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A. M. 1. A C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. know) will strangely affect the nerves and spirits, with-, but that of a plain historian, and pretends to relate out causing immediate death; and as the Indians (we matters just as they happened, without any disguise or are told) are acquainted with a juice which will iinined- embellishment of art; since he orders his books (which iately turn the person who drinks it into an idiot, and he endeavours to suit to the vulgar capacity) to be yet leave him, at the same time, the enjoyment of his ' read in the ears of all the people,' and commands health and all the powers and faculties of his body.' parents to teach them to their children ;' it cannot be But whatever the effect of the fruit might be, and whe- supposed, but that the history of the fall as well as the ther the corruption of our nature and death, (with all rest of the book of Genesis, is to be taken in a literal the train of evils, which have descended to us,) lay in sense. All the rest of the book is allowed to be literal, the tree, or in the will of God, there is no question to and why should this part of it only be a piece of Egypbe made, but that our wise Creator might very justly tian hieroglyphic ? Fable and allegory, we know, are decree, that human nature in general should be affected directly opposite to history: the one pretends to deliver with it, and our happiness or unhappiness depend upon truth, undisguised, the other to deliver truth indeed, but the obedience or disobedience of our first parents, We under the veil and cover of fiction; so that, if this book of daily see, that children very often inherit the diseases Moses be allowed to be historical, we may as well

say,

that of their parents, and that a vicious and extravagant what Thucydides relates of the plague of Athens, or Livy father leaves commonly his son heir to nothing else but of the battle of Cannæ, is to be understood allegorically, the name and shadow of a great family, with an infirm as that what Moses tells us of the prohibition of the fruit and sickly constitution. And if men generally now of the tree of knowledge, or of Adam and Eve's expulpartake of the bad habits and dispositions of their im-sion from the garden of paradise for breaking it, is to be mediate parents, why might not the corruption of hu- interpreted in a mystical sense. man nature, in the first, have equally descended upon Nay, we will put the case, that it were consistent with all the rest of mankind ? ? The rebellion of a parent, the character of Moses to have amused the people with in all civil governments, reduces his children to poverty fables and allegories; yet we can hardly believe, but and disgrace, who had a title before to riches and hon- that the people retained some tradition among them ours ; and for the same reason, why might not Adam concerning the formation of our first parents, and the forfeit for himself, and all his descendants, the gift of manner of their defection. This they might easily have immortality, and the promise of eternal life? God had from their illustrious ancestor Abraham, who might might certainly bestow his own favours upon his own have deduced it from Noah, and thence, in a few sucterms: and therefore, since the condition was obedience, cessions, from Adam himself; and if there was any such he might justly inflict death, that is, withhold immor- tradition preserved among them, Moses must necessarily tality from us; and he might justly deny us heaven (for have lost all his credit and authority, had he pretended the promise of heaven was an act of his free bounty) to foist in a tale of his own invention, instead of a true upon the transgression and disobedience of our first narration, For the short question is, Did the parents. We were in their loins, and from thence our children of Israel know the historical truth of the fall, infection came : they were our representatives, and in or did they not? If they did know it, why should Mothem we fell: but then, amidst all this scene of calamity, ses disguise it under an allegory, rather than any of the we have one comfortable, one saving prospect to revive rest of the book of Genesis ? If they did not know it, us, namely, that 36 Adam was the figure of him that was how came it to be forgotten in so few generations of to come; and therefore, as by the offence of one, judg- men, supposing it had ever been known to Adam's posment came upon all mankind to condemnation, even so terity? If Adam's posterity never rightly knew it, but by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all had the relation thereof always conveyed down in metamen unto justification of life.'

phor and allegory, then must Adam, in the first place, This is the account we have of the fall: and though impose upon his sons, and they upon succeeding genwe pretend not to deny, that in some places there are erations ; but for what reason we cannot conceive, unless figurative expressions in it, as best comporting with the that the most remarkable event that ever befell mankind nature of ancient prophecy, and the oriental manner of (except the redemption of the world by Christ) so came writing ; yet this can be no argument, why we should to pass, that it was impossible to tell it to posterity any immediately run to an allegorical interpretation of the other way than in allegory. whole.

It can scarce be imagined, but that some of the ancient That not only the poets, but some of the greatest writers of the Jewish church, as well as the inspired philosophers likewise, had a strange affectation for such writers of the New Testament, had as true a knowledge figurative documents, in order to conceal their true no- of these distant traditions, as any modern espouser of tions from the vulgar, and to keep their learning within allegories can pretend to; and therefore, when we read the bounds of their own schools, we pretend not to deny: in the book of Wisdom, that 8«God created man to be and yet, since it is apparent, that Moses could have no immortal, and made him to be the image of his own such design ; * since he had no reason to fear any othe

eternity;' but that,' through the envy of the devil, death philosophers setting up against him, or, running away came into the world:' when the son of Sirach tells us, with his notions; since he affects no other character, that "God,' at the first, ' filled man with the knowledge

7

Revelation Examined, vol. I.
* Jenkins's Reasonableness, vol. 2.

Rom. v. 14, 18.
Nicholls's Conference, vol. 1.

* Moses Vindicated. * Jenkins's Reasonableness, vol. 2.

See Bishop Sherlock's Dissertation 2. annexed to his Use and Intent of Prophecy.

& Wisd. ii. 23, 24. 9 Ecclus. xvii. 7.

15

A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. of understanding, and, shewed him good and evil,' but This origin of evil is a question which none of them that'error and darkness had their beginning, together could resolve. They saw the effect, but were ignorant with sinners;' that ?death is the sentence of the Lord of the cause ; and therefore their conjectures were absurd. orer all flesh;' ' that the covenant, from the beginning, Some of them laid the whole blame on matter, as if its was, Thou shalt die the death ;' and that of woman union with the mind gave it a pernicious tincture. Others came the beginning of sin, and through her we all die:' imagined a pre-existent state, and that the bad inclinawhen we read, and compare all these passages together, I tions which exerted themselves in this world were first of say, can there be any reasonable foundation to doubt in all contracted in another. 16 Several established two what sense the ancient Jewish church understood the principles, the one the author of all the good, and the history of the fall ?

other the author of all the evil (whether natural or moral) Nay more. When not only we find the wicked, and that is found in human nature; and, in prejudice to this the enemies of God represented under the images of a absurdity, many betook themselves to atheism, and 'serpent,' of a 'dragon,' of a ' leviathan, the crooked denied any first principle at all; accounting it better to serpent,' &c.; and the prophet telling us expressly, that have no God in the world, than such an unaccountable "dust shall be the serpent's meat;' but our blessed Sa- mixture of good and evil. But now, had but these wise viour likewise declaring, that ?" the devil was a murderer men had the advantage of reading the Mosaic account, from the beginning, a liar, and a father of lies;' St Paul they would never have taken up with such wild hypotheasserting, that the woman being deceived, was first in ses, but immediately concluded with our Saviour's arguthe transgression, and that the 'serpent beguiled her ment, that 176 a corrupt tree cannot bring forth good through his subtilty;' and St John, in his Revelation, fruit;' because the explication of the rise of sin, by an y calling that wicked and malicious spirit, the devil, or original lapse, is not only freed from these absurdities the dragon, Satan, or the old serpent, indifferently; we wherewith other explications abound, but, according to cannot but perceive, that these passages are not only the sense which the author of the Book of Wisdom has plain references to the first deception of mankind under of it, sets the goodness of God in the creation of the the form of that creature, but that they virtually comprise world in its proper light; namely, that 18. God made not the sum and substance of the Mosaic account. " So that, death, neither hath he pleasure in the destruction of the if we have any regard either to the tradition of the Jewish living. He created all things, that they might have church, or the testimony of Christ and his apostles, we their being, and the generations of the world were healthcannot but believe, that the history of man's fall, and the ful. There was no poison of destruction in them, nor consequences thereupon, were really such as Moses has the kingdom of death upon the earth, until that ungodly represented them.

men called it to them; 19 and so error and darkness had And to confirm us in this belief, we may observe far their beginning together with sinners. ther, that the tradition of almost every nation is conformable to his relation of things : 12 That not only the state of man's innocence, in all probability, gave rise to the poet's fiction of the golden age ; but that the story CHAP. III.-On the Sentiments entertained by the of Adam and Eve, of the tree, and of the serpent, was

Ancients concerning the Origin of Moral Evil. extant among the Indians long ago, and (as travellers tell us) is still preserved among the Brachmans, and

(SUPPLEMENTAL BY THE EDITOR.) the inhabitants of Peru : 13 That, in the old Greek mysteries, the people used to carry about a serpent, and The opinions which were entertained by the ancients were instructed to cry Eva, whereby the devil seemed to concerning the origin of moral evil were various. exult, as it were, over the unhappy fall of our first The operation of some injurious principle vitiating mother; and that " in his worship in idolatrous nations, the nature of man, and perverting his moral views, could even now, there are frequent instances of his displaying not be disputed; and the influence of a malignant power this his conquest under the figure of a serpent : strong seemed even to have introduced disorder in the original evidences of the truth of the Mosaic account! to say no- appointments of Providence, and to have counteracted thing of the rationale which it gives us of our innate the beneficial tendency of his ordinances. 'pudor circa res venereas,' of the pains of childbirth, Popular convictions everywhere prevailed touching of the present sterility of the earth, of the slowness of the existence of some beings of the higher order, who children's education, of their imbecility above all other had revolted from the heavenly power which presided creatures, of the woman's subjection to her husband, of over the universe. It is probable that these convictions our natural antipathy to viperous animals, and (what were originally founded on the circumstances referred hath puzzled the wisest of the heathen sages to discover) to in Scripture with respect to Satan and his angels, as of the depravation of our wills, and our strong propen- powerful but malevolent beings, who having first seduced sity to what is evil.

Adam from his obedience, incessantly labour to deceive, corrupt, and destroy his descendants. The notion of

the Magi of Plutarch, and of the Manicheans, concernEeclus, xi, 7. · Ecclus. xli, 3, * Ecclus. xiv, 17.

ing two independent principles, acting in opposition to Ecclus. XXV. 24. $ Isa. xiv. 29, xxvii, 1, Micah vii, 17. "la, kv. 25. John viii. 44. $1 Tim. ii. 14.

each other, was also founded on the real circumstances 2 Cor. xi. 3.

10 Rev. xii. 9., xx. 2. Mores l'indicated. 13 Grotius on Truth.

15 Nicholls's Conference, vol. 1. " Nicholls's Conference, vol. 1.

16 Bishop King on the Origin of Evil.

17 Mat, vii. 18. " See Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, vol. 1. 15 Wis, i. 13, &c.

19 Ecclus, xi, 16.

A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411, GEN. CH. 3. of the apostasy of angels, and of their interference and influence in the affairs of men.

CHAP. IV.-Of Original Sin. The original temptation, by which they drew our first parents from their duty, and led them to transgress the ORIGINAL sin indeed is a phrase which does not occur in only prohibition which God bad imposed, is described the whole compass of the Bible; but the nature of the in the first pages of Scripture; and it is repeated under thing itself, and in what manner it came to be committed, much disguise, in many fables of classical mythology. are sufficiently related: so that those who admit of the

Origen considers the allegorical relations furnished authority of the Scriptures, make no question of the fact. by Plato, with respect to Porus tempted by Penia to sin The great matter in dispute is, what the effect of this when intoxicated in the garden of Jove, as a disfigured transgression was; what guilt it contained; what punishhistory of the fall of man in paradise. It seems to have ment it merited; and in what degree its guilt and punishbeen blended with the story of Lot and his daughters. ment both may be said to affect us. Plato might have acquired, in Egypt, the knowledge of Some have not stuck to affirm, ? that in the beginning the original circumstances of the fall, and have pro- of the world, there was no such thing as any express duced them, under the veil of allegory, that he might covenant between God and man; that the prohibition of not offend the Greeks by a direct extract from the Jewish the tree of knowledge was given to our first parents only, Scriptures.

and they alone consequently were culpable by its transThe particular circumstances also of the leader of the gression; that Adam, in short, was mortal, like one of evil spirits having envied man's happiness, and by disguis- us; he was no representative for his posterity; his sin ing himself under the form of a serpent, occasioned his purely personal; and that the imputation of guilt, down ejection from paradise, was figured out in other accounts. to this time, for an offence so many thousand years ago

The worship established towards the evil spirit by his committed, is a sad reflection upon the goodness and contrivance, sometimes under the very appearance in justice of God. which he seduced mankind, is to be found among the In opposition to this, others think proper to affirm, Phænicians and Egyptians.

that at the first creation of things, there was a covenant The general idea of the serpent as a mysterious sym- made with all mankind in Adam, their common head bol annexed to the heathen deities, and particularly as- and proxy, who stipulated for them all; that by a transsigned to Æsculapius the god of healing, might have been gression of this covenant, our first parents fell from their suggested by perverted representations of the agency of original righteousness, and thence became dead in sin, the fallen spirit, who assumed the form of a serpent; and actually defiled in all their faculties of soul and and the invocation of Eve in the Bacchanalian orgies, body; and that this corruption is not only the parent of (with the production of a serpent, consecrated as an all actual transgressions, but (even in its own nature) emblem, to public view,) seems to bear some relation to brings guilt upon every one that is born into the world, the history of our first parents who introduced sin and whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God, and the death into the world.

curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with The tutelar deity of particular districts was sometimes all the miseries that attend it, spiritual, temporal, and introduced in the same manner; thus a serpent is repre- eternal. sented by Virgil to have appeared to Æneas.

There is another opinion which concerns itself not The first worship of Apollo was offered to him under with the imputation of the guilt, but only with the punishthe representation of a serpent; but Apollo was gene- ment of this transgression, and thereupon supposes, that rally regarded as the deity who had killed the serpent though Adam, as to the composition of his body, was Python, which word was probably derived from the naturally mortal, yet, by the supernatural gift of God, Hebrew word which signifies a serpent. The account (whereof the tree of life was a symbol or sacrament,) he of Discord being cast out from heaven, referred to by was to be preserved immortal: from whence it is inAgamemnon, in the nineteenth book of Homer's Niad, ferred, 3 That the denunciation of the sentence, ' In the has been thought to be a corrupt tradition of the fall of day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die,' is to be the evil angels.

understood literally indeed, but then extended no farther The original perfection of man, the corruption of hu- than natural death ; which, considering the fears, and man nature resulting from the fall, and the increasing terrors, and sundry kinds of misery which it occasions, depravity which proceeded with augmented violence may be reputed punishment severe enough, though fairly from generation to generation, are to be found in various consistent with our notions of God's goodness and jusparts of profane literature. Euryalus, the Pythagorean, tice, because it is but a temporal punishment, and declared that man was made in the image of God. The abundantly recompensed by that eternal redemption loss of that resemblance was supposed to have resulted which all mankind shall have in Christ Jesus. from the effects of disobedience, and was considered as Others again do so far approve of this, as to think it so universal that it was generally admitted, as is ex- in part the punishment of original sin; but then they pressed by Horace, that no man was born without vices. suppose, that besides this natural mortality, there is a The conviction of a gradual deterioration from age to certain weakness and corruption spread through the age, of a change from a golden period, by successive whole race of mankind, which discovers itself in their transitions to an iron depravity, of a lapse from a state inclination to evil, and insufficiency to what is good. devoid of guilt and fear, to times filled with iniquity, was universally entertained."

Burnet on the Articles; and Taylor's Polemical Discourses.

Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity; and A Treatise on Gray's Connexion, pp. 135–140.

the Divine Imputation of Original Sin, by D. Whitby.

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A. M. 1. A. C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. This, say they, a the very heathens complain of; this their opinions, and the latter so abstruse in their arguthe Scriptures every where testify; and therefore they ments upon this subject, that an honest inquirer will find conclude that since man was not originally made in this himself bewildered, rather than instructed; and therefore condition, (for God created him after his own image, our safest recourse will be to the declarations of God's he must have contracted all this from his fall; and that will, explained in a manner comporting with his attritherefore the threatening of death had an higher signifi- butes. cation than the dissolution of the soul and body, namely, That God, who is the fountain of our being, is infithe loss of the divine favour, of all supernatural gifts nitely pure and holy, and can therefore be neither the and graces, and a total defection of the mind from God, author nor promoter of any sin in us, is obvious to our which immediately ensued upon the transgression. first conceptions of him; and therefore, if the corruption

These are some of the principal opinions, (for the of our nature be supposed to be such as necessarily and little singularities are innumerable,) and, in the midst of unavoidably determines us to wickedness, without the so many intricacies, to find out a proper path for us to least tendency to good, to give it a counterpoise, those pursue, we may resolve the whole controversy into this who maintain the negative of the question, are in the one question:-“Whether human nature be so far cor- right so far as they stand in defence of God's immacurupted, and the guilt of our first parents' transgression so late purity, and are known to be asserters of the freedom far imputed to their posterity, that every person, from of human choice, without which the common distinctions the mother's womb, must necessarily go astray, and must of virtue and vice, and the certain prospects of rewards certainly fall into everlasting perdition, without the and punishments, are entirely lost. But when they carry means appointed in the new covenant for his preserva- the point so far as to deny any alteration in human nation ?" And in searching into this, the sentiments of ture now, from what it was at its first creation; as to the fathers, much more the alterations of the schoolmen, deny, that Adam, in his state of uprightness, had any will help is very little. The former are so divided in gifts and graces supernatural, any clearness in his un

derstanding, any strength in his will, any regularity in a St Austin, in his fourth book against Julian, brings in his affections, more than every man of maturity and Cicero, on Repub. b. 3., complaining " That nature, in bringing competent faculties has at this day; when they adventure forth man to existence, had behaved like a stepmother, and not to affirm, that there is no necessity of grace in our premother, he possessing a body naked,

weak, and soon subject sent condition, to assist our hereditary weakness, to enand sinking under oppressions ; in which, however, there exists lighten our minds, and incline our wills, and conduct a latent divine flame of intellect.” Whereupon the holy father our affections to the purposes of holiness, but that every makes this remark, " That author saw the effect, but was igno- man may do what is good and acceptable to God by the rant of the cause, for he knew not there was a heavy yoke laid on the sous of Adam; he was not enlightened with the light of reve

power of his own natural abilities, they then run counter lation, and consequently original transgression was to him a

to the common experience of human infirmity; they thing totally unknown."

overlook the declarations of God's word concerning his i The Scriptures state the corruption of human nature in such gracious assistance; and seem to despise the kind overterms as these, namely, that by one man sin entered into the ture of that blessed agent, whereby we are 'renewed and world' by whose disobedience many were made sinners,’ Rom. 1. 19, thatby nature' therefore we are the children of wrath," sanctified in the spirit of our minds.' Eph. ii. 3., and unable to receive the things of the Spirit, or to In like manner, when the maintainers of absolute kwow them because they are spiritually discerned,' i Cor. ii. 14, depravation contend, that man, in his present condition, jos 'what is born of flesh, is flesh,' John iii. 6.; and who can is far departed from original righteousness, and, of his bring a clean thing out of an unclean?' Job xiv. 4. The royal Pelmist therefore makes, in his own person, this confession of own accord, very much inclined to evil; that the order cur natural depravity; 'Behold I was shapen in wickedness, and of his faculties is destroyed, and those graces which in sin did my mother conceive me,' Ps. li. 5., and St Paul makes constituted the image of God, departed from him; that this public declaration of our inability to do good; “I know that in this state he is now unable to raise himself from the in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing: for to will level of common impotence, but requires the intervenis present with me, but to perform that which is good, I find na; for though I delight in the law of God after the inward tion of some superior principle to aid and assist him in maz, yet I see another law in my members, warring against the his progress towards heaven; they say no more than law in my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of what experience teaches us, and what the sacred records, stal deliver me from the body of this death?" Rom. vii. 18., &c. which acquaint us with the dispensation of grace, aré

• Vossius, in his history of Pelagianism, assures us, that the known to authorize. But when they carry their positions whole Catholic church was always of opinion, that the guilt of to a greater extent than they will justly bear; when they Adam's sin was imputed to his posterity to their condemnation; affirm, that ever since the first defection, the mind of so that children dying therein were consigned to everlasting punishment, at least to an everlasting separation from God: and, man is not only much impaired, but grievously vitiated to confirm this assertion,

he quotes a multitude of passages out of in all its faculties, having a strong aversion to every almost all the doctors of the Greek church. Taylor and Whitby, thing that is good, and an invincible propensity to what and some other writers upon this argument, produce the testi- is evil; not one thought, word, or wish, that tends tomony of the same fathers to evince the very contrary position; wards God, but the seeds and principles of every vice so that there is no depending upon any thing where authors are so inconsistent with themselves, and so repugnant to one an

that bears the image and lineaments of the devil, inheether. The truth is, before Pelagius appeared in the world, rent in it: when they advance such doctrines as these, most of the ancient writers of the church were very inaccurate, I say, they debase human nature too low, and seem to both in what they thought and wrote concerning original sin and impute such iniquity to its Maker as can hardly be wiped free-will; and it seems as if the providence of God permitted that beretie to arise, that thereby he might engage the main-off

, if every human soul be naturally inclined to all kind tainers of orthodoxy to study those points more maturely- of wickedness when it comes from the hand of his creatWhitaker on Original Sin, b. 2.

ing power.

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A. M. 1. A.C. 4004; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, 5411. GEN. CH. 3. There is certainly therefore another way of account- unrelenting cruelty. Hell certainly is not so easy a ing for these difficulties, without any prejudice to the pain, nor are the souls of children of so cheap and so divine attributes, and that is this:-Not by ascribing any contemptible a price, as that God should snatch them positive malignity to human nature, but only the loss of from their mother's womb, and throw them into perdition the image of God; because a mere privation of recti- without any manner of concern; and therefore, when men tude, in an active subject, will sufficiently answer all the argue against such positions as these, they are certainly purposes for which a positive corruption is pleaded. to be commended, because therein they vindicate the i The soul of man, we know, is a busy creature : by the sacred attributes of God: but when they carry their opforce of its own nature it must be in action; but then, position to a greater length than it will justly go, so as without grace, and the image of God assisting and to affirm—that there was no such thing as a covenant adorning it, it cannot act regularly and well. So that between God and Adam, or if there was, that Adam the difference between Adam and us, is not that we have contracted for himself only; that his guilt consequently violent inclinations to all manner of wickedness im- was personal, and cannot in justice, be imputed to us; planted in our nature, any more than he, in his inno- that since we had no share in the transgression, there is cence, had in his; but that we, in our present condition, no reason why we should bear any part in the punishwant sundry advantages which he, in the height of his ment: that we are all born, in short, in the same state perfection, was not without. He had the free power of of innocence, and are under the same favour and acceptobedience; he had the perfect image of his Maker in all ance with Almighty God, that Adam, before the first the divine qualities of knowledge and holiness, which transgression, was: when they advance such positions we have not; and therefore, when we say, that he com- as these, in maintenance of their opposition, they sadly municated to his posterity a corrupted nature, it must forget, that while they would seem advocates for the not be understood, as if that nature, which we receive, mercy and goodness of God, they are taking away the was infected with any vicious inclinations or habits, to foundation of the second covenant; destroying the nesway and determine our mind to what is evil; but the cessity of a divine mediator; and overlooking those meaning is, that he communicated to us a nature, which declarations in Scripture, which affirm, that 2 all the has indeed a power to incline, and act variously, but world is become guilty before God;' that all men, both that he did not, withal, communicate to us the image of Jews and Gentiles, are under sin; have come short of God, nor that fulness of knowledge and power of obe- the glory of God, 3 and are by nature the children of dience, which were requisite to make all its actions and wrath.' inclinations holy and regular: and our nature is there- To make an agreement then between the word of fore said to be corrupted, because it is comparatively God, and his attributes in this particular, we may fairly bad; because it is reduced to its mere natural state, allow, that there really was a covenant between God and which at the best is a state of imperfection, and deprived Adam at the first creation; that in making that covenant, of that grace which should have restrained it from sin, Adam, as their head and common representative, stipuand of those other high endowments wherewith at first it lated for all mankind, as well as for himself; and that, was invested.

in his transgression of it, the guilt and the punishment This is a fair account of our original corruption: it due thereupon, were imputed to all his posterity. This stands clear of the difficulties that attend the other opin- we may allow was the state and condition wherein Adam ions, and is not inconsistent with the notions we have of left us; but then we must remember, that the whole the divine attributes. For barely to withdraw those scheme of man's salvation was laid in the divine counsel extraordinary gifts, which were not essential to man's and decree from all eternity; that God, foreseeing man nature, but such as God additionally had bestowed upon would fall, determined to send his Son to redeem him, him; and he, by his transgression, unworthily forfeited, and determined to do this long before the transgression is what agrees very well with the wisdom and justice, happened: so that the wisdom and goodness of God had and holiness of God to do; though to infuse a positive effectually provided beforehand against all the ill conmalignity, or such a strong inclination to wickedness in sequences of the fall, and made it impossible, that us, as induces a necessity of sinning, most certainly Adam's posterity should become eternally miserable, does not.

and be condemned to the flames and pains of hell, any That “the Judge of all the world cannot but do right,' other way than through their own personal guilt and and he, 'who keepeth mercy from generation to genera- transgressions. The redemption of the world was detion,' can have no hand in any cruel action, is a certain creed, I say, from eternity, and was actually promised truth, and what our first reflections on the divine nature before any child of Adam was born, even before the teach us. Those therefore who maintain, that hdam's sentence was pronounced upon our first parents ; and as sin is not imputed to us to our damnation, or that chil- soon as it was pronounced, its benefits, without all condren unbaptized, are not the objects of divine vengeance, troversy did commence. So that, upon this hypothesis, nor shall be condemned to hell, or an eternal expulsion every infant that comes into the world, as it brings along from God's presence, for what was done many thousand with it the guilt of Adam's sin, brings along with it likeyears before they were born, are so far in the right, as wise the benefits of Christ's meritorious death, “which they oppose an opinion which clouds the amiable attri- God hath set forth, as a' standing 'propitiation for the butes of God, and represents him in a dress of horror, sins of the whole world.' Nor can the want of baptism and engaged in acts of extreme severity at least, if not

* Rom. iii, 9, 19, 23. Eph. ii. 3. " Hopkins on the Two Covenants.

Jenkins's Reasonableness, vol. 2.

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