occasion, Eestion, vol. 3. b. 12.
because God had assured his people, that they should obtain a - The Scripture gives us no account of the order of battle be- complete victory over the Midianites. It must be confessed, howtween these two armies; but, in all probability, they were dis- ever, that the ark is never thus expressed in any other part of posed according to the method of the ancient people of Asia ; Scripture; and therefore, perhaps they give as true a sense of the and therefore we may range the Israelites upon one line, formed words as any, who make the holy instruments and trumpets to be od twelve corps, consisting of a thousand meu each, at the head one and the same thing, and the latter no more than an explicaof which was the ark of the covenant, surrounded
by the priests tion of the former; which trumpets the priests were commanded sad Levites
, whose business it was to sound the charge, as well to take with them, that they might sound a charge when the defend the ark. The Midianites, we may suppose, were, in engagement began, according to their direction, (Num. x. 8, 9,) like matiner, ranged in a phalanx, upon one line, and as the and as the practice was in future ages; (2 Chron. xiii. 12.) laraxlites were doubtless much inferior in number to their ene- d Moses ordered the male children to be slain, that thereby he mies
, they made much larger intervals between the corps of a might extirpate the whole nation, as far as lay in his power, and busand men each, in order to penetrate the enemy's line in prevent their avenging the death of their parents, in case they diferent places. This was the constant practice of the Jews, were suffered to live to man's estate. For it is no hard matter
benever they were inferior in number to their enemies.-Cał to conceive how dangerous such a number of slaves, conscious od Dictionary, under the word Midianites.
that they were born free, and had lost their liberty with the masWhether this Phinehas was sent to command the troops sacre of their parents
, might have proved to a commonwealth, which were appointed by God to take vengeance on the Midian- every where surrounded with enemies. Why he was so severe lites, or whether he went along with the army only to perform against the women, we need not wonder, if we do but consider, Fruehuacred offices as should be required by the general, who, that either by prostituting themselves or their daughters, they with more probability perhaps, is thought to be Joshua, are had been the chief instruments of drawing the Israelites into muestions arising from the silence of Scripture concerning the idolatry." Though no illustrious fame is got by taking revenge thief commander. Phinehas, indeed, was a man of great courage, on a woman, and such a victory is attended with no praise. yet A. M. 2515. A. C. 1489; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3765. A. C. 1646. NUM. xviii. TO THE END OF DEUT. inmediately despatched, and none a but virgins to be saved with the half tribe of Manasseh, observing that the counalive; and yet, what shows the greatness of the victory, try was fertile, and stored with good pasturage, desired the virgin captives amounted to 32,000, and the plunder of Moses that they might be permitted to settle there, as of cattle and flocks consisted of 675,000 sheep, 72,000 a place very commodious for them, who had large stocks oxen, and 61,000 asses, besides a great quantity of rich of cattle ; which, upon condition that they should go over goods and ornaments : and, what makes the victory still Jordan, and assist their brethren in the conquest of the more miraculous, not be one man on the Israelites side, land of Canaan, Moses consented to. And as they were as appears from the report of the officers made upon the now in the neighbourhood of Canaan, and just ready to muster, was lost in this engagement.
enter upon the possession of it, he took this opportunity The officers of the army were very sensible, that in to appoint the limits of what they were to conquer, and saving the captive women alive, they had transgressed the distribution of it by e way of lot, which he committed their commission; and therefore c they presented a great to the management of Joshua and Eleazar, at the head quantity of jewels, and other rich spoils, both as an of the chiefs of each tribe. expiatory offering to atone for their offence, and for a Joshua was appointed by God to succeed Moses in gratulatory offering, in acknowledgment of God's good-bis commission; and therefore, to prevent any contest ness, in giving them so great and signal a victory. after his death, he first laid his own hands upon him, and
The Israelites, by this time, had made themselves then presented him to Eleazar the high priest, who in a masters of the country that lay on the Midianitish side solemn form of admission, and in the presence of all the of Jordan; and the tribes of d Reuben and Gad, together people invested him with the office of being the leader
and general of all Israel, after Moses bad given him shall I be praised for having put an end to what is base, and in several directions relating to his office, and one more flicted deserved punishment."-Virg. Æn. b. 2. v. 583, &c. especially, which concerned his consulting of God by Bibliotheca Biblica, and Le Clerc's Commentary on Num. xxxi. way of Urim and Thummim upon every great emergency. 17.
In the division of the country, Moses assigned eight and a The Jews have a tradition, that in order to find out who forty cities, together with their suburbs, for the Levites were real virgins, the young women
were placed at a proper to live in, and withal ordered, that six of these should distance with other women, and all commanded to fix their eyes upon the high priest's mitre; whereupon those who had known be made cities of refuge, whither the innocent manman turned instantly as pale as ashes, and those that had not became as red as fire. But there seems to be no great occasion for this miracle, when either the appearance of an unqualified city of the kingdom of Sihon, situate on the hills over against age, or the examination of some select matrons, might determine Jericho, about twenty miles distant from the river Jordan. The the matter as well.-- Bibliotheca Biblicu on Num. xxxi. 18. tribe of Gad was bounded with the river Jordan to the west;
6 In the fifth chapter of the 1st book of Maccabees, we have with the half tribe of Manasseh to the north; with the Ammonan account of another victory of the like nature, when Judas, ites to the east; and with the tribe of Reuben to the south. In after having several times defeated Timotheus, the heathen this tribe stood Ashtaroth, the capital city of the kingdom of 0g, general, assaulted the city of Ephron a whole day and a night, which very likely obtained its name from an idol
, which w and all without the loss of a man. For they went up to mount much worshipped in those times and parts. How the half tribe Sion with joy and gladness, where they offered burnt-offerings, of Manasseh came to choose to stay on the east side of Jordan, because not one of them was slain, until they had returned in the sacred history makes no mention; but it is reasonable to sup, peace.' And, if other historians may be credited, the like has pose that after they found that the tribes of Reuben and Gad had happened among other nations. After the famous and bloody succeeded in their petition, they likewise might represent to Moses battle of Leuctra, the Lacedemonians and Arcadians had a very the great stock of cattle which they had ; that the country would be | sharp engagement, in which the latter lost many thousands of equally commodious for them, and was over large for two tribes men, and the former not one; and in a sea engagement, between alone to occupy; nor is it to be doubted, but that Moses was the Portuguese and the Indians, Osorius Lusitanus tells us, that inclinable to listen to their allegation, because the sons of Machir the Portuguese admiral, Pacheco, succeeded so well, that he the son of Manasseh, had by their valour subdued a great part of killed above 1500 of the infidels, without the loss of one man. the country, where they settled ; which was bounded by the tribe of (De Rebus Emman. b. 3.
) But whether this had any thing Gad to the south; with the sea of Cinnereth, afterwards called miraculous in it, or was only the effect of God's ordinary provi- the lake of Gennesareth, or the sea of Galilee, together with the dence, we shall not pretend to determine.—Bibliotheca Biblica course of the river Jordan, from its head to the said sea to the on Num, xxi. 49.
west ; with Mount Lebanon, or more peculiarly Mount Herma, c The Jerusalem Targum supposes, that when these officers to the north and north-west ; and with the mountains of Gilead made their offerings, they addressed themselves to Moses in the to the east.-Wells' Geography of the Old Testament, vol. 2. following manner. Forasmuch as the Lord has delivered the e Nothing could more prudently be contrived, than this par. Midianites into our hands, and we have subdued the country, tition of the country by lut, and making Joshua and the bigh entered into their chambers, and seen their fair and charming priest superintendents of it; since it was the only one that could daughters, took their crowns of gold from off their
heads, their effectually prevent all murmurings and quarrellings among sach rings from their ears and fingers, their bracelets from their arms, an obstinate people as the Jews were. However
, as the lets and their jewels from their necks and bosoms; therefore far be were to bear a proportion to the bigness of each tribe and family, it from us to have turned our eyes towards them. We had no it is supposed from what followed, that every tribe first drew it manner of concern or conversation with them, lest we should lot for its own canton, and that then there were proper pers.com thereby die the death of the wicked in Gehenna. And let this appointed to measure out a quantity of land for each family
, be had in remembrance on our behalf , in the day of the great according to their
bigness; but whether this last was done by this judgment, to make a reconciliation for our souls before the Lord.' or any other method; whether the subdivisions between the * In the division of the comtry, which the Israelites
took from families were likewise carried on by lot or otherwise, sure it is Sihon and Og, two vanquished kings that lived on the east side that we read of no broils or jealousies that it ever occasioned of Jordan, and whose dominions extended from the river Amon among them.-Universal History, b. 1. c. 7. even as far as mount Hermon, (Deut. iii
. 8.) Moses gave to f The person, who without any premeditated malice, kiled the tribe of Reuben the southern, or rather the south-west part of his neighbour sccidentally had the best provision imaginable the country, so that they were bounded to the south with the made for his escape. For the ways that led to the cities a river Arnon; to the west with Jordan, and to the north and east refuge, were to be made very plain and broad, and kept in good with the tribe of Gad. In this tribe stood Heshbon, the capitel repair. Two students of the law were to accompany hím, Liat